Ancillary 13. Timeline of the primary Moffatt literature

Renovations continue. Thanks for your patience.

Ancillary 13. Timeline of the primary Moffatt literature.

Items listed below include the publications of the trip participants, the publications of Moffatt’s primary accusers, and two personal items.
Items of what I call the secondary Moffatt literature are listed in the corresponding part of the Bibliography.
The accusations are addressed in Ancillary 1. Accusations.

1955.
Publication of participant LeFavour’s four articles in the Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY, 27 through 30 December (1955).
The articles are not accessible to the public. I possess only the third (thanks to him), which provides evidence regarding both the fatal rapids and the food on board on 14 September.
If the reader will excuse a comment. As best I know, no Moffatt accuser was aware of any LeFavour evidence.

1959.
Publication of the Sports Illustrated article.
Part 1, 9 March. Man against the Barren Grounds. [pp 68-76].
Part 2, 16 March. Danger and Sacrifice. [pp 80-88].
Reader responses to both parts were posted at
http://www.si.com/vault/1959/04/06/604104/19th-hole-the-readers-take-over
The editor had full access to Moffatt’s journal, edited excerpts from which comprise much of the article.
Other contents include Moffatt’s prospectus for the trip, photographs of the participants and thumbnails of them, a map of the route, the New York Times article regarding arrival in Baker Lake, a condensation of Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy, and an Epilogue (which contains major contributions from participant Grinnell).

1978.
Publication of the book of Alex Inglis.
Northern Vagabond. The Life and Career of J B Tyrrell – the Man Who Conquered the Canadian North. McClelland and Stewart. (1978).
If the reader will excuse a comment. The book went unnoticed in the subsequent literature.

1988.
Publication of participant Grinnell’s article.
Canoe. July 1988, pp 18-21 and 56.

Undated assertions made prior to 1996.
The only known source regarding these assertions is George Luste’s comments in Grinnell’s book [pp 293&294].
If the reader will excuse two comments. I possess
no information regarding when the assertions were made, or their authors, or their source/s, and
no evidence that the assertions influenced the later literature.

1996.
Publication of participant Grinnell’s book.
Grinnell, George J. A Death on the Barrens. A True Story.
Recently, I purchased the 2010 edition; I have not looked at the 2005 edition.
If the reader will excuse some comments.
I agree with Pessl [private correspondence] that the 2010 edition differs significantly from that of 1996. But the two agree regarding the evidence presented regarding Lanouette’s evidence for 14 September.
As best I know, the Moffatt literature is based entirely on the 1996 edition, and so all my comments in the following are based on it alone.
Opinion. The book is the most important publication of the accusatory literature.

1996.
Publication of reviews of Grinnell’s book by James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald.
Che-Mun Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11.
If the reader will excuse a comment, both Murphy and MacDonald provided more than reviews.

2000.
Publication of two short articles regarding the Moffatt trip.
Peake, Michael.
Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000.
1. 1955: A Tale of Two Trips. p 4.
http://www.canoe.ca/che-mun/99two.html
2. The Tragic Trips…1955 – The Moffat Dubawnt River trip. pp 5&6.

2005.
Publication of the two Mahler-Thum articles, identical at first glance.
1. Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
2. Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm

2012.
1. Publication of Kesselheim’s article in Canoe&Kayak; it contains contributions from participant Pessl. Follow-up material was published in the issues of July 2012 (p 14) and August 2012 (p 12).
2. Publication of Kingsley’s first online article.
In a most dreadful sort of paradise. Up Here. May 2012; pp 88, 90 & 91.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/looking-back-May-2012-Moffatt-pdf-.pdf

2013.
1. Publication of Kingsley’s second online article.
Back and Beyond. Lake. Issue 6 (2013); pp 12-14.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Lake_Back-and-Beyond_2011pdf.pdf
2. Publication of participant Pessl’s article.
The Fateful 1955 Dubawnt River Trip. Nastawgan. Summer 2013. Vol 70, No 2.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/summer_13.pdf

2014.
1. Publication of Kingsley’s book. Paddle North. Adventure, Resilience and Renewal in the Arctic Wild. Greystone Books, Vancouver/Berkeley (2014).
Moffatt material is confined to pages 185-189 and 220.
2. Publication of Pessl’s book.
Barren Grounds. The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip. Dartmouth College Press, Hanover, NH (2014).
Pessl provides copious amounts of new evidence, notes on trip planning, excerpts from his journal and that of fellow participant Peter Franck, a comparison with the progress of the Tyrrell-Tyrrell trip of 1893, an Epilogue and a list of nontravel days.
I possess no evidence that Pessl knew of any Kingsley publication.
3. Pessl’s talk (the Second Annual Luste Lecture, 13 November; unpublished) at the Canadian Canoe Museum.
http://www.canoemuseum.ca/blog/2014/11/13/highlights-of-the-2014-luste-lecture
4. Publication of my Nastawgan article (Winter issue, 2014, pp 16-19). It contains a review of that Pessl talk, plus related material.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/winter_2014.pdf

Comments regarding the 2012-2014 literature.
1. Kingsley knew of Pessl’s contribution to Kesselheim’s article of 2012, but made only incidental mention of it. I possess no evidence, and I doubt, that Kingsley knew of either Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) or his book (2014).
2. I possess no evidence, and I doubt, that Pessl knew of any Kingsley publication.

2015 and 2016. A personal item.
Failed attempt on my part to publish the first version of In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.
Reference. Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.

19 September 2016. A second personal item.
Announcement at Canadian Canoe Routes of the opening of my blog In Defence of Arthur Moffatt to public view.
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=45362
A few days earlier, I had informed several interested parties that the blog was open for viewing.

Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements.

Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements.

I am profoundly grateful to trip participants Fred “Skip” Pessl, Ed “Joe” Lanouette and Bruce LeFavour for their generous and extensive assistance with my research. They kindly and most patiently informed me, without guiding me, as I stumbled along the path to understand the tragedy. They supplied copies of much of the source material cited in my bibliography; I would have had considerable difficulty otherwise. Indeed, I would not have so much as known of the existence of some material.
In more detail:
Pessl provided excerpts from Moffatt’s journal.
Lanouette provided his full journal for 14 September (only a condensation was provided in the SI article of 1959). And he gave permission to post his full journal, as transcribed his daughter Elizabeth Emge.
LeFavour provided the third of his four newspaper articles.
As well, all three corresponded privately as well.
I hope that I have honoured the trust that they placed in me.
But responsibility for all errors, especially those of judgment, belongs to me alone.

Thanks also to the following.
George Luste provided keen insights into the tragedy, this early in my research; I much regret that I did not speak more with him while still I could.
Bruce Buttimore assisted in setting up the blog and suggested an important clarification.
Mike Gray loaned his two books regarding the Moffatt expedition.
Elizabeth Emge provided excerpts from the journal of participant Lanouette (her father). And she is now providing his complete journal.
Mathieu Sabourin (Library and Archives, Canada) provided a highly informative response to my request for information regarding the alleged inquest into Moffatt’s death.
The staff of the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library (University of Toronto) made exceptional efforts to assist my access to Tyrrell material.
Lee Sessions provided much needed and much appreciated advice regarding the presentation of the evidence.
Michael Pitt corresponded regarding the fatal rapids.
George Grinnell (participant) corresponded frankly regarding the Epilogue of the Sports Illustrated article. And he responded at the Forum. Foreword and Forum.
David DeMello corresponded regarding the Moffatt route from Wharton Lake to Marjorie Lake, and he posted information at Canadian Canoe Routes regarding the Marjorie-Aberdeen portage.
Les Wilcox suggested an important clarification and provided correspondence regarding the Tyrrell-Moffatt route from Wharton Lake to Marjorie Lake.
Ken McGoogan suggested a more effective introduction to the evidence of Appendix 9.
CCR’s recped pointed out an incorrect URL.

Internal URLs.

These URLS are provided for navigation within the blog.
URLs for accessing the following items from outside the blog are provided elsewhere.
Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Ancillary 10. My sources.
Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.
Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Edition of 12 March 2018.

Ancillary 9. The journal of Ed “Joe” Lanouette.

Major renovations were completed in March 2018 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 9. The journal of participant Ed “Joe” Lanouette, Moffatt’s bowperson.

In progress.

Internal URLs.

These URLS are provided for navigation within the blog.
URLs for accessing the following items from outside the blog are provided elsewhere.
Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 2. Holidays and Inquest.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Ancillary 10. My sources.
Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.
Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.

Failed attempt to publish the first version of
In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.

April 2015.
After consultation with the editor of Canoe&Kayak, I submitted the following eight items: Main text (both print and digital editions), Bibliography and five Appendices.
This version, which omitted accusers’ names, was accepted for publication.
Later, at the request of the editor, I added accusers’ names.
As well, I provided ~eight of Pessl’s photos.
June 2015.
What were to have been the print and digital editions of the Main text were posted online
http://www.canoekayak.com/canoe/in-defense-of-arthur-moffatt/#5UIXv2RETJtWMQwt.97 ,

In Defense of Arthur Moffatt (Unabridged Version)


The subtitle of both. Allan Jacobs on why the conventional wisdom about Arthur Moffatt is wrong.
Aside. The software occasionally displays material from these two URLs; if it continues to do so, I might mangle them.
18 October 2015.
All eight items were submitted in final form. No response was received.
28 January 2016.
Text of my message. Just wondering how things are going.
No response was received.
9 June 2016.
Given
that the Bibliography and none of the Appendices had not been published in any form, and
that I had received no reply to my enquiry (that of 28 January) regarding the publication status of the remaining items, and
that the contents were now hopelessly outdated by the results of my further research,
I withdrew all items from consideration for publication.
I received no response to my withdrawal notice.
In fairness, I point out that both the print and the digital versions of the main text were available online when last looked.

Ancillary 10. My sources.

Renovations continue. Thanks for your patience.

Ancillary 10. My sources.

