Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.

Lanouette’s journal entry for 14 September.

Introduction.
1. Lanouette kindly and generously provided copies of pages 114 through 127 inclusive of his handwritten journal. As well, he helped with the transcription of his journal, which is partly illegible from having been immersed; indeed, it is remarkable that the journal survived at all in some form.
2. The transcribed material that follows starts in the morning of 14 September (the lower third of page 118) and continues to the afternoon of 15 September (the upper half of page 127).
3. What follows has not been edited in any way in the process of transcription from the journal.
4. Readers should judge for themselves, but I view the Sports Illustrated condensation as faithfully reflecting the content of Lanouette’s journal.
Given the redaction of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route, I do not say the same of the SI condensation of Moffatt’s journal.
5. I am struck by Lanouette’s ability to document such events, given that he almost died from hypothermia. I refrain from further comment except to express my gratitude, indeed my admiration, for his courage in making such highly personal information available to the paddling community, and so enabling us better to understand this tragic event; in this, I hope that I speak for the community as a whole.

Wed., Sept. 14 – Camp #51 (2 miles S. Lady Marjorie L).

Today has been the most harrowing and frightening day I can ever recall having spent! Today, one member of our party, Arthur Roy Moffatt met his end at the hand of nature – Today I too came within a hair of not writing this entry, or any others.
This Day, Wednesday, September 14, 1955 started like many others we have been having recently. Complete and dismal cloud coverage when we arose around 7:30 AM for our much looked forward to dish of boiled prunes, oats and tea. It was below freezing this morning and the sand was dry and crunchy and hard from its layer of frost and ice. We broke camp soon after breakfast and made the short portage to the sandy, shallow bay where we could float our canoes.
As we were getting ready to leave, I noticed 2 white wolves on a ridge about half a mile away and made the remark that “It’s a good thing the sun isn’t out, or Art’d be scrambling all over the hills trying to get them to pose for him”.
After loading, we shoved out into the bay, and were pleasantly surprised to have no trouble in reaching the river (we thought the water might be too shallow to navigate in a couple of spots).
Once on the river, the pleasant sandy esker country dropped rapidly behind and we were again on a river with very poorly defined banks and a rather indolent drainage system. Here and there we passed low islands of gray rock –in some places the river was fairly swift and its broad, gray surface was wrinkled with currents and cross-currents as it swerved and wallowed down into Lady Marjorie Lake.
A wind, which had again shifted back to the NW, was blowing and the low gently rolling banks afforded us little real protection in most spots.
We paddled along, no one saying much of anything (none of us are conversational giants once we get into the canoe) – finally, just as I was toying with the idea of fainting from hunger, we washed around a bend in the river and pulled into a gravelly bay for lunch. As is our present policy, George, Bruce, and I scurried around looking for wood scraps, Art started heating a kettle with wood gleaned the day before to make chicken noodle soup, and Skip and Pete began fishing from the shore. Almost immediately, Pete latched onto a “monster of the deep.” A beautiful 17 ½ lb, orange-fleshed lake trout (no roe) and wrestled with him for over 20 minutes – Skip caught 2 smaller fish which he cleaned and put into the warming water – we found no wood to speak of and I wound up cleaning the big fish.
We had a rather satisfying lunch of chowder and three hardtacks (or ‘tacks) apiece and were ready to shove on again around 2:30 or 3:00. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped (I think) almost to a complete calm. The river flowed on rather swiftly and it was but a few minutes before we heard and saw another rapids on the horizon. (Notes – at this time, Art figured we had shot the last 2 rapids into Lady Marjorie and so we were not anticipating anything more along this line – actually, what we had taken for rapids were only riffles and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids). At the top, these rapids looked as though they would be very easy going – a few small waves, rocks … nothing serious – so much so that we didn’t even haul over to shore to look it over before proceeding as was customary. The river at this point was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rapids quite clearly – however, although we didn’t realize it, we couldn’t see the middle, even though we thought we could – at any rate we barrelled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes but I didn’t mind, as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I, as was my habit, was looking a few feet in front of the canoe, looking for submerged rocks – suddenly, Art shouted “Paddle” – I responded and took up the beat, at the same time looking farther ahead to see what it was we were trying to avoid – to my complete surprise, what I saw were two lines of white, parallel to one another and coming closer with every passing instant – I looked at them in helpless fascination, not altering my stroke any. The lines of white were the crests of two huge waves formed by the water as it crashed over 2, 3 or 4’ ledges or falls). Note: it was too late to pull for shore – all we could was to pick what seemed to be the least turbulent spots and head for them. I remember swearing (mentally) at Art for not having looked over the rapids – the feeling I had was not one of fright, but rather an empty, sinking “its-all-over-now” feeling – we went over the falls and plunged directly into the four-foot wave – the bow sliced right in and a sheet of foaming green engulfed me – the canoe yawed, slowed – the current caught it once again and plunged it onward toward the next falls a few hundred feet away – we were still afloat though had little control over the craft – by some miracle, Art straightened the canoe out a little, but we were still slightly broadside to the second wave as we went over the second falls. This time the bow didn’t even bother to come up again – the quartering wave filled us to the brim, and I could feel the canoe begin to roll over under me. I swore and jumped overboard, being careful to retain a hold on the right gunwale – then I got spun around and the next few seconds became blurred into a vivid recollection of water all around me, foam and clutching currents pulling me along with the canoe which had by this time rolled bottom up – I remember clipping a sunken boulder with my leg – … then … the foaming roar stopped … the current lessened … Art and I were clinging to the canoe – packs, boxes, paddles were all bobbing along in the water with us – the seriousness of our position had not yet fully made itself felt and I swore at Art for being the cause of my having gotten soaked. At first the water didn’t feel too uncomfortable. – My heavy parka was still full of air in between its layers and I was quite buoyant – By now we had drifted several hundred yards downstream and were more or less in a big eddy formed by several small islands – I tried to touch bottom without any luck – Art was half draped over the stern of the canoe and he yelled at me to do the same up at the bow. I did so, but felt foolish and helpless just hanging on, so I began kicking toward what I thought was the nearest shore, although this did no good whatever, actually.