Tyrrell material.
Items possessed.
The relevant material from the books of J B Tyrrell and J W Tyrrell,
the maps of J B Tyrrell, and
Moffatt’s two letters to J B Tyrrell.
Missing items.
My best efforts failed to obtain the following.
JBT’s response (known to have been made) to Moffatt’s first letter.
JBT’s journal (known to have been possessed by Moffatt and to differ substantially from his book).
Reference.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Participant material.
Moffatt, Arthur.
1. Edited excerpts from his journal, as provided in Sports Illustrated. Issues of 9 March 1959 Man against the barrens grounds (pp 68-76) and 16 March 1959 Danger and Sacrifice (pp 80-88).
2. Unedited excerpts provided by Pessl.
Lanouette, Ed “Joe”.
1. His full journal for 14 September 1955 and a portion for the next day.
2. The condensation (I believe it to be a faithful one) of the entry for 14 September, as published in the Sports Illustrated article (pp 85-87).
3. Private correspondence.
4. In progress. His full journal for the trip, as kindly provided by his daughter Elizabeth Emge.
LeFavour, Bruce.
1. The third (only) of his four Evening Recorder articles (1955). It is not publicly available and so did not influence the Moffatt literature prior to my mention of it in 2016.
2. Private correspondence.
Grinnell, George.
1. Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment. Canoe (1988). pp 18-21 & 56.
2. A Death on the Barrens. A True Story. Northern Books (1996).
3. A True Story of Courage and Tragedy in the Canadian Arctic. North Atlantic Books (2010). I possess it but made only superficial use of it, this to examine his version of the condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September.
I possess no evidence that the Moffatt literature made of either the 2005 or the 2010 edition.
4. His post at the blog.
5. Private correspondence (one message).
Pessl, Fred “Skip”.
1. Three Canoes. 1.46 Bold Journey. Prod. no. 474. ABC Broadcast of Monday 8 July, 1957. I possess only a summary, but decided to list it, for completeness.
2. Comments published in Kesselheim’s article 57 years Ago. Canoe & Kayak, May 2012, starting on p 46.
As best I know, the article appeared too late to influence the Moffatt literature, except for incidental use by Kingsley.
3. The Fateful 1955 Dubawnt River Trip. Nastawgan. Summer 2013. Vol 70, No 2.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/summer_13.pdf
As best I know, the article appeared too late to influence the Moffatt literature.
4. Barren Grounds. The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip. Dartmouth College Press (2014). Excerpts from his journal and that of Franck, plus comments on the previous literature.
As best I know, the book appeared too late to influence the Moffatt literature.
5. Private correspondence.
Franck, Peter.
Excerpts from his journal, as provided in Pessl’s book.

Other sources.
Mathieu Sabourin (Library and Archives, Canada) kindly responded to my request regarding Grinnell’s assertion that an inquest had been held into the death of Arthur Moffatt.

Internal URLs.

These URLS are provided for navigation within the blog.
URLs for accessing the following items from outside the blog are provided elsewhere.
Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Ancillary 10. My sources.
Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.
Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Edition of 10 April 2018.

Main text

Renovations continue. Thanks for your patience.

In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.

If everyone agrees what the story was, then it is certainly not true.
[Kenn Harper, Wilderness and Canoeing Symposium (Toronto, February 2018); paraphrased]. https://www.wcsymposium.com/sites/default/files/2018_wcs_program_v10.pdf

Introduction.

In 1955, Arthur Moffatt set out to document (by film, photos and journal) part of the barrenlands of northern Canada. I emphasise that this was not a recreational trip like that taken by most paddlers, and so I suggest that it not be judged by such standards, in particular with respect to the schedule.
Likely because documentation was readily available, Moffatt chose to repeat the central portion of the 1893 Tyrrell-Tyrrell (Joseph Burr and James Williams) expedition of the Geological Survey of Canada; this was the reach from Black Lake (on the Fond du Lac River) to Baker Lake (on the Thelon River).
It bears explicit mention that his was one of first modern trips to paddle the barrenlands; even Eric Morse’s group did not venture there until years later. Moffatt’s was certainly the first party composed entirely of those of European descent to travel any part of the Dubawnt River since 1893.

Moffatt’s preparations, and my Tyrrell sources.
To guide him, Moffatt possessed J W Tyrrell’s book, and
also J B Tyrrell’s book, his journal and his maps; as well, Moffatt had corresponded with JBT.
Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
J W Tyrrell.
I possess his book; it provides nothing of interest regarding the rapids where Moffatt died.
J B Tyrrell.
I possess his book and his maps; I lack his journal (which is known to differ from his book). All three items provide material related to the fatal rapids.
I possess also Moffatt’s two letters to JBT, but not JBT’s response to the first (which may relate to those rapids).

The events of 13 and 14 September 1955.
The following was written for those who decide to consider the evidence regarding the death of Arthur Moffatt, before they decide to judge him, before they assert that he was incompetent as so many did for 55 years.
The relevant excerpt from J B Tyrrell’s book is provided in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
The map of J B Tyrrell for the reach where Moffatt died is provided in https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893
The book and the map agree completely regarding the relevant features on the reach where Moffatt died.
Prior to Moffatt’s death on 14 September, J B Tyrrell’s rapids advice had proved so reliable that the party had experienced not one dump and but one swamp. The day before, the party had run without incident the two rapids (those with descents…of 15 and 6 feet) between Wharton Lake and the small lake, and had begun the portage of 18 chains (400 yards). The portage was completed in the morning of 14 September, and the party made the turn to the north, as shown on JBT’s map. Moffatt died on that reach, just upstream from what is now called Marjorie Lake.
JBT’s book describes that reach as a wide shallow rapid stream; no mention is made there of rapids in that reach, in particular the rapids where Moffatt died.
Participant LeFavour provided the following. His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely lunch time on 14 September, immediately prior to the running of the fatal rapids.
But there is more to the matter, for Moffatt knew there to be features of some sort below the turn to the north. He certainly possessed JBT’s journal (known to differ from his book), perhaps also JBT’s response to Moffatt’s first letter; my best efforts failed to access either.

Evidence 1 regarding the additional information.
I ask that the reader note the passage Following Tyrrell’s route in Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for 13 September.
The question. What interpretation of that passage is possible but that Moffatt had route information from Tyrrell (JB) and that he was following it?
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Unfortunately for our understanding of the circumstances that led to Moffatt’s death, the Sports Illustrated editor redacted that very passage in her/his condensation of Moffatt’s last journal entry. [SI article; bottom of the right column on p 82]

Evidence 2 regarding the additional information.
I ask that the reader note also the passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. [SI article, middle of p 85]
Opinion. This is a faithful condensation of the relevant passage in Lanouette’s journal entry for 14 September. Reference. Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
The question. What interpretation of that passage is possible but that J B Tyrrell’s advice had proved to be inaccurate?
Unfortunately for our understanding of the circumstances that led to Moffatt’s death, Grinnell redacted that very three-sentence passage This surprised us…of the first rapids and replaced it with an ellipsis.
It is perhaps relevant that this is the sole change made by Grinnell to the condensation.

Concern 1.
Both the SI editor and Grinnell redacted evidence that Moffatt had been misled by J B Tyrrell’s advice regarding the rapids where he died.

Concern 2.
The SI editor and Grinnell had certainly corresponded, as evinced for example by Grinnell’s contributions to the Appendix of the SI article. I possess also evidence that had met through intermediaries, possibly in person.

Conclusions.
The sole cause of Moffatt’s death was incorrect advice provided by J B Tyrrell, whose advice had proved worthy of his trust over the previous 11 weeks.
The SI editor and Grinnell redacted the corresponding evidence.
Every assertion regarding the cause of his death is false.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Aside.
An open question is whether the river had changed in the 62 years between the Tyrrell and Moffatt trips. But what if they had? Surely Moffatt would still have been justified in acting as he did.

Comments regarding the accusatory literature.
It bears explicit mention that Moffatt was unable to defend himself.
Over the 55 years from the first accusation (1959) to the last known one (2014), in all those many publications, in not one instance was supporting evidence provided. That is, the entire accusatory literature consists of nothing but assertions.
In many cases, the accuser failed to identify a source, even implicitly. Indeed, all too often the source can have been only a fertile imagination.
Many accusations were not only false but also knowingly made.
Especially egregious examples, in the matter of the food supply alone, are that Moffatt died due to lack of food, and that the caribou were long gone. Perhaps one rebuttal will suffice: At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party had so much caribou on board that it had no more need to hunt.
Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

The true accusations.
Several dozen accusations were made in the 55 years of the Moffatt literature; one person made more than 20.
In over three years spent researching the Moffatt tragedy, I found only five true assertions (plus one possibly true).
Assertion 1. The three spare paddles had been left behind in Stony Rapids.
Response. They were delivered the very next day.
Assertion 2. The party did not take a radio.
Response. Moffatt requested, but was refused, permission to carry a radio; moreover, possession of one would not have averted his death.
Assertion 3. There was a dispute regarding the sugar supply.
Response. The matter was resolved on 29 July.
Assertion 4. There was possibly a dispute regarding the supply of powdered milk.
Response. If indeed there existed one, it was resolved by 22 August.
Assertion 5. Moffatt’s bowl was larger than the others.
Response. Beginning on 22 August, he used a bowl of the same size as the others.
Assertion 6. The rapids where Moffatt died had not been scouted.
I refer the reader to the previous paragraph.

The evidence of the participants.

Opinion. In the first instance, the reader’s trust should be placed
in the evidence provided in the writings of the participants, rather than
in the representations of Moffatt’s accusers.
I caution though
that the contents of the Sports Illustrated article (I refer to what are alleged to be excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, explicitly not to the condensation of Lanouette’s journal) are not to be trusted, and
that no content of Grinnell’s publications is to be trusted.

The evidence of Moffatt .
1. Items alleged to be excerpts from Moffatt’s journal were provided in the Sports Illustrated article (1959).
Opinions.
1. Given that the SI editor redacted the key passage Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September, I trust no content of the SI article. More generally, I do not trust that any entry alleged to be an excerpt from Moffatt’s journal is indeed such. Neither do I trust that any such entry is faithful. Should a particular entry indeed be faithful, I question whether it is representative.
The possibility occurred to me that the editor had set out to construct a case against Moffatt.
2. Pessl’s book (2014) provides several excerpts from Moffatt’s journal. As well, Pessl kindly provided more excerpts, on request. I have learned to trust everything provided by Pessl.

The evidence of Lanouette .
The edited excerpt (I assess it to be a faithful one) from his journal for 14 September was published in the SI article (1959). This evidence went unmentioned in the Moffatt literature, with the unfortunate exception of Grinnell’s book, as documented below.
As well, Lanouette and I have corresponded privately.
Aside. His full journal is being transcribed by his daughter Elizabeth Emge; when complete, it will be published both here and at Canadian Canoe Routes.
Opinion. I trust all evidence of Lanouette.

The evidence of LeFavour.
His four articles of 1955 are even now not publicly available and so did not influence the Moffatt literature prior to my efforts; but he kindly provided the crucial third article, which documents the events of 13 and 14 September. And we corresponded privately.
For brevity, I did not mention this evidence above.
Opinion. I trust all evidence of LeFavour.

The evidence of Grinnell.
Unfortunately for Moffatt’s reputation, Grinnell chose to redact what I believe to the key passage
This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from the version provided on page 202 of his book (1996 edition). The same passage was redacted also from the 2010 edition.
To my mind, this passage evinces that Moffatt had some knowledge of the rapids where he died; it is perhaps no great stretch to suggest that Moffatt believed them to be only riffles.
Given this redaction alone (other evidence leads me to the same conclusion), I trust nothing written by Grinnell, explicitly his Canoe article of 1988 and all three editions (1996, 2005 and 2010) of his book.
The possibility occurred to me that Grinnell had set out to construct a case against Moffatt.

The evidence of Pessl.
1. Only incidental mention was made of his contribution to Kesselheim’s article of 2012.
2. His Nastawgan article (2013) appeared too late to influence the Moffatt literature.
3. Also too late to influence that literature became available the excerpts (which I trust completely) from his journal, as provided by Pessl in his book (2014) which contains also evidence of participant Franck.
Opinion. Again, I trust all evidence of Pessl, and through him that of Franck.