The next thing was aware of was George and Pete in the red canoe as they paddled furiously by us, heading for shore. I watched them as they leaped out, dumped all their packs out, emptied their canoe and headed back toward us.
Then, as the current twisted our canoe around, I was faced back up toward the rapids and saw that Bruce and Skip too had dumped … I remember feeling relieved to know that someone else was “in our boat”.
Packs floating all around – I was surprised that they floated. Even Art’s 86 lb camera box was afloat – he was holding onto the canoe with one arm, and was clutching my personal pack and the camera box with the other hand – our yellow food box was floating nearby, so I swam out, got it, and brought it back toward the canoe … I saw Art’s personal pack floating off in another direction and swam a few yards after it, but by this time my parka was soaked, so I came back to the canoe (eventually, we “caught up” with Art’s pack and I grabbed it). I informed Art in a dry, disinterested voice that we had just pulled a damned fool stunt and that this would most likely be the end of us – he assured me through chattering teeth that this was not the case and that, although it would be hard, we would pull through in good shape – I didn’t believe him and insisted several times that we were all washed up. Then we lapsed into silence for a while and just hung on waiting for George and Pete to pick us up.
Note: Looking back, I am surprised to find that during this entire incident I was not the least bit afraid or panicky – I realized that all our clothes and sleeping bags were soaking – that the temperature was below freezing, and that even if we made it to shore, we might still freeze to death because George & Pete would not have clothes to outfit four soaked people. I remember thinking that death either by drowning or freezing was inevitable yet managed to look upon it quite impersonally and almost dryly). I made one or two attempts to shove the canoe ashore, but getting nowhere I gave up – at one time I toyed with the idea of swimming to shore alone but by this time my limbs were too numb to swim- at no time did I even consider taking off a stitch of clothing, as I knew that without every thread of clothing our chances, if we got ashore, we would eventually freeze.
At one point, George & Pete paddled up and asked if we could hold on – we both replied “yes” and told them to get our personal packs aboard first (they had since drifted quite far away). They left us to get the packs. Then, to our horror, as George was struggling to haul my soaked pack into the canoe, he lost his balance and toppled overboard – with a lunge, he tried to haul himself back aboard – I cheered him on quite merrily – Pete was half crouched, half standing … the red canoe almost turned over but instead took in a good amount of water – George made several more attempts to haul himself out of the water, but each attempt was weaker than the last and finally Pete had to paddle to shore, dragging George along. Once again they dumped the water out and came back – this time they managed to drag Bruce and Skip to a small, rocky island and leave them there. At one point, I thought that maybe if we righted our canoe we could put some of our packs in it and thus keep them from drifting about all over the place. I told Art of my plan and flipped the canoe. To my dismal surprise, it kept on rolling until once again it came to a rest – bottom-side-up. I was about to try again, but Art told me that if I were to perform this maneuver again he would not be able to hang onto the canoe and would drown, so I had to be content with holding onto the bow.
By now, I was almost completely inactivated by the cold water – my greatest desire was to quit fooling around and get the hell to shore – yet, I could not make a move to do so.
Bruce and Skip (who had not been rescued as yet, began shouting “Hurry up” to George and Pete. Their voices sounded very far off and faint (I never really saw them from the time that we turned over until late that evening). – Art took up the cry, and soon so did I – it seemed the thing to do, so I went at it with gusto – soon all four of us were chanting “hurry up” every few seconds.
From here on in, things became really foggy – the next thing I was aware of was Pete shouting to me to grab ahold of the canoe – this I did … at the same time I was holding both Art’s and my personal packs – also (and this I didn’t realize) the bowline from our canoe was entangled in my legs and George and Pete had to drag both Art and I plus the packs and the gray canoe to shore – we seemed to be getting nowhere, although both George and Pete were paddling like fiends After a while Pete yelled to me to let go of the canoe. I thought he meant his canoe so I told him to go to hell. Once, I lost my grip on Pete’s gunwale and shouted for him to come back or I would drown – he stopped paddling … I grabbed onto the red canoe once again …
The next thing I remember was feeling my feet scraping over the rocks near shore … I took one or two steps, using every single remaining ounce of strength I had, then collapsed unconscious on the rock and moss shore.
While semi conscious, I remember having a nightmare about something overwhelmingly green (it later turned out that I was lying on my face in a patch of moss).
My next recollection, hazy as it is, is one of being in a sleeping bag and of George giving me a brisk rubdown – he kept saying “how are you doing, Joe”, and I kept telling him that I was doing fine and to quit pounding me – I remember that I felt warm and comfortable all over except for my feet, which seemed abnormally cold – I passed out again.
When I came around next, I was surprised to feel that I was completely naked and in a tent – I couldn’t figure out why the hell this should be so. I sat bolt upright – it was dark out – someone thrust a large can under my nose and told me to take 5 swigs – I did so – then Skip came into the tent, undressed, and got into a sleeping bag – Bruce poked his head into the tent, handed Skip the can and said that he and I were both to take 7 handfulls – we did this – I was hungry as hell and really gobbled my share down (It was beets mixed with chicken soup). The mixture tasted very good and I was damned tempted to just sit there and eat the whole works.
Finally, I went out of the tent for a piss call – a bright red streak on the horizon was all that could be seen of the setting sun – the rest was a mass of gray clouds. I came back inside the tent, now fully aware of what had happened and casually asked Skip where Art was – he replied that Art was outside – we lay in silence- finally I asked what the hell would Art be doing outside. Skip replied, “You might as well know, Art is dead.”
I said, “Oh,” and lay back – It suddenly dawned on me that Skip was pulling my leg and accused him of doing so – he assured me that this was no joking matter, and with no greater emotion than if someone had told me that bat-shit was blue, I fell asleep congratulating myself for being still alive and kicking.
One by one the others crowded into the tent, until all 5 of us were crammed and jammed into Art’s and my tent (the other had been lost, along with the green canoe). Somehow we found room – George and I were squeezed into his sleeping bag – Bruce was alone at the left of the tent in Skip’s – Skip and Pete, head toward the door, were in Pete’s bag.
Before finally sacking out, Bruce brought in a cheese which I sliced up 5 ways and passed around. The shock of Art’s death had not yet made itself fully realized and we were all in pretty good spirits once we were crammed into place and passed our share of cheese – my feet were still cold as ice cubes – Bruce, at intervals throughout the night, was wracked by such spasmodic chills that he woke us all up by shivering violently and chattering – I slept soundly, or fairly so this night, although I must admit I got rather cramped from lying in one position for so long.
.

Thurs,. Sept 15 – Camp #51 (same).

Since Pete was the only one of the group to have a complete set of dry clothes, it was he who finally left the crowded tent to go and see what he could for some sort of breakfast. It was with great joy that he announced that it looked as though we were going to have a sunny day. This extremely fortunate break in the weather caused great rejoicing in the tent – a sunny day would, most probably, mean above freezing temperatures and a much needed chance to dry out sleeping bags, clothes and parkas. I hate to think of what would have happened to us if we had not had a day like this one!

Comment. The remainder of what I have for 15 September deals with plans for reaching Baker Lake.

Summary.

1. This evidence of Lanouette (which lay on plain view in the Sports Illustrated article), alone and in itself, refutes every accusation that the fatal rapids were run in desperate haste and the like.
2. Unfortunately, this evidence of Lanouette went unmentioned by every Moffatt defamer, most notably the Sports Illustrated editor her/himself.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
Copyright to Lanouette’s journal belongs to him.
Copyright to other material in the Ancillary belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.

Introduction.
This Ancillary provides an excerpt from J B Tyrrell’s book
Tyrrell, Joseph Burr. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897).
I accessed the book at the library of the University of Toronto, with the kind and generous help of the staff there. I possess a copy for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
The following, which relates to the reach of the Dubawnt River where Moffatt died, was excerpted from page 66F.
The reader will note that Tyrrell makes no mention of rapids in the reach below the portage 400 yards long (the Moffatt party completed this portage in the morning on 14 September) all the way to (Lady) Marjorie Lake. It was in this reach that Arthur Moffatt died.

The excerpt.
Comment. I take up the story from the beginning of the first full paragraph on page 66 F. I omitted no text until that following mark of respect.
Below Wharton Lake the river flows at first eastward, and then southward, for four miles to a small lake, in which distance it rushes down two rapids with descents respectively of 15 and 6 feet.
The small lake seems to be everywhere shallow, though the water is very clear. On its south side is a sand ridge or (esker [character apparently an italic l, which makes no sense to me]
) about 300 feet high, trending east-and-west, on the side of which the three terraces seen at the quartzite hill are well shown. Towards the west end of the ridge are scarped banks of sand almost eighty feet high. On the north side of the lake is a cluster of low islands, composed of boulders of red gneiss, covered with moss and grass. Low hills of boulders continue eastward, along the course of the river, for the next five miles. The stream has no well-defined channel, but flows around and between these hills with a current of from five to eight miles an hour. Five miles below the small lake is a rapid with a descent of twenty feet, past the lower part of which a portage 400 yards long was made over a hill of boulders, and we embarked from a sheet of ice that, on the 23rd of August, was still frozen to the bank. Above the rapid a gravel plain extends a long distance back from the river. At the foot of this rapid the river turns at right angles and flows northward for seven miles as a wide shallow rapid stream, through low country, composed of small morainic or drumlin-like hills of boulders of light-gray well foliated gneiss.
Lady Marjorie Lake, so named as a mark of respect… , was entered at the south end, …

The channel taken by the Tyrrell and Moffatt parties.
I consulted both toporama and my topo (likely identical sources).
http://atlas.gc.ca/toporama/en/index.html
http://www.mytopo.com/maps/index.cfm
Both sources show two exits from Wharton Lake (leading to Marjorie Lake). But some water from the leftmost exit flows into the rightmost one; this is the reason for the three channels in LeFavour’s comment The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels…
Both sources mark the rightmost channel as the Dubawnt River.
As one sees easily from inspection of the topos, Tyrrell’s sequence eastward…southward…small lake…south side…esker…right angles…northward identifies the rightmost channel as that taken by his party and therefore Moffatt’s.

Comment 1.
Tyrrell’s book mentions two rapids (15 and 6 feet), then one with a descent of twenty feet that required a portage. The rapids of 15 and 6 feet were run by Moffatt’s party on 13 September.
The next day, Moffatt’s party completed the portage over a hill of boulders and had lunch. The tragedy occurred after lunch, on the reach from the end of the portage to the entrance to Marjorie Lake, for which reach Tyrrell’s book mentions no rapids.

Comment 2. Please compare Tyrrell’s description above with the following excerpt from LeFavour’s article for 14 September.
The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before and was described in his journal: there were five rapids, the first two rough but shootable, the third long and heavy requiring a portage of a mile and the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. Because this route was described we took it, being careful to look over the first two which were indeed rough. Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken. …
Comment. The reference to J B Tyrrell’s journal is significant, for Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the last two. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.

Conclusions.
1. The Moffatt party possessed information, not provided in J B Tyrrell’s book, regarding the rapids below the portage; I refer here to LeFavour’s passage the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”.
2. LeFavour identifies the source to have J B Tyrrell’sjournal, rather than JBT’s book (which, as I document here, makes no mention of those rapids) or the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence (known to have occurred but not publicly available).
3. The vital point. Those rapids were apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”.
4. That is, Moffatt followed Tyrrell’s advice faithfully, to his death.

Summary regarding the fatal rapids.
1. J B Tyrrell’s book contains no mention of those rapids, as I document above.
2. But the evidence of Lanouette’s journal, as provided both in
the condensation of the Sports Illustrated’s article, and in
the full text of Ancillary 2 (Lanouette excerpt; the URL is provided at the end of this document),
demonstrates that the Moffatt party had detailed information regarding Dubawnt rapids, including the fatal ones.
LeFavour identifies that source to be Tyrrell’s journal and states that it had earlier proved reliable. I don’t know whether like information was provided also in the Tyrrell-Moffatt correspondence.
3. The important point. Tyrrell had informed Moffatt that the fatal rapids were not serious.
4. The reliability of Tyrrell’s advice.
His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point. [LeFavour]
5. And so, trusting Tyrrell’s advice (as it had full reason to do), the Moffatt party continued downstream from the portage without scouting the fatal rapids.
Conclusion. Every assertion that Moffatt died because he foolishly decided to run those rapids without a scout has no basis in any evidence known to me.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 4. Distances.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 4. Distances.

Introduction.

1. This Ancillary provides the results of my distance measurements from the end of the road at Black Lake, up the Chipman River to the Dubawnt River, down the Dubawnt to its junction with the Thelon River, and on through Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet on Hudson Bay.
2. Moffatt’s original plan was to paddle that entire reach (Black Lake to Hudson Bay), which was the central segment of the Tyrrell-Tyrrell trip of 1893. For it, he gave the distance as almost 900 miles [his Prospectus on p 71 of the SI article, p 71]. Moffatt’s source was likely J B Tyrrell (whose book and journal he possessed and with whom he had corresponded). Perhaps I should mention that JBT belonged to the Geological Survey of Canada and so almost certainly have recorded locations and distances on a regular basis.
As I document below, I measured the distance from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet to be ~860 miles (~1,380 km), in good enough agreement with Moffatt’s figure of almost 900 miles.
3. The New York Times article (at the top of page 71 of the SI article) gives 900 miles for the same distance. That distance appears also at the top of p 80 of the SI article.
4. The editor’s introduction to Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988) gives the distance as 1,000 miles [p 18].
5. Pessl gives the distance from Black Lake to Baker Lake to be 900 miles. [Nastawgan, 2013, page 2, bottom of the right column].
6. Sometime before the trip started (I don’t know when the decision was made), Moffatt decided to exit instead at Baker Lake. The conclusive evidence that Baker Lake was the terminus is that the RCMP detachment there expected the party to arrive on 15 September (with a grace period of seven days before a search was started).
As I document below, omission of the Baker-Chesterfield reach shortened the trip by ~177 miles (~285 km), to ~680 miles (~1,100 km).
7. And so I don’t understand Moffatt’s comment, made while on the trip: Well, but what if we rush to the coast and don’t come back with anything? [Pessl, p XVII].

The question, the answer, etc.