Summary.
Given
that the evidence of Lanouette (that of the condensation of his journal) was either overlooked or severely edited, and
that the publications of Pessl (his book contains also the evidence of Franck’s journal) appeared too late to influence the literature, and
than the evidence of LeFavour (his third article of 1955) is even now inaccessible,
it follows that the evidentiary basis (defined as the publications of participants) of the entire Moffatt literature (primary and secondary alike) consists of only three publications.
1. The edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal as provided in the Sports Illustrated article (1959).
2. Grinnell’s article (1988).
3. Grinnell’s book (1996).

Conclusion.
Given
that the entire accusatory literature has its sole basis in the these three publications, and
that the evidence has caused me to trust, in the first instance, no content of any of the three,
I am led to conclude that the entire accusatory literature, primary and secondary alike, has no more substance than a house of cards.

The accusations and the evidence.
Accusations regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death appeared first in 1959 and continued to at least 2014.
It seems necessary to point out that Moffatt was unable to respond to any accusation. That is, Moffatt’s accusers had free rein; let the reader decide whether they exercised it.
Over those 55 years, the cause was asserted (in not one case was a source explicitly identified, in not one case was supporting evidence provided) to be one or more of the following.
Accusation 1a.
The Moffatt party had lost sense of reality.
Accusation 1b. Some members of the party had succumbed to a sort of delusion. They felt they were in paradise.
The evidence. Appendix 1. Reality and Delusion.
Accusation 2. The party took many holidays early, forcing it to take chances later in order to escape the onset of winter. Associated is the false assertion that an inquest had been held into Moffatt’s death.
The evidence. Appendix 3. Equipment.
Accusation 4.
The party lacked experience. Moffatt was a poor leader.
The evidence. Appendix 4. Experience.
Accusation 5.
The early pace was plodding, forcing the party to take chances later.
The evidence. Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.
Accusation 6.
Examples. The party lacked (sic) food. The caribou were long gone (sic).
The evidence. Appendix 6. Food.
Accusation 7.
The party lacked a schedule.
The evidence. Appendix 7. Schedule.
Accusation 8.
The fatal rapids were run in desperate haste in order to escape the onset of winter. Moffatt took the ultimate chance by running them without a scout.
The evidence.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
General reference regarding the accusations.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Conclusion.
Arthur Moffatt, who was unable to defend himself, was falsely accused for 55 years, in cases knowingly.

Timeline of the primary Moffatt literature.

Items listed below include the publications of the trip participants, the publications of Moffatt’s primary accusers, and two personal items (a reference to my first attempt to address the accusations, plus the announcement of the opening of the blog to public view).
Items of what I call the secondary Moffatt literature are listed in the corresponding part of the Bibliography.
The accusations themselves are addressed in Ancillary 1. Accusations.

1955.
Publication of participant Bruce LeFavour’s four articles in the Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY, 27 through 30 December (1955).
The articles are not accessible to the public. I possess only the third (thanks to him), which provides evidence regarding both the fatal rapids and the food on board on 14 September.
If the reader will excuse a comment. As best I know, no Moffatt accuser was aware of any of LeFavour’s articles.

1959.
Publication of the Sports Illustrated article.
Part 1, 9 March. Man against the Barren Grounds. [pp 68-76].
Part 2, 16 March. Danger and Sacrifice. [pp 80-88].
Reader responses to both parts were posted at
http://www.si.com/vault/1959/04/06/604104/19th-hole-the-readers-take-over
The editor had full access to Moffatt’s journal, edited excerpts from which comprise much of the article.
Other contents include Moffatt’s prospectus for the trip, photographs of the participants and thumbnails of them, a map of the route, the New York Times article regarding arrival in Baker Lake, a condensation of Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy, and an Epilogue (which contains major contributions from participant Grinnell).

1978.
Publication of the book of Alex Inglis.
Northern Vagabond. The Life and Career of J B Tyrrell – the Man Who Conquered the Canadian North. McClelland and Stewart. (1978).
If the reader will excuse a comment. The book went unnoticed in the subsequent literature.

1988.
Publication of participant Grinnell’s article.
Canoe. July 1988, pp 18-21 and 56.

Undated assertions made prior to 1996.
The only known source regarding these assertions is George Luste’s comments in Grinnell’s book [pp 293&294].
If the reader will excuse two comments. I possess
no information regarding when the assertions were made, or their authors, or their source/s, and
no evidence that the assertions influenced the later literature.

1996.
Publication of participant Grinnell’s book.
Grinnell, George J. A Death on the Barrens. A True Story.
Recently, I purchased the 2010 edition; I have not looked at the 2005 edition.
If the reader will excuse three comments.
I agree with Pessl [private correspondence] that the 2010 edition differs significantly from that of 1996.
As best I know, the Moffatt literature is based entirely on the 1996 edition, and so all my comments in the following are based on it alone.
Opinion. The book is the most important publication of the accusatory literature.

1996.
Publication of reviews of Grinnell’s book by James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald.
Che-Mun Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11.

2000.
Publication of two short articles regarding the Moffatt trip.
Peake, Michael.
Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000.
1. 1955: A Tale of Two Trips. p 4.
http://www.canoe.ca/che-mun/99two.html
2. The Tragic Trips…1955 – The Moffat Dubawnt River trip. pp 5&6.

2005.
Publication of the two Mahler-Thum articles, identical at first glance.
1. Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
2. Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm

2012.
1. Publication of Kesselheim’s article in Canoe&Kayak; it contains contributions from participant Pessl. Follow-up material was published in the issues of July 2012 (p 14) and August 2012 (p 12).
2. Publication of Kingsley’s first online article.
In a most dreadful sort of paradise. Up Here. May 2012; pp 88, 90 & 91.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/looking-back-May-2012-Moffatt-pdf-.pdf

2013.
1. Publication of Kingsley’s second online article.
Back and Beyond. Lake. Issue 6 (2013); pp 12-14.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Lake_Back-and-Beyond_2011pdf.pdf
If the reader will excuse a comment. Kingsley was aware of Pessl material provided in Kesselheim’s article (2012), but made only incidental reference to it either here or in the book of 2014.
2. Publication of participant Pessl’s article.
The Fateful 1955 Dubawnt River Trip. Nastawgan. Summer 2013. Vol 70, No 2.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/summer_13.pdf

2014.
1. Publication of Kingsley’s book.
Paddle North. Adventure, Resilience and Renewal in the Arctic Wild. Greystone Books, Vancouver/Berkeley (2014).
Moffatt material is confined to pages 185-189 and 220.
I possess no evidence that Kingsley knew of either Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) or his book (2014).
2. Publication of Pessl’s book.
Barren Grounds. The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip. Dartmouth College Press, Hanover, NH (2014).
Pessl provides copious amounts of new evidence, notes on trip planning, excerpts from his journal and that of fellow participant Peter Franck, a comparison with the progress of the Tyrrell-Tyrrell trip of 1893, an Epilogue and a list of nontravel days.
I possess no evidence that Pessl knew of any Kingsley publication.
3. Pessl’s talk (the Second Annual Luste Lecture, 13 November; unpublished) at the Canadian Canoe Museum.
http://www.canoemuseum.ca/blog/2014/11/13/highlights-of-the-2014-luste-lecture
4. Publication of my Nastawgan article (Winter issue, 2014, pp 16-19). It contains a review of that Pessl talk, plus related material.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/winter_2014.pdf

2015 and 2016.
Failed attempt on my part to publish the first version of In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.
Reference. Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.

19 September 2016.
Announcement at Canadian Canoe Routes
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=45362
of the opening of my blog In Defence of Arthur Moffatt to public view.
A few days earlier, I had informed several interested parties that the blog was open for viewing.

The evidentiary basis of the Moffatt literature.

Definition. The evidentiary basis consists of the publications of the trip participants.
Item 1. The Sports Illustrated article.
Issues of 9 March 1959 Man against the barrens grounds (pp 68-76) and 16 March 1959 Danger and Sacrifice (pp 80-88).
The evidentiary material consists of selections (in cases edited significantly) from Moffatt’s journal,
plus a condensation (I assess it to be a faithful one) of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September 1955.
Item 2. Grinnell’s article Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment.
Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.
Item 3. Grinnell’s book A Death on the Barrens. A True Story. (1996) The editions of 2005 and 2010 played no known role in the Moffatt literature.
Item 4. Pessl’s contribution to Kesselheim’s Canoe & Kayak article (2012).
Summary.
Given that Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) was published too late to influence the Moffatt literature, as was his book (2014), which contains also evidence of Franck,
one sees that the entire evidentiary basis of the Moffatt literature consists of three items:
the edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, as provided in the SI article (1959), Grinnell’s article (1988) and
Grinnell’s book (1996).
Comments.
The next three paragraphs examine some assertions made in these primary sources.
I note that much of the accusatory literature is not based on these sources, but rather on previous publications of that literature.

The Sports Illustrated article.
This is the second most influential item of the accusatory literature; only Grinnell’s book (1996) surpasses it in this respect.
It will prove significant that the SI editor had full access to Moffatt’s journal.

Item 1. The food-related assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
Assertion 1. Food was becoming the question now. [top left of p 76, date 8/9 August].
Assertion 2. provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. [bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August]
The evidence regarding provisions.
I suggest it to be no great insight that provisions dwindle as they are consumed.
But the SI editor failed to mention that a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache, on 7 September, as documented in her/his own article! 24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy…We took the stuff…. [SI article, p 82]
The evidence regarding the caribou.
1. Moffatt’s journal (possessed in full by the SI editor), documents that the first caribou was shot on 5 August, at most four days before the editor’s assertion Food was becoming the question now.
Unfortunately for Moffatt’s reputation, the SI editor made no mention of this event.
2. The second caribou was shot on 11 August, as documented in both Moffatt’s journal and the SI article.
3. As documented in Moffatt’s journal, three caribou were shot after 16/17 August, the date of the editor’s assertion that game grows scarce; the dates are 20 August, 26 August and 5 September.
Unfortunately for Moffatt’s reputation, the SI editor made no mention of these events.
4. Evidence not known to the editor: On the day of Moffatt’s death, the party had so much caribou meat on board that it had no more need to hunt; and it caught a 20 lb lake trout a few hours before Moffatt died. [LeFavour].
The evidence regarding other food from the land.
Moffatt’s journal documents also
that many ptarmigan were killed,
that many fish were caught, and
that blueberries and mushrooms were harvested.
Unfortunately for Moffatt’s reputation, the SI editor made next to no mention of these items.
Reference regarding the food supply
Appendix 6. Food.

Item 2. The schedule-related assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
Assertion 1. The Moffatt party was a week behind…schedule [SI article, upper right column on page 76; dated 8 August]
Assertion 2. Later, the party was nine days behind schedule. [bottom right of p 76; appearing between the Moffatt journal entries for 15 and 16 August].
Interpretation. The SI editor suggests
either that the Moffatt party had a day-by-day schedule,
or that it was following the day-by-day track of the Tyrrell party (1893).
Response. As anyone who has paddled there knows all too well, a day-by-day schedule is not possible for travel in the barrenlands. The weather, especially the wind, forbids travel on many days. In particular, the Moffatt party had no-day-by-day schedule; and it had not even one waypoint to be reached by a specified date. Indeed, even the Tyrrell party of 1893 was unable to travel on occasion.
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.