The question.
While on the trip, did Moffatt believe that the distance to be travelled was ~900 miles?
Comment. It appears that several accusers believed this to be case, and accordingly made highly negative comments regarding the pace.
Preliminary to the answer.
Moffatt’s journal, as provided in the SI article, records at least once (that’s good enough for the purpose) the distance yet to be travelled to Baker Lake. To be specific, he gives 400 miles for the reach from Cairn Point on Carey Lake to Baker Lake, [p 76, upper left column].
The evidence of Toporama.
For the reach from the north end of Carey Lake to Baker Lake, my measurement at Toporama gave ~650 km, or ~400 miles (as described below; embarrassingly close to Moffatt’s value).
The answer.
Before the trip began, Moffatt had corrected the distance for deletion of the reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
Consequence.
The distance to be covered was ~200 miles shorter than believed and so the pace was not as desultory as asserted in the accusatory literature.
Addendum.
I did not inspect the rest of either Moffatt’s journal or Pessl’s book for other distance figures. The question having been answered, namely whether Moffatt had used the correct figure while on the trip, these tasks have vanishingly small priority.

Appendix. Distance measurements.

I used the measuring feature at Toporama to obtain the following results.
1. For the reach from Black Lake to Baker Lake (the reach travelled by the Moffatt party), I used 18 overlapping pages, with several legs for each page (especially on river segments). The result was ~1,095 km (accurate to within, I believe, 40 km), or ~680 miles.
2. An independent measurement gave the distance from Baker Lake to Chesterfield inlet to be ~285 km, or ~177 miles.
3. The result for the distance from Black Lake to Chesterfield inlet is then ~1,380 km (~860 miles), close enough to Moffatt’s original figure of almost 900 miles.
4. Another independent measurement gave the river distance from the campsite on 29 August to Baker Lake to be ~410 km (~255 miles).
A consequence is that Kingsley was misled to state By August 29, …they had travelled barely half the distance or ~700 km (~450 miles). [Kingsley book, middle of p 188; also Up Here, lower right column on p 90].

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.

Foreword.
For the most part, this Ancillary lists missing items that should provide more insight into the Moffatt trip.

Loose ends.

Introduction.
All is neat and tidy in the accusatory literature: Moffatt was incompetent, period.
A particular example: Those guys had no business being up there. … They were a bunch of guys who didn’t know what they were doing and led by a guy with poor leadership skills. They fooled around and did a lot of crap and it finally came back to bite them. This was simply a group of novices led by someone more interested in film than travel, which squandered its time and resources and then made some tragic mistakes. … [Thum, in Mahler-Thum, 2005].
My limited experience is that documentary literature is not always neat and tidy. There are frequently poorly answered questions, questions that should have been asked but were not, sources that were missed, evidence that was missed, perhaps questionable decisions regarding which material to include and which to omit, errors in judgement, and so on.
And so I ask the reader to notify me of like items in my documentation of the Moffatt tragedy. I should welcome being notified of such and I promise to do what I can to resolve them.
At this time though, I know of no major remaining questions in the Moffatt story. To my mind, his innocence has been established beyond reasonable doubt (a necessary reversal of the customary procedure, given the volume and the quality of the accusatory literature).
But the following questions, some minor ones at first glance, have occurred to me.

Loose end 1. The Sports Illustrated article.
1. The identity of the SI editor.
2. The means by which s/he came into possession of both Moffatt’s journal for the trip, and Lanouette’s journal for 14 September.
3. More importantly, whether the editor’s selections responsibly represent the content of the journal. But I hold to my conclusion that the editor fabricated her/his case against Moffatt.
4. The background related to the following accusations, for none of which the editor provided evidence, all of which are refuted by the evidence (some of it in Moffatt’s journal itself).
(a) Food was becoming the question now. [8-9 August; p 76, top of left column].
(b) Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [15-16 August; p 76, bottom of right column].
(c) Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [7-9 September; p 82, top of right column.]
5. The background related to the Epilogue on page 88.
Grinnell, being quoted in the first paragraph, is clearly a source for some of the material. I believe him to be the source for most of the remainder.
In this connection, much of the material in the paragraph beginning In the aftermath is incorrect [Pessl, private correspondence].
6. The role, if any, played by Grinnell in the preparation of the SI> article. But Grinnell and the editor certainly corresponded, perhaps met in person.

Loose end 2. Accusations made prior to the publication of Grinnell’s book.
On pages 293 and 294 of Grinnell’s book (1996 edition), Luste provides the following.
Over the years, a number of unfounded versions or representations of the Moffatt accident have made their way into the canoeing literature. I’ve read statements like
“After some discussion there came a momentous decision. To save time the party would run any rapid which looked safe from the top.” and
“Everyone was rescued quickly so there should have been no problems.” or
“Increasing desperation made them run rapids without careful checking,” or
“…to speed progress they would run any rapid that looked passable from the top…” and
“On Moffatt’s trip, the canoeists surviving the mid-September swamping first picked up all the packs, then the swamped members, a fatal mistake.”

1. These representations contain too much detail for them to have been based on the Sports Illustrated article, or to have been fabricated. Did their authors have access to a trip participant or his writings?
Information (not provided by Luste) regarding authors’ names, dates and publication information (if any) would almost certainly further our understanding of the Moffatt literature, perhaps even our understanding of the tragedy.
I did what I could to access relevant material.
2. In 1996, Luste already knew accusations of reckless running of the fatal rapids to be unfounded. How did Luste know that? Given Grinnell’s redaction of Lanouette’s evidence, Grinnell is an unlikely candidate.
3. What influence, if any, did these accusations have on the Moffatt literature post 1996? I saw no mention of them.

Loose end 3. J B Tyrrell’s journal.
The evidence is conclusive that Moffatt had obtained access to JBT’s journal, aka his report.
1. I refer first to the passage Throughout Tyrrell’s journal, he speaks of seeing patches of snow well to the south and he suffered his first snow storm on August 10. [Pessl, 28 August, bottom of p 107]. I say that the evidence is conclusive because no such passage appears in J B Tyrrell’s book, as I document in Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
2. That Moffatt had access to Tyrrell’s journal (not publicly available) is evinced also by the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.

Loose end 4. The Moffatt – J B Tyrrell correspondence.
With regard to the tragedy, the evidence is conclusive that Moffatt had obtained rapids information from J B Tyrrell beyond that provided in the latter’s book; I refer the reader especially to the LeFavour passage …the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”.
Sources for that additional rapids information are
1. J B Tyrrell’s journal, to which Moffatt is known to have had access; I refer the reader to the passage quoted in Loose End 4.
2. The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence (access to which would assist also our understanding of Moffatt’s preparations for the trip). Both my efforts to access that correspondence were unsuccessful; one was correspondence with the Moffatt family, the other inspection of the J B Tyrrell files at the Thomas Fisher Library of the University of Toronto. With respect to the latter, in May 2017 I spent the better part of two days searching the J B Tyrell files at that library. Those files contain both professional and personal correspondence, not completely separated. With the kind, indeed generous and patient, assistance of the library staff, I searched the entire professional files for 1953, 1954 and 1955, plus the entire relevant personal files, but I found none of the correspondence between them. In short, I did what I could.
Next, I provide Moffatt’s two letters to J B Tyrrell (Source Pessl); my only changes were the deletion of dates, of addresses and of blank lines between paragraphs and elsewhere.
Again, I was unable to access the reply (known to have been made) to the first; I possess no evidence that JBT replied to the second.

Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954.
Dear Dr. Tyrrell:
At the suggestion of Dr. Lincoln Washburn, Professor of Geology at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, I am writing to tell you of my plans to follow your route from Stony Rapids on Lake Athabaska via the Dubawnt River to Chesterfield Inlet this coming summer.
Since your exploration of that route in 1893 no other canoe parties seem to have made the trip, and if we did not have your excellent report to guide us, I doubt that we should attempt it. My purpose in going is to make a film in color, for lecture purposes — and I believe with luck we shall have something unlike anything that has been done before.
You may wonder what my qualifications for making such a trip are; I list them briefly: In 1937 I paddled alone from Sioux Lookout, Ontario, to the Albany River and down it to James Bay. Since 1950 I have led parties of five young men of college age down the Albany every summer. In 1952 and ’53 I made a 3000 foot color film of the Albany trip, with which I have been lecturing, and it now seems time to attempt a more difficult and unusual trip – your route down the Dubawnt.
I plan to use two 18 foot Chestnut Prospector canoes, one paddled by Skip Pessl, a young man who has made the Albany trip with me twice and who is this year a senior at Dartmouth College; and the other paddled by myself. We have not yet selected our two bow paddlers, and in this connection Dr. Washburn thought that you might like to send along someone from your company to look the country over once again.
We expect to leave here as close to June 15 as we can and to remain on the Dubawnt until about September 1. We anticipate several difficulties we have never encountered along the Albany, first the absence of fuel and second the difficulty of crossing the frozen expanse of Dubawnt Lake – if you are able to give us any advice on coping with these two problems we shall certainly appreciate it.
Of great importance also is the fact that we must carry sufficient supplies for the entire trip – the administration of the Northwest Territories will allow us to carry only a rifle, but it is only to be used if we are in danger of starvation – which we feel is rather late in the game to begin living off the country. Nevertheless, we are prepared to travel under these conditions.
We shall, of course, attempt to take as many fish as we can, and here again we should appreciate any specific information about the kinds of fish we shall encounter, places where they may be taken, and methods used in taking them.
To revert briefly to the matter of fuel: Stefansson, in his Arctic Manual, indicates that most Arctic rivers are lined with willows and alders; but in your report and in the book of your brother, I find small mention of such a source of wood for fires. Were they indeed absent along the Dubawnt, or were they too green to burn – or is the country too generally soaked with rain to use them?
I hope you find it interesting that we will be travelling the Dubawnt this summer, and I also hope that you can give me some advice to help us complete the journey successfully. In any case, I hope I may have the pleasure of hearing from you.
Sincerely, Arthur R. Moffatt

Interpretation.
Given that Moffatt refers to J W Tyrrell’s book, his use of report (two places) suggests a source other than J B Tyrrell’s book.
But what then is one to make of the passage tried without success to obtain copies of your report in the letter that follows? Is there a third document?

Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955.
Dear Dr. Tyrrell:
Thank you very much for your kind reply to my letter of December 18, in which I asked you several questions about the Dubawnt River.
I have tried without success to obtain copies of your report from Mr. Amtmann and from Dora Hood, but Mr. Amtmann referred me to Miss Wills, Librarian of the Geological Survey, who was kind enough to send me, on loan until September 30, 1955, a copy of your report.
I have written Miss Wills of the possible damage that may be done to the report on a trip by canoe down the Dubawnt, and I am waiting now to see if she really means that I should take it with me to the Barrens. I certainly hope she does – after all, it will be our only guide.
Your suggestion that we will face starvation unless we have good rifles is certainly to the point, and I wish the Administration of the Northwest Territories realised that in forbidding us to use rifles until we are in imminent danger of starvation they are putting us in a very difficult position. However, if those are the terms on which we may enter the country, we will to face them or stay home. I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the Barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.
Our search for two bow paddlers is not yet over, and in asking you whether your mining company might not like to send a geologist with us who could also pull his weight in a canoe and on the portages, I was acting on the advice of Dr. Washburn, who thought your company might find it to its advantage to do some prospecting along the Dubawnt.
You may be interested to hear that I showed your letter to Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson who i asked if he might have the letter for his library, which is a now a part of the Dartmouth College Library at Hanover, New Hampshire.
I want to thank you again for your interest in my proposed trip, and I wish you a very Happy New Year.
Sincerely, Arthur R. Moffatt

Loose end 5. Luste’s comment regarding the fatal rapids.
I should like to know the source of the following Luste comment.
Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, 1996, p 284].
The question.
How did Luste know that Moffatt had possessed J B Tyrrell’s notes regarding Dubawnt rapids in general?
Not by the way, Luste was not one to make things up.
As I discuss in the Main text and in Appendix 8. Other rapids Luste’s source was neither the Sports Illustrated article nor Grinnell’s publications.

Loose end 6. The journals of the trip participants.
Those concerned willing, establish a repository to hold the journals of the participants and related material.
Moffatt’s journal is of course by far the most important item.
Given that the Sports Illustrated editor
(a) made the accusations 1, 2 and 3 described in Ancillary 1 (Accusations), and
(b) redacted the key phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal,
it seems important to examine Moffatt’s journal for the evidence regarding his character and his judgment.
More generally, access to his journal might reveal errors (and worse) in the written record as it stands.
Perhaps most important of all, his journal should provide much insight into the character of a shamefully maligned fellow paddler.
His journal is held at the Dartmouth College library, but viewing is restricted, perhaps understandably given the actions of the Sports Illustrated editor. Only a few excerpts are publicly available at present.

The future.

As things stand, given
the actions of the Sports Illustrated editor, and
the damage (much of it willful) that so many defamers did to Moffatt’s reputation over 55 years,
should we expect to see soon Moffatt’s journal and other material important for a deeper understanding of the tragedy?
Perhaps the response to this blog will decide the matter.
Since the announcement of the opening of the blog in late September 2016, I have received only Grinnell’s one-liner.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 6. Addenda.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 6. Addenda.

Foreword.
This Ancillary provides items that don’t fit elsewhere.

Item 1. Tom McCloud’s review of Pessl’s book.

BARREN GROUNDS – The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip.
Fred “Skip” Pessl, Dartmouth College Press (2014).
The review was posted here on 19 September 2016.

Students of canoeing in the far north of Canada have heard of the 1955 expedition lead by Art Moffatt to the Dubawnt River, a major drainage to the northwest of Hudson Bay. After 51 days on the river, following a major storm with snowfall, the group of 6 young men in 3 Chestnut wood/canvas canoes entered a long rapid in a section of river with islands partly obscuring the view. Big waves at the bottom of the rapid filled and rolled 2 canoes, the third half-filled. The four swimmers were pulled to shore, severely hypothermic, with Moffatt never awakening.