Item 3. The rapids-related assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
Assertion 1. The Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds… In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August].
Assertion 2. Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [top right of p 82, 7/8 September].
Response 1. Neither item is encumbered by any evidence, particularly that of a participant.
Response 2. No member of the party took chances at any time, most particularly on the day that Moffatt died.
Response 3. The only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died.
Conclusion. Both assertions are false.
References.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Item 4. The redaction made by the Sports Illustrated editor.
Worthy of explicit mention is that the editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for 13 September.
What interpretation of that phrase is possible but
first that Moffatt had obtained route advice from J B Tyrrell and
second that he was following Tyrrell’s advice?
And what interpretation of the redaction is possible but that the editor intended to conceal this evidence?
Reference. Particulars 2 and 3 of Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Conclusion.
I trust no content of the Sports Illustrated article that is not supported by evidence from a credible source.

Grinnell’s Canoe article.
Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment. Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.
1. The article is the source of the accusation that the Moffatt party had lost sense of reality early and so later had to race down the river to catchup on time.
Reference. Appendix 1. Reality.
2. Together with his book, Grinnell’s article is the source of accusations that the Moffatt party had taken an excessive number of holidays early and so later had to race down the river, in desperate haste to reach Baker Lake before the onset of winter.
As well, Grinnell falsely asserted that an inquest had been held into Moffatt’s death.
Reference. Grinnell’s book (1996).
Opinion. This is the most influential item of all the accusatory literature.
This paragraph would grow to unreasonable length were I to document all my objections to the contents of the book. Let me content myself to provide here only an item regarding Moffatt’s death.
1. Lanouette’s full journal for the day of the tragedy is provided in
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
2. The rapids part of that journal for 14 September is provided in Particular 4 of Appendix 9 (The fatal rapids). Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
3. The Sports Illustrated article provided what I consider to be a faithful condensation of that article [SI article, p 85].
The rapids part of the SI condensation is provided in Particular 5 of Appendix 9.
4. On page 202 of his book (1996 edition), Grinnell provided a version of the SI condensation. The rapids part is provided in Particular 6 of Appendix 9.
5. On comparing the original version (Particular 5 of Appendix 9) with Grinnell’s version of the condensation (Particular 6) one sees that the two are identical but for one difference.
The sole difference is that Grinnell redacted (and replaced with an ellipsis) the three-sentence passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from the condensation of Lanouette’s journal [Sports Illustrated, p 85, middle of right column].
What conclusion can be drawn from that passage but that Moffatt had reason to believe that there were no rapids worthy of the name in the reach where he died, namely the reach between the portage (that completed in the morning of 14 September) and Marjorie Lake?
And what conclusion can be drawn from the redaction but that Grinnell intended to conceal evidence that Moffatt had been misled (by J B Tyrrell) into running the fatal rapids without a scout?
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Conclusion. I trust no content of Grinnell’s book that is not supported by evidence from a credible source.

Concerns.
1. To some extent, Grinnell had cooperated in the writing of the SI article. For example, he provided material (for example death from hypothermia) for the editor’s Appendix An Epilogue to Tragedy.
That is, the SI editor and Grinnell had cooperated to some extent in the writing of that article. Indeed, I possess evidence that they had met through intermediaries, perhaps in person.
2. In neither his article (1988) nor his book (1996) did Grinnell express concern with the representations of the SI editor.
3. Both the SI editor and Grinnell redacted what I consider to be exculpatory evidence regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death.

ALLAN Repetitious.
MOVE the following

The accusations and the evidence.

The nine Appendices (Internal URLs are provided below) hold all the evidence known to me related to the corresponding primary accusations, plus some of my responses. Full responses are provided in Ancillary 1. Accusations.

The evidence regarding Moffatt’s death on 14 September 1955.
Because of the overriding importance of the matter, I provide here some evidence regarding the rapids where Arthur Moffatt died, then some accusations made of someone unable to respond.

Introduction.
Prior to 13 September, the Moffatt party had gotten down a dangerous river without one dump, and with but one swamp. That success was due in large part to the rapids advice provided by J B Tyrrell.
On 13 September, the two rapids immediately below Wharton Lake were run without incident; the party then began the portage of 400 yards (18 chains). These features are provided on JBT’s map.
On 14 September, the party completed the portage and continued downstream. Only when it was too late did Moffatt realise that Tyrrell’s advice had failed him that day. His canoe and a second overturned and he died of hypothermia an hour or so later.
Reference 1. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893
Moffatt died in rapids just above what is now called Marjorie Lake; the reader will not find those rapids on Tyrrell’s map.
Reference 2. Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
The following provides some of the evidence of the participants.

Item 1. The evidence of Moffatt.
The evidence of Lanouette, Moffatt’s bowperson.
Item 1. The SI condensation of Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy. [SI article, pp 85&86, 1959].
Aside. The evidence of Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt convinces me that the SI condensation is a faithful one.
For present purposes, the key item in the condensation is the passage
This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
What is one to make of this passage but
first that the party had prior information (it came from J B Tyrrell) regarding the rapids where Moffatt died, and
second that that information had proved incorrect?
That is, I suggest that the passage is exculpatory.
Unfortunately, that passage went unmentioned by every Moffatt accuser, in particular the SI editor, in whose article the passage was published.

Item 2. What are alleged to be excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, as published in the Sports Illustrated article (1959).
Aside. My best efforts failed to obtain full access to Moffatt’s journal.
The SI article does indeed contain excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, but many appear to be of the little-red-fruit variety; that is they appear to have been selected to make points detrimental to Moffatt.
More importantly, some excerpts from the journal were edited, in cases severely. The most important instance was the editor’s redaction of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September. What interpretation of this phrase is possible but that Moffatt had route information from Tyrrell and was following it on 14 September when he decided to run the fatal rapids without a scout?
A request. I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s motivation in making that redaction.
Conclusion.
I am unable to trust any content of the Sports Illustrated article that is not verified by a source known to be reliable.

Items 3 and 4 are
Grinnell’s article in Canoe&Kayak, pp 18-21&56 (1988), and
Grinnell’s book A Death on the Barrens, Northern Books (1996); the editions of 2005 and 2010 appear not to figure in the literature.
In his book, Grinnell redacted the three-sentence passage mentioned above, namely
This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. from Lanouette’s journal for the day of Moffatt’s death.
Again, what is one to make of this passage but
first that the party had prior information (it came from J B Tyrrell) regarding the rapids where Moffatt died, and
second that that information had proved incorrect?
That is, I suggest that the passage is exculpatory.
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on Grinnell’s motivation in redacting that passage.
Conclusion.
I trust no content of Grinnell’s book that is not verified by a source known to be reliable.

Reliable sources.
I trust the publications of the Tyrrell brothers, J B Tyrrell’s maps, Moffatt’s letters to J B Tyrrell, excerpts from Moffatt’s journal (but only as provided by Pessl, explicitly not those provided in the SI article), Pessl’s book (which contains also the evidence of Franck), and the publications of (and correspondence with) Lanouette and LeFavour.

RESUME HERE

The information available to Moffatt.
As I document in Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources, Moffatt possessed J W Tyrrell’s book, plus J B Tyrrell’s maps, his book and his journal.
Moffatt possessed also evidence regarding the rapids where he died; I describe that evidence below.
A request.
In view of the Sports Illustrated editor’s assertion that the fatal rapids were run in desperate haste, I ask that the reader reflect on the following items and their significance regarding Moffatt’s death.
1. The only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died.
2. On 13 September, the party ran without incident the first two rapids below Wharton Lake.
3. The next obstacle was a set of rapids that was portaged by the Tyrrell party in 1893. The Moffatt party completed the portage around those rapids in the morning of 14 September, a few hours before Moffatt’s death.
4. The rapids where Moffatt died are not mentioned in JWT’s book, JBT’s book, or JBT’s maps.
It is known, however, that Moffatt possessed some information regarding those rapids. The source can have been only
either JBT’s journal (aka his report)
or JBT’s response to Moffatt’s letter of 14 December 1954,
neither of which I have been able to access.

The evidence of participant LeFavour.
Referring to the reach below the portage (completed in the morning of 14 September), and so to the rapids where Moffatt died, participant LeFavour provided the following: the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids” [LeFavour article, 1955].
Summary.
Moffatt knew there to be rapids below the portage, but he had cause to believe them to be easy.
Some readers might then conclude that he was justified in running the fatal rapids without a scout.

The evidence of Moffatt’s bowperson Lanouette.
The complete (uncondensed) journal entry of Lanouette for 14 September is provided in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Pages 85-87 of the Sports Illustrated article (1959) provide what I consider to be a faithful condensation of that entry. The relevant passage from that condensation:
After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious. We didn’t even haul over to shore, as we usually did.
[SI article, p 85]
For present purposes, the important passage is the following: In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real
beginning of the first rapids.

Remarks.
What interpretation of this passage is possible but
first that the Moffatt party had prior information regarding rapids in the reach above Marjorie Lake, and
second that that information had proved incorrect?
To me, the significance of this passage is the evidence is that Lanouette and Moffatt were surprised by the sudden appearance of the rapids on the horizon.
Conclusion.
J B Tyrrell had informed Moffatt, at least implicitly, that were no rapids of significance in the reach where he died.

Grinnell’s version of the relevant part of the condensation of Lanouette’s journal.
After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. …
At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious. We didn’t even haul over to shore, as we usually did.
[Grinnell book, p 202]

Comparison of the two versions.
One sees that Grinnell redacted, and replaced by an ellipsis, the passage
This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids
from his otherwise complete version of the SI condensation of participant Lanouette’s journal for 14 September.
A request.
I ask the reader to consider what motivated Grinnell to redacted this passage (and only it), especially the surprised comment), if not to conceal evidence that Moffatt had been incorrectly advised by J B Tyrrell.

The redaction made by the Sports Illustrated editor.
As I document elsewhere, the editor redacted the passage Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for 13 September.
A request.
I ask that the reader consider
first what interpretation of this passage is possible but that Moffatt had route information from J B Tyrrell and was following it?
second what interpretation of the redaction is possible but that the editor intended to conceal this evidence?

A coincidence?
1. The Appendix of the Sports Illustrated article (1959),
especially Grinnell’s remarks (first published 37 years later, in 1996) regarding death due to hypothermia, the traverse of Aberdeen Lake, the encounter with the Inuit family, etc,
evinces that Grinnell and the SI editor had been in written contact (at least) before the article was published.
2. As well, Grinnell had spoken in person with SI staff (perhaps with the editor her/himself) as the article was being prepared. [Private correspondence, 21 December 2016].
3. Is it a coincidence that both the SI editor and Grinnell redacted evidence regarding Moffatt’s decision to run the fatal rapids without a scout?