There have been previous magazine articles and one book (“A Death on The Barrens” by George Grinnell, one of the paddlers) recounting this accident, second-guessing, and often criticizing. Skip Pessl had done previous wilderness trips with Moffatt, so was the second most experienced and, de-facto, second in-charge. Because he strongly disagrees with what others have written, this book is Pessl’s contribution to ‘setting the record straight’. It consists of transcriptions of both Skip’s and Peter Francks’ day-by-day diary entries. They recorded the wildlife they saw, the rapids they ran or portaged, the food they ate, the weather and how cold and wet they were – typical of any northern trip. Skip and Peter were neither tent-mates nor canoe-mates, so where their accounts are similar, they corroborate each other, yet each has his own viewpoint. Using these texts, Pessl forcefully rebuts what others, particularly Grinnell, have written about the tragic accident and its cause. Having had nearly 60 years to ruminate, Pessl concludes the root cause was that Moffatt, and he himself, did not fully appreciate the considerable differences and greater difficulties, between their previous trips on the Albany and the much longer and further north Dubawnt.

If you are interested in the literature of far north paddling, you should have Barren Grounds on your bookshelf. It makes available at lot more first-hand information concerning the 1955 trip and the Dubawnt river, but will not stop the speculation, recrimination or second-guessing. It would be very interesting to spend a long evening around the campfire talking with Skip Pessl.

Thanks to Tom for permission to reproduce the above. The original was published in Coastal VA News, Fall 2015 issue; newsletter of the Coastal Canoeists of Virginia.

Item 2. …paved…paradise…parking lot.

Grinnell passage 1.
The expression, “paved over paradise with a parking lot”, was common at Berkeley…between 1962-1967. Creigh Moffatt reminded me that its origin probably lies with Joni Mitchell: “…paved paradise and put up a parking lot.” [Grinnell book, p 308]

Grinnell passage 2.
…part of the Creation, and paving over the rest with a parking lot. [Grinnell book, p 258]

Big Yellow Taxi, excerpt.
They paved paradise
And put up a parking lot
With a pink hotel, a boutique
And a swinging hot spot
Don’t it always seem to go
That you don’t know what you’ve got
‘Till it’s gone
They paved paradise
And put up a parking lot…

https://www.google.ca/search?rlz=1C1NHXL_enCA756CA756&q=joni+mitchell+big+yellow+taxi&stick=H4sIAAAAAAAAAONgFuLRT9c3LDTNSjLMTTZQAvOKDUxLzHItKrS0spOt9HNLizOT9YtSk_OLUjLz0uOTc0qLS1KLrPJLMlKLFMpSi4oz8_OKAbVkaOlKAAAA&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirqsnnqePVAhUh0YMKHaEZATYQri4ISjAI&biw=1366&bih=662

Comment. I don’t understand why Grinnell gives the dates 1962-1967, given that the song is stated to have been composed only in 1970.
“Big Yellow Taxi” is a song written, composed, and originally recorded by Canadian singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell in 1970, and originally released on her album “Ladies of the Canyon”.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Yellow_Taxi

Internal URLs.

Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Bibliography.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Bibliography.

 
Introduction.
1. I split the results of my literature search into five categories.
The primary and secondary accusatory literatures; the latter are based on the former.
The primary and secondary Moffatt literatures.
The Tyrrell literature.
2. A common feature of the accusatory literature is the failure to cite evidence, even so much as provide a Bibliography. And so some sleuthing was required to trace sources; I did what I could.
3. Some items are listed more than once.

The primary accusatory literature.

Anonymous.
Accusations by unidentified persons, quoted by George Luste [Grinnell book, pp 293-294, 1996].

The anonymous editor of the Sports Illustrated article.
Issues of 9 March 1959 Man against the barrens grounds (pp 68-76) and 16 March 1959 Danger and Sacrifice (pp 80-88). Reader responses were posted at
http://www.si.com/vault/1959/04/06/604104/19th-hole-the-readers-take-over
If the reader will excuse two comments.
1. The bulk of the article consists of material based on Moffatt’s journal, but severely edited in cases.
2. The second most influential item in the accusatory literature.

Grinnell, George J.
Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment.
Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.
A contribution to the accusatory literature but a lesser one.

Grinnell, George.
A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996).
The most influential item in the accusatory literature.
It contains also much personal, introspective material, plus extended comments by George Luste; it does not provide a Bibliography.
Listed in both the primary accusatory literature and the primary Moffatt literature.
My comments based on the 1996 edition; there exist also editions of 2005 and 2010 [Pessl, private correspondence].
Reviews.
Unwanted images pop up and so I don’t provide URLs for the reviews that I found, those at goodreads.com, northatlanticbooks.com, readingforsanity.ca, Amazon (1556438826), etc.

Inglis, Alex.
Northern Vagabond. The Life and Career of J B Tyrrell – the Man Who Conquered the Canadian North. McClelland and Stewart. (1978).
Primarily a biography of Joseph Burr Tyrrell; listed also here (in the accusatory literature) because of the material on page 54.

Kingsley, Jennifer.
1. Online source 1 (no Bibliography).
In a most dreadful sort of paradise. Up Here. May 2012; pp 88, 90 & 91.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/looking-back-May-2012-Moffatt-pdf-.pdf
2. Online source 2 (no Bibliography).
Back and Beyond. Lake. Issue 6 (2013); pp 12-14.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Lake_Back-and-Beyond_2011pdf.pdf
3. Book (which contains both Endnotes and Bibliography).
Paddle North. Adventure, Resilience and Renewal in the Arctic Wild. Greystone Books, Vancouver/Berkeley (2014).
Not to be confused with Paddle North: Canoeing the Boundary Waters-Quetico Wilderness, Greg Breining, publisher? (2010).
Reviews are provided at Amazon.ca, goodreads.com, canoekayak.com, timirvin.com, goodreads.com and likely elsewhere.
All three items made major contributions to the accusatory literature.

MacDonald, Andrew.
Ostensibly a review of Grinnell’s book [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11]
No source beyond the obvious is mentioned. Unlike Murphy’s review (referenced below) in the same article, it is apparently not available online.

Mahler, Charlie. Down a Dead Man’s River.
Comments. The two publications are identical at first glance. Sources are not provided. Quotes from Bob Thum and others are provided.
Publication 1.
Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
Publication 2.
Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
Publication of two articles (identical at first glance) by Charlie Mahler; contents include extensive comments of Bob Thum.
Article 1. Down a Dead Man’s River, Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
Article 2. Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
The formerly active URL.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm
Both Mahler and Thum made major contributions to the accusatory literature.

Murphy, James.
Ostensibly a review of Grinnell’s book [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11].
http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html
A major contribution to the accusatory literature.