The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
1. …the Moffatt party races against winter …In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated, bottom of right column, p 76]
2. Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [Sports Illustrated, top of right column, p 82]
Comment. Given that no evidence was ever presented in support of these accusations, the paddling community could easily have rejected them out-of-hand. Unfortunately, the very opposite occurred; the accusations were accepted in toto, without written dissent as best I know.
Question.
Who is so credulous as to believe that (only a few hours after completing that the portage documented by J B Tyrrell) Moffatt, in suddenly acquired desperate haste, chose to take the ultimate chance by running those rapids without a scout?

The secondary accusations
are believed to have been inspired by those of the SI editor.
1. …Moffatt died of exposure after they dumped in a large rapid they did not scout. [Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000].
2. The men talked less and took more risks. On September 14th,… all three boats plunged over two sets of waterfalls the paddlers hadn’t bothered to scout…. [Kingsley book, top of p 189, 2014]

Response to the rapids parts of these four assertions.
I expect that most river paddlers have run rapids without scouting them. Indeed, that act is so common as to have acquired a title, namely making a blind probe. Countless parties have made blind probes and have dumped as a result. Indeed, two of Moffatt’s primary accusers (James Murphy and Bob Thum) had the courage and the integrity to state that they had done so.
Conclusion.
If a dump resulting from a blind probe is proof of incompetence, then Murphy and Thum are incompetent, as are perhaps many reading this.

But Arthur Moffatt did not make a blind probe!
As documented above, he had been informed by J B Tyrrell that there were no significant rapids in the reach remaining above Marjorie Lake, and so he led the way down them, without a scout, to his death.

A request. I ask that the reader reflect on the light that the evidence of Lanouette and LeFavour sheds on the SI editor’s assertions, repeated for the reader’s convenience.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [Sports Illustrated, top of right column, p 82] and
…the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds …In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated, bottom of right column, p 76]
Further, given that the evidence of Lanouette was provided in the SI article itself, I ask whether the SI editor had read her/his own article.

The evidence of George Luste regarding the fatal rapids.
Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, p 284].
Not one accuser (all of whom, save the SI editor, are known to have accessed Grinnell’s book) in the matter of Moffatt’s death mentioned this evidence of Luste, even though most of them used material in Grinnell’s book in making their accusations of Moffatt.
Worthy of explicit mention here are Grinnell himself and James Murphy (in what he alleged to be a review of Grinnell’s book).

Comments regarding the Moffatt literature.

From its inception in 1959 to and including 2014, the accusatory literature consists of little but assertions, opinion pieces, and copy-cat versions of previous accusations.
In not one of several dozen publications of that literature was supporting evidence provided, even a citation.
Accusations were accepted and promulgated, indeed embellished, without thought to whether they were true, indeed without thought to whether they were credible.
Exculpatory evidence was ignored; indeed, it was redacted on two documented occasions.
Qualifying evidence was omitted.
Evidence was misrepresented.
Fabrications were represented as evidence.
All too many assertions are untruths made knowingly.
The little red fruit was picked repeatedly.
The basis for some accusations lies only in the imagination of the defamer.
All this of someone unable to defend himself.

The cause of Moffatt’s death

was none of those alleged by so many over 55 years.
1. No member of the party lost…sense of reality. No member of the party succumbed to a sort of delusion.
Appendix 1. Reality and Delusion.
2. The party did not take too many holidays early in the trip, forcing it to race later in order to catchup on time. As well, no inquest was held into the death of Arthur Moffatt.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
4. The party was not inexperienced; the leadership was not poor.
Appendix 4. Experience.
5. The party did not race down the river in order to escape the onset of winter.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
6. Arthur Moffatt did not die due to lack of food. The caribou were not long gone.
Appendix 6. Food.
7. Arthur Moffatt did not die due to lack of schedule. Eleven independent sources attest the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
8. The fatal rapids were not run in desperate haste. Moffatt did not take the ultimate chance in running them.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Summary.

After presenting every accusation known to have been made over those 55 years, I exposed each of them to the light of the evidence of the participants, as follows.

Source 1.
Excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article (1959).
Cautions.
(a) Some excerpts appear to have been selected to make points detrimental to Moffatt.
(b) Others were severely edited.
(c) Items alleged/suggested to be excerpts have no evidentiary basis in his journal.
(d) Evidence that I believe to be exculpatory was omitted.
Example. Five caribou were shot, not one.
(e) Evidence that I believe to be exculpatory was redacted.
Example. Moffatt’s comment Following Tyrrell’s route, made in his journal for 13 September, the day before his death.
(f) Assertions were made that have no basis in any evidence of Moffatt’s journal or any other trusted source.
Example. The Moffatt party was nine days behind schedule.
Conclusion.
I trust no content of the SI article that is not confirmed by a source known to be reliable.

Source 2.
Excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl (ever helpful).
Conclusion.
The evidence leads me to conclude that Pessl’s excerpts are both fair and representative.

Source 3. LeFavour.
(a) His third article (1955). I lack access to the other three.
(b) Private correspondence.
Conclusion.
I trust both sources.

Source 4. Grinnell’s article (1988).
His assertions regarding holidays and the inquest into Moffatt’s death are addressed in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt and private correspondence.
Conclusion.
I trust everything written by Lanouette.

Source 6. Pessl.
Pessl material provided in Kesselheim’s Canoe article (2012).
His Nastawgan article (2013).
His book (2014), which contains also excerpts from Franck’s journal.
Private correspondence, 2014-2017.
Conclusion.
I trust everything written by Pessl.

Reminder of the true assertions.
In more than three years of research into Moffatt’s death, I found at most six true assertions to have been made in the 55 years of the accusatory literature.
Assertion 1. The three spare paddles had been left behind in Stony Rapids.
Response. They were delivered the very next day.
Assertion 2. The party did not take a radio.
Response. Moffatt requested, but was refused, permission to carry a radio; moreover, possession of one would not have averted his death.
Assertion 3. There was a dispute regarding the sugar supply.
Response. The matter was resolved on 29 July.
Assertion 4. There was possibly a dispute regarding the supply of powdered milk.
Response. If indeed there existed one, it was resolved by 22 August.
Assertion 5. Moffatt’s bowl was larger than the others.
Response. Beginning on 22 August, he used a bowl of the same size as the others.
Assertion 6. The rapids where Moffatt died had not been scouted.

Conclusion.
Perhaps it bears explicit mention that Moffatt was unable to respond to any accusation made of him over those 55 years.
Perhaps testing the reader’s patience, I repeat that (with the exception of the assertions discussed in the previous paragraph) the entire accusatory literature has no more substance than a house of cards.
By the standards of a civilised and intelligent society, Moffatt is therefore innocent, and so I say that
Moffatt’s incompetence is nothing but a myth.
And a myth, even one presented as fact by so many over so many years as to become generally perceived as fact, no matter how frequently it is stated, no matter who states it, remains nothing but a myth.
More specifically, the myth of Moffatt’s incompetence is a conglomerate of the myths addressed in the Appendices 1 through 9.
Reference. Ancillary 1. Accusations.

Summary.
Until the appearance of Pessl’s evidence (and so that of Franck) every person (perhaps a score of them) who wrote about the matter got wrong the cause of Moffatt’s death.

How did it go so terribly wrong,
that Moffatt was falsely accused for 55 years?
Opinion.
Assertions were accepted as evidence. They were passed on, indeed embellished, without thought to whether they had a basis in evidence, even without thought to whether they were credible.
The rumour mill ground away. Gossip, credulity and gullibility reigned supreme.
Evidence refuting accusations went unmentioned.
alternative facts made a significant contribution.
Over those 55 years, not one accuser accepted the responsibility to examine the evidence before joining the assault on Moffatt, who was unable to respond.
Question.
Did a dead person, indeed a fellow paddler, not deserve better?

Personal reflections.
Moffatt did not paddle the Dubawnt in order to build his self-esteem by proving himself to himself or to anyone else. An American pacifist who volunteered to serve as an ambulance driver (in the British Eighth Army) at the very front of the battles in Africa and Italy has no need to prove anything to anyone.
Rather, Moffatt set out to document the barrenlands by means of film, photos and journals. Perhaps he went also to experience the barrens, to immerse himself in it, to understand it at least in part, to appreciate it. Perhaps he had hoped to establish himself as a wilderness writer. Perhaps he already had the idea of protecting the barrens. Perhaps he took the trip in part out of respect for the wilderness.
Whatever his motivation, Moffatt was the very antithesis of the conquer-the-wilderness types, the ego-trippers, the self-promoters, the peak-baggers, the river-baggers, in short all those go into the wild with something to prove. He would never have said The real adventure pits man against nature, as alleged in the Sports Illustrated article [top of p 71]. In private correspondence, Pessl confirmed that such a comment is totally out of character for Moffatt; he referred me to the following passage from Grinnell’s book. How ridiculous to “assault a mountain”! How pretentious to plant a flag! How arrogant to stand on top for fifteen minutes and talk of “conquest!” [Grinnell book, p 19]. A similar remark was made in Grinnell’s article [lower left column, p 20]. In both instances, the context was a conversation about the then recent ascent of Everest.
Moffatt was the very antithesis of Bob Thum, who provided the following motivation for his Dubawnt trip of 1966. Moffatt is precisely why we took the trip…I thought experienced trippers could cover Tyrrell’s route safely and skillfully, which we did. [Down a Dead Man’s River, Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4. http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf If I may, I suggest that the Thum party covered Tyrrell’s route safely and skillfully in large part because Thum knew the rapids where Moffatt died to be exceptionally dangerous. More generally, such courage, such grace, to defame a dead man.
Comment. I did my best, or close to it, but Arthur Moffatt would have defended himself much better, had he been able to do so.
Opinions.
Arthur Moffatt deserves our respect.
He and his family did not deserve the false, often abusive, accusations made over 55 years by so many, especially by fellow paddlers.

Suggestions.
Those wishing to learn more about the trip and the tragedy might begin with Pessl’s book.
Pessl, Fred (Skip). Barren Grounds. The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip. Dartmouth College Press (2014).
With all primary accusations shown to have no basis in the evidence, the way is clear for a new chapter in the Moffatt literature, namely an extended appreciation of him. Such would be rather late (he died sixty years ago), but perhaps someone will take on the job.
Perhaps multiple retractions are in order.

A little about Arthur Moffatt, the person.
First of all, he was not the bungling, incompetent fool that so many so successfully portrayed him to be for 55 years.
From the little that I know of him, he was a thoughtful, decent, responsible, indeed admirable, being.
(a) Arthur Moffatt was born in 1919, the son of a stable worker on a Long Island estate. At 17, he’d paddled the Albany River in Northern Ontario alone, 500 miles from Sioux Lookout to Hudson’s Bay. He attended Dartmouth College—his father’s employer paid his tuition—and immediately after graduating in 1941 (Interjection. Grinnell’s article gives 1939), he joined the American Field Service, a volunteer ambulance corps attached to the British Eighth Army. A committed pacifist, Moffatt witnessed some of the bloodiest campaigns of World War II, but never carried a weapon. [Pessl, as reported by Kesselheim, Alan. Canoe & Kayak, May 2012, starting on p 46.]
(b) … he joined the British Eighth Army in Africa, which is notable for two reasons: one, Moffatt was an American not British, and, two, he was a pacifist. For six years, he carried dead and wounded back from the front. On both adventures (the first was his solo trip on the Albany River in 1938) he said he had been scared to death, but after the war he had only felt the stupidity of it all. [Grinnell article, p 18]
(c) During the Second World War, as a professed pacifist from America and a volunteer with the American Field Service, a Quaker organization, Art had been allowed by the British High Command to carry no weapons, just the wounded and dying soldiers back from the front… [Grinnell book, p 15].
(d) He was a quietly principled man who from an early age lived as best he could, consistent with his principles. … He was a pacifist and volunteered for the American Field service as an ambulance driver, serving in Africa and Italy during World War II. [Pessl book, p 165]
Why did he choose the Dubawnt River?
He had …the grand concept of retracing J. B. Tyrrell’s epic 1893 journey down the Dubawnt River, creating a film documentary about the journey and sharing that experience in print with the wilderness adventure community. [Pessl, p 165]

In what respects are we the lesser for Moffatt’s passing?
An appreciation of Arthur Moffatt.
Even after these many years, I grieve Art Moffatt’s death. He was more than my mentor; he was perhaps a second father even though he was only fourteen years older than I. His pacifism, his principled lifestyle, and his view of the world, natural and international, opened my mind, challenged my thoughts, and gave me insight and courage to pursue my own dreams.
I wonder what would have been the future had he survived the Dubawnt and fully developed professionally as an outdoor writer and voice for wild spaces, indigenous peoples, habitat protection, and restraint in Arctic resources development. I believe his impact on our awareness and understanding of the Barrens would have been profound. How might we have better valued the vastness and uniqueness of that ecosystem? How different our understanding and vision of the far north might be today had our Dubawnt adventure ended in celebration instead of tragedy?
Certainly, we would be better informed, perhaps more compassionate in causes of peace, and probably more courageous in advocating to protect and conserve our northern heritage.
[Pessl, p 178].

Comments.
The Moffatt family lost a husband and a father.
The survivors lost their leader, their mentor, their companion, their friend.
The false, abusive accusations of the 55 years that followed likely inflicted much pain on both family and survivors, all of whom no doubt already suffered considerably from the loss. And so I express one last time my thanks to Pessl (and through him Franck), Lanouette and LeFavour for their assistance.

Opinions.
The Moffatt story is perhaps the most shameful chapter in the entire outdoor literature. Even John Hornby (Thelon River, 1927) was treated mildly in comparison.
Of such scholarship, diligence, grace, thought, integrity, humanity, caution, charity, courage, compassion and above all commitment to evidence, is destroyed the reputations of the defenceless innocent, here a fellow paddler.
The opinion of Stewart Coffin.
The Moffatt Expedition stands as the pioneering venture in modern recreational canoe travel through the subarctic tundra of northern Canada. [Appalachia Journal. 15 December, 1996.] Mentioned by Pessl (his page 162); thanks to him for providing a copy.

The last word.
George Luste and I were professional colleagues for forty years. I regarded him as a friend. He got me started with serious tripping and provided much valuable advice. I helped him with the Wilderness and Canoeing Symposium for several years.
He expressed the following opinion of Moffatt’s defamers. Perhaps he would have written even more scathingly of those who wrote after 1996.
Let him have the last word.
It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. [Grinnell book, 1996, p 294]

Internal URLs.

These URLs are provided for navigation within the blog.
URLs for accessing the following items from outside the blog are provided elsewhere.
Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Ancillary 10. My sources.
Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.
Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Edition of 30 March 2018.

Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.

Introduction.
This Ancillary provides all known evidence related to the death of Arthur Moffatt.
So that the reader may assess that evidence unencumbered by my interpretations of it,
I refrain from making comments except as deemed necessary for clarity.
Consequences:
no quotes of accusations, no references to them, no responses to them;
no mention of redactions, no references to them, no responses to them.
The reader will find the omitted items in the Appendices and in the other Ancillaries; the corresponding Internal URLs are provided at the end of this document.

List of Moffatt’s sources.
1. The book of James W Tyrrell.
2. The book of Joseph B Tyrrell.
3. The journal/report of J B Tyrrell.
4. Correspondence with J B Tyrrell.
Reference for these four items. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
5. The maps of J B Tyrrell.
Reference. The Appendix provided at the end of this document.

The book of James W Tyrrell.
Moffatt had accessed J W Tyrrell’s book Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada (Toronto, 1908).
With the help of the kind and patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library (University of Toronto), I obtained a copy of every page for the entire reach from Black Lake to Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
The book makes little mention of rapids in general, and none of rapids in the reach where Moffatt died.
This Ancillary makes no further mention of it.

The book of Joseph B Tyrrell.
As evinced for example by Moffatt’s Prospectus on page 71 of the Sports Illustrated article, Moffatt had accessed J B Tyrrell’s book of the 1893 expedition.
Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897).
With the help of the kind and patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library (University of Toronto), I obtained a copy of every page for the entire reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet. If I may be indulged a comment, the remainder is harrowing reading.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt provides the complete excerpt for the reach (Wharton Lake to Marjorie Lake) where Moffatt died.

The journal/report of Joseph B Tyrrell.
Moffatt had also obtained access to J B Tyrrell’s journal (aka his report) for the 1893 expedition. I was unable to access JBT’s journal; I note though that excerpts from the journals of Moffatt and Pessl document that it contains material not mentioned elsewhere.

The Moffatt – J B Tyrrell correspondence.
Thanks to Pessl, I have copies of Moffatt’s letters of 18 December 1954 and 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
A thorough search at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library (University of Toronto) failed to find JBT’s reply to the first, known to have been made. I possess no evidence that JBT replied to the second.
Reference. Sub-Appendix 1. Tyrrell sources of Appendix 9.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

J B Tyrrell’s book, for the reach from Wharton Lake to Marjorie Lake.
The following provides the text (deletions are marked by ellipses) for the entire reach from Wharton Lake to Marjorie Lake; Moffatt died in rapids not far above the latter.
Below Wharton Lake the river flows at first eastward, and then southward, for four miles to a small lake, in which distance it rushes down two rapids with descents respectively of 15 and 6 feet.
The small lake seems to be everywhere shallow, though the water is very clear. On its south side is a sand ridge or (esker
[character apparently an italic l, which makes no sense to me]) about 300 feet high, trending east-and-west, on the side of which the three terraces seen at the quartzite hill are well shown. Towards the west end of the ridge are scarped banks of sand almost eighty feet high. On the north side of the lake is a cluster of low islands, composed of boulders of red gneiss, covered with moss and grass. Low hills of boulders continue eastward, along the course of the river, for the next five miles. The stream has no well-defined channel, but flows around and between these hills with a current of from five to eight miles an hour. Five miles below the small lake is a rapid with a descent of twenty feet, past the lower part of which a portage 400 yards long was made over a hill of boulders, and we embarked from a sheet of ice that, on the 23rd of August, was still frozen to the bank. Above the rapid a gravel plain extends a long distance back from the river. At the foot of this rapid the river turns at right angles and flows northward for seven miles as a wide shallow rapid stream, through low country, composed of small morainic or drumlin-like hills of boulders of light-gray well foliated gneiss.
Lady Marjorie Lake, so named as a mark of respect… , was entered at the south end, …

Noteworthy items.
1. two rapids with descents respectively of 15 and 6 feet.
2. the small lake below these rapids.
3. Five miles below the small lake is a rapid with a descent of twenty feet, past the lower part of which a portage 400 yards long was made,
4. At the foot of this rapid the river turns at right angles and flows northward for seven miles to what is now called Marjorie Lake.
5. No rapids are mentioned in the northward reach to Marjorie Lake. Moffatt died in rapids in this reach, not far upstream from Marjorie Lake.

Comparison of the evidences of J B Tyrrell’s book and that of his map, for the Wharton-Marjorie reach.
I compare, in downstream order, the features described in JBT’s book with those provided on his map at https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893 .
Item 1.
Book. two rapids with descents respectively of 15 and 6 feet.
Map. Two Rapids.
Item 2.
Book. small lake.
Map. A small unnamed lake.
Item 3.
Book. A rapid with a descent of twenty feet, with a portage of length 400 yards around the lower part.
Map. A Rapid with a Por. 18c around it.
Comment. 18 chains = 400 yards. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain_(unit) .
Item 4.
Book. the river turns at right angles and flows northward for seven miles to Lady Marjorie Lake.
Map. A sharp turn to the north.
Conclusion.
J B Tyrrell’s book and his map agree completely regarding the essentials of the features between Wharton Lake and what is now called Marjorie Lake. The book provides more detail, but the map is clearer.
Again, Moffatt possessed both the book and the map.

The evidence of Moffatt’s journal for 13 September.
The following is the complete text of Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for the day before the tragedy, as kindly supplied by Pessl (with (?) indicating faint, uncertain words on my copy.
Off at 10:15 across outlet bay (of Wharton Lake), Skip caught 3 trout, then down 15 foot very swift rapids, no rocks but very rough. Took water, had to bail. Following Tyrrell’s route, down 6’ rapid, back in (?) map, lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack. Then along island, water in channels, very fast, no looking it over, about 5 miles of it. Sun out more than for 6 days, but spotty. Pulled into bay by esker, I found good dry portage while canoes unloaded above last very rough + rocky part of rapid. I carried canoe across to little valley below bay, where we camped. Others portaged while I cooked huge glop, fish and bully, pudding + tea. Then, in darkness, I made last portage trip for load of wood, (?), 2 poles. Thought of wolves. Saw none!
Good distance today, Marjorie Lake tomorrow.

Comment. This was Moffatt’s last journal entry.
Noteworthy items.
1. The phrase Following Tyrrell’s route.
This phrase was redacted by the Sports Illustrated editor.
2. The references to the 15 ft and 6 ft rapids.
These were run without incident on 13 September.
3. The portage made around the last very rough + rocky part of rapid. This is the Rapid with a Por. 18c around it, aka the rapid with a descent of twenty feet. The portage was begun on 13 September and completed in the morning of 14 September.
Summary.
All features (the 15 ft and 6 ft rapids, and the portage) were found to be as described by Tyrrell.