Osgood, Larry.
Letter to George Luste, 23 February 1996.

The secondary accusatory literature.

Introduction.
The accusations of the primary accusatory literature were widely accepted within the paddling community, and likely outside it.
The secondary accusatory literature is based on the primary accusatory literature, rather than on original sources. For the most part, it consists of publications in which the Moffatt trip is mentioned only incidentally.

Jacobson, Cliff.
Expedition Canoeing. A Guide to Canoeing Wild Rivers in North America.
Chapter 4. Loose Threads; p 22, left column. Falcon / Globe-Pequot Press (2005).
Comment. Unfortunately, the source for some Jacobson comments was not the faithful condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article (1959) [pp 85-87]. His source was rather the redacted version of that condensation, as provided in Grinnell’s book (1996) [pp 201-204]; please note the ellipsis near the top of p 202. To be explicit, Grinnell redacted the exculpatory passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
That redacted passage leads me to conclude that Moffatt had been unintentionally misled by J B Tyrrell (certainly in the latter’s journal, perhaps also in private correspondence) regarding the severity of the fatal rapids.
I have not examined Jacobson’s Canoeing Wild Rivers, 2015 edition.
References.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Jennings, John; Bruce W Hodgins and Doreen Small (Editors).
The Canoe in Canadian Cultures. Natural Heritage Books (1999).
Comment. I did not record the relevant page number/s.

Johnson, Alissa.
Meet Bob O’Hara.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/bobohara.htm

Kesselheim, Alan.
57 years Ago.
Canoe & Kayak, May 2012, starting on p 46.
Comments.
1. The article includes material based on the journal of participant Pessl, an interview with Pessl, and comments by Moffatt accusers.
2. Follow-up material will be found in Canoe & Kayak, July 2012 (p 14) and August 2012 (p 12).
3. Given its contents, I include the item in both the secondary accusatory literature and the primary Moffatt literature.

Luste, George.
In reference to accusations (not known to have been published) made prior to 1996, Luste wrote It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. [Grinnell book, p 294 (1996)].
Unfortunately, Luste was misled by Grinnell into making the comments in the last paragraph on page iii of the latter’s book.

MacGregor, Roy.
Canoe Country: The Making of Canada.
Random House Canada, first edition (2015). p 49.
For a relevant quote, Google “MacGregor Canoe Country Moffatt”.

Morse, Eric W.
Freshwater Saga. Memoirs of a Lifetime of Wilderness Canoeing in Canada. University of Toronto Press (1987). pp 84 & 104.

Peake, Michael.
Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000.
Two articles containing short items regarding the Moffatt tragedy.
1. 1955: A Tale of Two Trips. p 4.
http://www.canoe.ca/che-mun/99two.html
2. The Tragic Trips…1955 – The Moffat Dubawnt River trip. pp 5&6.

Google Images.
https://www.google.ca/search?q=arthur+moffatt+canoe&espv=2&biw=1360&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=P5wKVfDyBonBgwTLuoDQBw&ved=0CDAQsAQ&dpr=1

The primary Moffatt literature.

Grinnell, George J.
Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment.
Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.

Grinnell, George.
A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996).

Jacobs, Allan.
1. The Second Annual Luste Lecture.

Nastawgan, Vol 41, Winter 2014, pp 16-19.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/winter_2014.pdf
Comments/corrections.
(a) The article is a review (requested by the editor of Nastawgan) of Pessl’s lecture, plus other material.
(b) I was unable to access the Sports Illustrated article by the deadline date, and so this first attempt of mine to understand the tragedy is seriously incomplete.
(c) Kesselheim’s Moffatt … a name that, in canoe-tripping circles became synonymous with incompetence is a statement of the perception; it is decidedly not an accusation of incompetence, as I unfortunately suggested on p 17 (left column, item 3a).
(d) Only one tent was destroyed by the storm. As well, I scrambled some references.
2. In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.
Public announcement of the opening of the blog.
The blog had actually been opened to public view a few days previously, so that I could provide advance notice to several persons whose names appear there.
Canadian Canoe Routes, 19 September 2016.
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=45362
3. In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.
A one-column announcement of the opening of the blog, accompanied by an incomplete list of not-so items from the accusatory literature, and a photograph of Arthur Moffatt.
Nastawgan, Vol 43, Summer/Fall 2016, p 9.
4.
A second announcement of the blog opening, plus a summary of the accusations made of Moffatt.

Lanouette, Ed (“Joe”).
1. Lanouette kindly and generously provided me with his full journal entry for 14 September. It is reproduced in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
A faithful condensation of his journal for that day of Moffatt’s death was published in Sports Illustrated [pp 85-87 (1959)]
2. Extensive private correspondence.

LeFavour, Bruce.
1. Material based on his journal was published in four articles (27 through 30 December, 1955), Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY.
I have access to only the third article, kindly and generously supplied by him; it provides an illuminating account of the tragedy, especially the advice provided by J B Tyrrell.
2. Private correspondence.

Luste, George.
1. Private correspondence and conversations.
2. Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died [Grinnell book, p 284]
3. It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. [Grinnell book, pp 293&294].
If the reader will excuse a comment. These two evidences (which appear exculpatory to me) of Luste went unmentioned in the entire Moffatt literature.

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Three Canoes.
1.46 Bold Journey. Prod. no. 474. ABC Broadcast of Monday 8 July, 1957. Hosted by John Stephenson.
Synopsis. Fred Pessl, Jr. narrates the films of a canoe trip from Athabaska Lake in southwest Saskatchewan to Hudson Bay. He and five other explorers spent three months working their way through a region rarely visited by white men. In the last rapids the leader of the expedition, Arthur Moffat was thrown from his canoe and died of exposure in the icy waters. [RF]

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Kesselheim’s article (referenced above) includes an interview with Pessl and also the latter’s comments regarding the tragedy and the resulting literature (in particular Grinnell’s contributions thereto).

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
The Fateful 1955 Dubawnt River Trip. Nastawgan. Summer 2013. Vol 70, No 2.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/summer_13.pdf
Pessl provides a bibliography, in the form of Endnotes [p 11].