The evidence of participant Lanouette for the afternoon of 14 September.
His journal is not published and so I express my gratitude to Lanouette (Moffatt’s bowperson) for providing it; I hope that the padding community as a whole is similarly grateful for this contribution to our understanding to the events of 14 September 1955.
Lanouette’s full journal for 14 September is provided in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
After completing the portage in the morning of 14 September, the party continued downstream, then stopped for lunch.
We had a rather satisfying lunch of chowder and three hardtacks (or ‘tacks) apiece and were ready to shove on again around 2:30 or 3:00. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped (I think) almost to a complete calm.
The river flowed on rather swiftly and it was but a few minutes before we heard and saw another rapids on the horizon. (Notes – at this time, Art figured we had shot the last 2 rapids into Lady Marjorie and so we were not anticipating anything more along this line – actually, what we had taken for rapids were only riffles and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids). At the top, these rapids looked as though they would be very easy going – a few small waves, rocks … nothing serious – so much so that we didn’t even haul over to shore to look it over before proceeding as was customary. The river at this point was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rapids quite clearly – however, although we didn’t realize it, we couldn’t see the middle, even though we thought we could – at any rate we barrelled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes but I didn’t mind, as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I, as was my habit, was looking a few feet in front of the canoe, looking for submerged rocks – suddenly, Art shouted “Paddle” – I responded and took up the beat, at the same time looking farther ahead to see what it was we were trying to avoid – to my complete surprise, what I saw were two lines of white, parallel to one another and coming closer with every passing instant – I looked at them in helpless fascination, not altering my stroke any. The lines of white were the crests of two huge waves formed by the water as it crashed over 2, 3 or 4’ ledges or falls). Note: it was too late to pull for shore – all we could was to pick what seemed to be the least turbulent spots and head for them.

The evidence of participant LeFavour.
Thanks to LeFavour for providing the following.
…As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. We traveled, and traveled hard.
The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these
[the east/rightmost] had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before and was described in his journal: there were five rapids, the first two rough but shootable, the third long and heavy requiring a portage of a mile [“400 yards” in Tyrrell’s book] and the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. Because this route was described we took it, being careful to look over the first two which were indeed rough. Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken.
Please note that LeFavour mentions all features encountered on both 13 and 14 September by the Moffatt party.
13 September.
The first two rapids, those rough but shootable, are the 15 ft and 6 ft rapids run by the Moffatt party that day, when it began the portage.
Comment. Tyrrell’s remarks and those of LeFavour agree regarding these two rapids and the portage, except that LeFavour gives a greater length for the portage.
14 September.
The Moffatt party completed the portage in the morning of that day and continued downstream, stopping for lunch. Some time later, it encountered the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids” mentioned above.
Excerpt from LeFavour’s article for the afternoon of 14 September.
At 3 p.m. we were again on the river. Gone was the wind, and we hoped to get a good way up Marjorie Lake in the calm before dark. A mile downriver the roar of the next rapid reached our ears, a roar which had become familiar and comforting in this quiet land, a roar which in the past had promised excitement. As we coasted into the top of it all appeared to be well. You could see the bottom, the water, though white, was apparently shootable. Tyrrell had indicated by his neglect that the rapid was an easy one, and it seemed to be just that.
A flock of ptarmigan on the shore caught my eye, but soon we were past them and out in midstream. It was then that Skip and I noticed that Art and Joe in the lead canoe were having trouble. They were over! We saw the two huge waves, walls of white water which seemed almost five feet high. Pete and George had made the one, were heading for the second, and then we saw nothing but the unavoidable waves. We were into it!

Source. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Analysis.
I remind the reader that Tyrrell’s book (possessed by Moffatt) makes no mention of these rapids
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
and also that they are not marked on Tyrrell’s map (also possessed by Moffatt).
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893
The source for this additional information can be only Tyrrell’s journal/report or the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, neither of which I have been unable to access.
References. http://defence-arthurmoffatt.ca/2017/06/02/ancillary-7-the-moffatt-tyrrell-correspondence/
Private correspondence from LeFavour.
His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely lunch time on 14 September, prior to the running of the fatal rapids. [2015].

The evidence of participant Pessl.
Passage 1.
After completing a short portage, loaded the canoes and continued our dash down the river. It was cold and windy, the sky was overcast and we stopped at frequent intervals to warm our feet and legs.
[We] approached what we thought must be the last rapids with confidence and impatience. Art stood up … looked ahead, and … drove his canoe for the middle of the flow. … The next thing I saw as we shot around the bend was a white wall of huge waves. … Beyond the thundering waves, the yellow camera box and Art’s gray canoe bobbed crazily in the rapids below.
[Canoe&Kayak, May 2012 issue, p 48, right column].
Comment. The short portage is the 400-yarder completed in the morning of 14 September.
Passage 2.
That’s the other lesson I learned, says Pessl. To be patient. If we had just been patient and confident, if we hadn’t been in such a headlong rush that we didn’t stop to scout the rapid, we would have been fine. It’s very hard to do that, in the grip of panic, but it would have made all the difference. Art would have been with us, his life …. Pessl pauses. When it comes down to it, even with everything that happened, we were so close. [Canoe&Kayak, May 2012 issue, p 102?, left column].
Passage 3.
The tragedy of September 14, when Art Moffatt died, occurred, in my opinion, … , because Art and I tried to concurrently accomplish two mutually exclusive objectives: canoe travel and documentary filming of that journey. The demands of these opposing goals delayed and distracted our commitment to river miles. Art and I remained tragically stubborn in our commitment to filming the journey, even in the face of serious and obvious deterioration of the weather. [Nastawgan, Summer issue, 2013, p 5].
Passage 4.
The weather grew harsh. Freezing temperatures, wind-driven snow, dwindling food supplies, and deteriorating equipment pushed us hard to travel faster and more efficiently, and ultimately we made a fatal mistake. We approached the rapids entering Marjorie Lake with caution, but without an onshore look. Standing up in our canoes as we floated toward the rapids, we saw a modest current sweeping toward a right-hand bend and drove our canoes into that initial current V. [Pessl book, p XVII.]
Passage 5.
The tragedy of September 14 occurred, in my opinion, not because of Art’s alleged mental instability or some sort of Zen nonsense, but because Art and I failed to accurately translate our collective Albany River experiences to northern big-river conditions, especially into late-season, freezing conditions, and because we tried to concurrently accomplish two mutually exclusive objectives: travel and film. …we did not differentiate between what worked on the Albany River and what would not work in late season on the Dubawnt.
The deteriorating weather…changed our modus operandi from cautious land-based scouting of rapids to a floating assessment as we were sucked into the headwater Vs of each successive rapid. It worked for several days and many rapids, except for one.
Somewhere between the robotic distance grinds of… and the tragic disregard for time, distance, and season of the Moffatt leadership (and I include myself I that category), there must be a reasonable balance for wilderness canoeists on long journeys…
[Pessl book, pp 172&173].
Passage 6.
Pessl (kindly and most frankly, both as ever) responded as follows regarding an email message of mine.
I understand the confusion, contradiction that the two quotes may create. The quote attributed to me [Excerpt 2] is accurate and comes from a conversation I had with Al Kesselheim when he was preparing to write his C&K article on the Moffatt Dubawnt journey (May 2012). It was a very emotional interview for me; the first time in many years that I shared some of my feelings about Dubawnt ’55. The quote expresses my remorse over Art’s death and my belief, in retrospect, that we should have scouted the Marjorie rapids. My use of the term “panic” was inaccurate, too strong and I regret that. Bruce’s phrase is much more accurate.
But our individual and collective state of mind during those early September days is pretty much conjecture and perhaps mostly semantic after so many years. The much more important question, clearly answered by your detailed research, is WHY we didn’t scout the rapids? And the answer: because we were following Tyrrell’s journal description of the river conditions approaching Marjorie Lake. Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake following the last portage.
[Pessl, private correspondence].

The evidence of George Luste.
I mention that Luste identified no source for either item.
Item 1.
Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died.
Source. Page 284 of Grinnell’s book (1996).
Item 2.
Over the years, a number of unfounded versions or representations of the Moffatt accident have made their way into the canoeing literature. I’ve read statements like
“After some discussion there came a momentous decision. To save time the party would run any rapid which looked safe from the top.” and
“Everyone was rescued quickly so there should have been no problems.” or
“Increasing desperation made them run rapids without careful checking,” or
“…to speed progress they would run any rapid that looked passable from the top…” and
“On Moffatt’s trip, the canoeists surviving the mid-September swamping first picked up all the packs, then the swamped members, a fatal mistake.”

Source. Pages 293 and 294 of Grinnell’s book (1996).

Summary.
Given my introductory remark I refrain from…for clarity, it would be inappropriate to provide a summary.

Appendix. The maps of Joseph B Tyrrell.
At the Thomas Fisher library, I found the URLs (provided below) for his maps for the 1893 expedition, for the reach from Black Lake to the mouth of the Churchill River on Hudson Bay.
The evidence convinces me that Moffatt had obtained copies of these maps. Of special interest is the map (number 6) for the reach from Wharton Lake to what is now called Marjorie Lake, for it was in this reach that Moffatt died. I provide above a full discussion of its contents.
J B Tyrrell’s annotated maps.
Black Lake to south of Selwyn Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-1-1893
Continuation to past Wholdiah/Daly Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-2-1893
Continuation to past Boyd Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-3-1893
Continuation to the middle of Nicholson Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-4-1893
Continuation to the middle of Grant Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-5-1893
Continuation to past Aberdeen Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893
Continuation to Baker Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-7-1893
Continuations to the mouth of the Churchill River.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-8-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-9-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-10-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-11-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-12-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-13-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-14-1893

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Introduction.

The Moffatt trip of 1955 retraced the central portion of the Tyrrell-Tyrrell exploratory trip of 1893, specifically the reach from Black Lake on the Fond du Lac River to Baker Lake on the Thelon River.
The books of both Tyrrell brothers (Joseph Burr and James Williams) are available, and I have obtained copies thereof for the reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet (the mouth of the Thelon River on Hudson Bay). Moffatt is known to have accessed both books.
Given that both brothers wrote books, both must have kept journals, but neither journal is publicly available to my knowledge. It is known that Moffatt had obtained access to JBT’s journal, aka his report. I possess no evidence that he accessed JWT’s.

The evidence of James Williams Tyrrell.
0. I possess no evidence that Moffatt had corresponded with JWT.
1. Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada (Toronto, 1908).
Not accessed by me. Thought to be identical to the following.
2. Through the Barren Lands: An Exploration Line of 3,200 Miles. Geological Survey of Canada (1896).
Thanks to the kind and excessively helpful staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto, I was able to obtain a copy for the entire reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
Little mention is made of river features; in particular, this book does not help us to understand the tragedy.
3. In Moffatt’s first letter to J B Tyrrell, he refers to the information provided in your report and in the book by your brother. And so Moffatt had obtained access to the book of J W Tyrrell, but I don’t know to which of the items 1 and 2, if indeed they differ.