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Barren Grounds. The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip. Dartmouth College Press (2014).
Contents include excerpts from the journals of Pessl and Franck, photographs (many in colour), an account of events following the tragedy, an Epilogue, a timeline comparing the progress of the Tyrrell and Moffatt trips, and Endnotes [pp 178-180].
URLs of reviews.
http://www.upne.com/1611685336.html

http://www.dartmouth.org/classes/55/images/dart_news_oct_14.pdf
http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18988880-barren-grounds
A Review of Barren Grounds: The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip by Fred “Skip” Pessl
The texts of reviews (provided on the back cover of Pessl’s book).
1. Skip Pessl delivers a vivid on-the-ground account of northern canoe adventure, from a time before GPS, composite boats, sat phones, and expedition blogs. His riveting day-by-day chronicle fires up the youthful exhilaration and fierce joy of traditional expedition life in the Far North. It also reveals, with refreshing honesty and humility, the fear and tragedy survived by the Moffatt party. Pessl brings a lifetime of contemplation to bear in his analysis of that awful, mortal moment on the cold river, far from help. Essential reading for those who warm to the flame of northern adventure. [Alan Kesselheim, author of Let Them Paddle.]
2. Skip Pessl’s book…is needed, welcome and superb. I’m saying this as someone who canoed the same arctic Dubawant River in 1969 and was involved in an earlier book about this trip. Skip’s account focuses on reality and evidence, not on personal opinion or mythology. To repeat, this new book is needed and sincerely welcome. [G. J. Luste, Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Toronto, and founder of the Wilderness & Canoeing Symposium.]
3. Skip Pessl’s candid and long-overdue account of the ’55 Dubawnt trip gives us a balanced view of this historic event. In “Barren Grounds”, Skip faces some of the toughest moments of his life with courage and tenacity. This book is welcome closure for anyone affected by Art Moffatt’s tragic story. [Aleks Gusev, editor of Nastawgan Journal.]
4. Skip Pessl provides a rich and nuanced account of the Moffatt expedition. Drawing on his extensive journals and those of expedition member Peter Franck, Pessl shares a mesmerizing tale of exploration and discovery, of friendship and loss, the stark beauty and utter indifference of the North. [Jeff Moag, editor of Canoe & Kayak magazine.
Emendations.
The headings Wharton Lake for the Pessl/Franck entries of 8 September [pp 127&128] are incorrect. Wharton Lake was reached on 11 September, as evinced by the following excerpts (kindly, immediately and generously provided by Pessl, from Moffatt’s journal.
10 September.
In spite of strong winds and snow squalls, made it with help of strong current down to the falls above Wharton Lake. Ice on paddles, hills still white.
11 September.
Shot last run of rapid below falls, rough at first, green water over boulders; then shallow, wide channel, hard to see in poor light, another rapid, and Wharton Lake.
Comments.
I emphasise that the contents are correct [Pessl, private correspondence]; it is only the headings that are not.
Correspondingly, in the table on p 129, the entry for Moffatt, 1955 should read September 11.

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Copious private correspondence over three years.

Moffatt, Arthur Ray.
His journal, by far the most important of the presently unavailable items, is held at the Dartmouth College library.
Viewing of the journal is restricted, perhaps understandably in view of the treatment afforded Moffatt by the paddling community.
Perhaps the same library holds also Moffatt’s correspondence with J B Tyrrell.
Both the journal and the correspondence would provide a deeper understanding of Moffatt’s preparations, and perhaps also the tragedy.

The secondary Moffatt literature.

These items are provided largely for completeness.

Anonymous.
Comment. Report of an interview with Peter Franck.
Soph Describes Fatal Canoe Mishap. Canadian Accident.
The Harvard Crimson. September 29, 1955. “NO WRITER ATTRIBUTED.”
http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1955/9/29/soph-describes-fatal-canoe-mishap-ppeter/

Harp, Elmer (Jr).
The Moffatt Archeological Collection from the Dubawnt Country, Canada.
Item 1.
Only the first page (412) is available for viewing by the general public.
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/276602?sid=21106167779013&uid=4&uid=3737720&uid=3739448&uid=2
Item 2.
Harp’s interest in the Moffatt expedition is mentioned on page 128 of Pessl’s book.
Before we left the States, Art had arranged that Elmer Harp, Dartmouth College Archaeology Faculty, would have a look at whatever we could collect…
Item 3.
Professor Elmer Harp of Dartmouth College made an archaeological collection at Grant Lake on the Dubawnt. [Lentz, North, 1970] [Hodgins and Hoyle, p 107]

Hodgins, Bruce W; and Gwyneth Hoyle.
Canoeing North into the Unknown: A Record of River Travel, 1874 to 1974.
A party of Americans led by Arthur Moffatt…canoed from Black Lake to Selwyn Lake and down the Dubawnt River and across Dubawnt Lake. Following an accident in the rapids entering Marjorie Lake, Moffatt died of exposure and is buried in Baker Lake. The rest of the group completed the trip down the Dubawnt and Thelon in late September. [p 107] Sources were the Sports Illustrated article, a personal communication from Grinnell, and Grinnell’s Canoe article.

The Tyrrell literature.

Inglis, Alex.
Northern Vagabond. The Life and Career of J B Tyrrell – the Man Who Conquered the Canadian North. McClelland and Stewart. (1978).
The same source is cited also above, under Primary accusatory literature.

Robertson, Heather.
Measuring Mother Earth. How Joe the Kid Became Tyrrell of the North. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto (2007).
A biography of Joseph Burr Tyrrell. The Tyrrell-Tyrrell expedition of 1893 is described, starting with Chapter 8 (p 136).
Excerpt 1. …in 1955, an American, Arthur Moffatt, died running a rapid on the Dubawnt River… [p 315].
Excerpt 2. A Death on the Barrens, by George James Grinnell, Northern Books, Toronto, 1996, tells the haunting story of Arthur Moffatt’s death in the context of Grinnell’s own existential crisis as one of the six men on Moffatt’s expedition. [p 333].

Tyrrell, James Williams.
Item 1. Through the Barren Lands: An Exploration Line of 3,200 Miles. Geological Survey of Canada (1896). Not accessed; believed identical to the following.
Item 2. Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada (Toronto, 1908).
Thanks to the kind, helpful and patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library of the University of Toronto, I have a copy of all pages for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
If the reader will excuse a comment. The material (largely ethnography) provided by JWT is fascinating in its own right but it sheds no light on the conditions that led to Moffatt’s death.

Tyrrell, Joseph Burr.
Item 1. Geographical Journal, v 4, no 5, Nov 1894. Not accessed.
Item 2. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897).
Thanks to the kind, helpful and patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library of the University of Toronto, I have a copy of all pages for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt provides the excerpt for the reach (above Marjorie Lake) where Moffatt died.
If the reader will excuse a comment. Tyrrell makes no mention of rapids below the portage just below the small lake; it was in these rapids that Moffatt died.
Item 3. Tyrrell’s maps for the reach from Black Lake to the mouth of the Churchill River.
Black Lake to south of Selwyn Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-1-1893
Continuation to past Wholdiah/Daly Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-2-1893
Continuation to past Boyd Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-3-1893
Continuation to the middle of Nicholson Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-4-1893
Continuation to the middle of Grant Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-5-1893
Continuation to past Aberdeen Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893
Continuation to Baker Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-7-1893
Continuations to the mouth of the Churchill River.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-8-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-9-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-10-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-11-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-12-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-13-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-14-1893
Item 4. A thorough search (in May-June 2017, in the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library) for the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, so important for a deeper understanding of Moffatt’s preparations, failed.
Missing items are
Tyrrell’s response to Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954,
and any later correspondence, should there be any.
Thanks again to the staff at the U of T library.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.