The evidence of Joseph Burr Tyrrell.
1. Geographical Journal, v 4, no 5, Nov 1894.
Not known to have been accessed by Moffatt. Not accessed by me.
2. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897).
The book is known to have been accessed by Moffatt, as evinced by the following passage.
Moffatt “…became fascinated with the forbidding wilderness still further north and determined to go there after reading Report on the Dubawnt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers, written in 1896 by a Canadian geological surveyor, Dr. J. B. Tyrrell…” [Sports Illustrated, p 71, filed under Art Moffatt’s Prospectus]
Thanks to the kind and excessively helpful staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library at the University of Toronto, I was able to obtain a copy for the entire reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
It is far from beside the point that J B Tyrrell provides the following passage regarding the reach between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake.
Below Wharton Lake the river flows at first eastward, and then southward, for four miles to a small lake, in which distance it rushes down two rapids with descents respectively of 15 and 6 feet. …Five miles below the small lake is a rapid with a descent of twenty feet, past the lower part of which a portage 400 yards long was made … At the foot of this rapid the river turns at right angles and flows northward for seven miles as a wide shallow rapid stream …Lady Marjorie Lake…was entered at the south end…
The complete passage from J B Tyrrell’s book is provided in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Like the Tyrrell party of 1893, the Moffatt party of 1955 ran the rapids with descents of 15 and 6 feet, this on 13 September 1955, when it began the portage of 400 yards around the rapid with a descent of twenty feet. That portage was completed in the morning of 14 September.
Moffatt died later that same day, in the apparently featureless wide shallow rapid stream in the reach the sharp turn to the north and Marjorie Lake. Of course, my point is that J B Tyrrell made no mention of rapids in the reach where Moffatt died.
3. As I document below, Moffatt had obtained further information from J B Tyrrell, specifically
JBT’s journal (Moffatt calls it his report) for the 1893 trip,
JBT’s maps for the 1893 trip, and
correspondence with JBT.

The evidence of the Sports Illustrated article.
With respect to the upstream reach from Black Lake to the basin of the Dubawnt River, the SI editor wrote the following.
In the days that immediately followed, the expedition made good time despite erratic winds and rain, the back-stiffening portages and missed routes. The maps the party used – they were the only ones in existence – were never precise enough, and there were many times when, after long wearying hours of working up a stream, the canoeists would have to admit their mistake and painfully retreat. [SI article, bottom of right column, p 73]
Response.
The maps could be
either the government-issue maps of the time (not available to me)
or (more likely?) J B Tyrrell’s maps; those for the reach from Black Lake to Selwyn Lake are the following.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=1
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=2

The journal of J B Tyrrell.
JBT’s journal (sometimes Moffatt calls it his report) is not publicly available; it is known to differ substantially from JBT’s book. Unfortunately, my best efforts failed to access it; but Moffatt was more successful.
Evidence 1.
Tyrrell…had constant rain and cold, also patches of old snow everywhere. But for us it has been very pleasant… [Moffatt, 16 August, top left of p 80 of the SI article].
Evidence 2.
Throughout Tyrrell’s journal, he speaks of seeing patches of snow well to the south and he suffered his first snow storm on August 10. [Pessl book, 28 August, bottom of p 107].
Evidence 3.
Following Tyrrell’s route… [Moffatt journal for 13 September, as provided by Pessl.
Evidence 4.
… I have spent considerable time reviewing the various pertinent journals and following the maps with the journal descriptions … [Moffatt journal, pp 140-141; passage kindly provided by Pessl].
Response. The phrase the various pertinent journals is unclear. One journal was certainly that of JBT. But Moffatt’s use of the plural suggests he possessed also the journal of JWT. Adding to the confusion (at least in my mind) is that Moffatt possessed the books of both brothers.
Aside. The reference to maps is likely to both the 8 mi. to the inch maps and JBT’s maps; Moffatt had access to both.
Evidence 5.
His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely lunch time on 14 September, just prior to the running of the fatal rapids. [LeFavour, private correspondence, 2015].
Evidence 6.
…he [Pessl] and Art had studied them carefully before setting out and notations from the journals had been made on Art’s maps. [Lanouette, private correspondence, 17 January 2015].

The maps of J B Tyrrell.
I note that the Moffatt party possessed government-issue 8 mi. to the inch maps [18 July. Franck, in Pessl, p 44]). I made no attempt to access such maps available in 1955.
But the party possessed also maps from another source.

Passage 1. 10 August. The maps are very inaccurate in placing the rapids for the most part. [Franck, in Pessl, p 78]
Response. The reference was perhaps to the government-issue maps. Let me drop the matter.

Passage 2. 13 August. …went on down to where the 15-ft. falls is marked on the map. Actually this is an error. There was nothing there but a very easy rapid. [Franck, in Pessl, p 85]
Aside. Franck and Pessl agree on the date, namely 13 August.
Response.
The key item is the reference to the 15-ft. falls, for falls of that same height are shown on J B Tyrrell’s map 4.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=4
Those falls lie between Carey Lake (Franck’s POND ABOVE MARKHAM LAKE. [Pessl, p 85]) and Markham Lake.
And so the location of those falls, as given by Franck, agrees with that given by Tyrrell’s map 4.
Conclusion.
On both counts, namely the height of the falls and their location, the evidence of participant Franck and the evidence of Tyrrell’s map 4 are in complete agreement.
The obvious conclusion is that Moffatt had obtained access to at least one of JBT’s maps, namely number 4.
The obvious implication is that Moffatt had obtained access to all of JBT’s maps.
Especially important for our understanding of the tragedy is the map
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=6 .
That map shows no rapids in the northward reach between the portage (Por. 18 c completed in the morning of 14 September) and Marjorie Lake. It was in these unmarked rapids that Moffatt died later that very day.
And I suggest it not beside the point that neither does J B Tyrrell’s book mention those same rapids.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.

Passage 3. For completeness only, I provide the following.
16 August. After dinner, Art got out the maps and looked over our situation. [Franck, in Pessl, p 91].
Comment. My far than thorough search found no more references to maps in Pessl’s book.

Intermediate summary.
I have documented that Moffatt had accessed
J W Tyrrell’s book,
J B Tyrrell’s book,
J B Tyrrell’s journal, and
J B Tyrrell’s maps.
But Moffatt had also corresponded with J B Tyrrell, as I now document.

Moffatt’s correspondence with J B Tyrrell.
Moffatt wrote twice to J B Tyrrell, who replied to the first; but my best efforts failed to find that reply. I possess no evidence that JBT replied to the second.

Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954 to J B Tyrrell.
Comment. Copy provided by Pessl; address information deleted.
Dear Dr. Tyrrell:
At the suggestion of Dr. Lincoln Washburn, Professor of Geology at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, I am writing to tell you of my plans to follow your route from Stony Rapids on Lake Athabaska via the Dubawnt River to Chesterfield Inlet this coming summer.
Since your exploration of that route in 1893 no other canoe parties seem to have made the trip, and if we did not have your excellent report to guide us, I doubt that we should attempt it. My purpose in going is to make a film in color, for lecture purposes—and I believe that with luck we shall have something unlike anything that has been done before.
You may wonder what my qualifications for making such a trip are; I list them briefly: In 1937 I paddled alone from Sioux Lookout, Ontario, to the Albany River and down it to James Bay. Since 1950 I have led parties of five young men of college age down the Albany every summer. In 1952 and ’53 I made a 3000 ft color film of the Albany trip, with which I have been lecturing, and it now seems to be time to attempt a more difficult trip—your route down the Dubawnt.
I plan to use two 18 foot Chestnut Prospector canoes, one paddled by Skip Pessl, a young man who has made the Albany trip with me twice and who is this year a senior at Dartmouth College; and the other paddled by myself. We have not yet selected our two bow paddlers, and in this connection Dr. Washburn thought you might like to send along someone from your mining company to look the country over once again.
We expect to leave from here as close to June 13 as we can, and to remain on the Dubawnt until about September 1. We anticipate several difficulties we have never encountered along the Albany, first the absence of fuel and second, the difficulty of crossing the frozen expanse of Dubawnt Lake—if you are able to give us any advice on coping with these two problems we shall certainly appreciate it.
Of great importance also is the fact that we must carry sufficient supplies for the entire trip—the administration of the Northwest Territories will allow us to carry a rifle, but it is only to be used if we are in danger of starvation—which we feel is rather late in the game to begin living off the country. Nevertheless, we are prepared to travel under these conditions.
To revert briefly to the matter of fuel: Stefansson, in his Arctic Manual, indicates that most Arctic rivers are lined with willows and alders; but in your report and in the book by your brother, I find small mention of such a source of wood for fires. Were they indeed absent along the Dubawnt, or were they too green to burn—or is the country too generally soaked with rain to use them?
I hope you will find it interesting that we will be travelling the Dubawnt this summer, and I also hope that you can give us some advice to help us complete the journey successfully. In any case, I hope that I may have the pleasure of hearing from you.
Sincerely, Arthur R. Moffatt

Comment.
Please note the passage if we did not have your excellent report to guide us, I doubt that we should attempt it. I interpret the reference to the report to be to J B Tyrrell’s journal.

J B Tyrrell’s response to Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954.
As evinced by the passage (quoted below), it is known JBT had replied, but my search at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library (University of Toronto) failed, as I describe below. With respect to the date of the response, I know only that it lay between 18 December and 14 January.
Lacking an alternative explanation for the following passage, I suggest that some of its contents are provided in Art Moffatt’s Prospectus, published on page 71 of the Sports Illustrated article.
…In our journey north we will pass into the hunting and trapping grounds of the Chipewyan Indians and out into the Barren Grounds, beyond the northern limit of the trees. This is the summer range of the vast herds of caribou. The lakes and streams are reported to be full of trout up to 25 pounds in weight.

Two of the major problems we shall face are food and fire. The greater part of the route is through the treeless tundra, and what fuel there is often too green or wet to burn. We will not be able to pack enough gas to cook two meals a day.
Food may be even more acute. I have a letter from Dr. Tyrrell…He writes: “You will need to have a couple of high-powered rifles so that you can shoot game at long range, otherwise starvation is likely to threaten from early in the trip…”

Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955.
Copy provided by Pessl. Address information deleted.
Dear Dr. Tyrrell:
Thank you very much for your kind reply to my letter of December 18, in which I asked you several questions about the Dubawnt River.
I have tried without success to obtain copies of your report from Mr. Amtmann and from Dora Hood, but Mr. Amtmann referred me to Miss Wills, Librarian of the Geological Survey, who was kind enough to send me, on loan until September 30, 1955, a copy of your report.
I have written Miss Wills of the possible damage that may be done to the report on a trip by canoe down the Dubawnt, and I am waiting now to see is she really means that I should take it with me to the Barrens. I certainly hope that she does—after all, it will be our only guide.
Your suggestion that we will face starvation unless we have good rifles is certainly to the point, and I wish the Administration of the Northwest Territories realised that in forbidding us to use rifles until we are in imminent danger of death they are putting us in a very difficult position. However, if those are the terms on which we may enter the country, we will have to face them or stay home. I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.
Our search for two bow paddlers is not yet over, and in asking you whether your mining company might not like to send a geologist with us who could also pull his weight in a canoe and on the portages, I was acting at the suggestion of Dr. Washburn, who thought your company might find it to its advantage to do some prospecting along the Dubawnt.
You may be interested to hear that I showed your report to Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson, who immediately asked if he might have the letter for his library, which is now a part of the Dartmouth College Library at Hanover, New Hampshire.
I want to thank you again for your interest in my proposed trip, and I wish you a very Happy New Year.
Sincerely, Arthur R. Moffatt

Assumption.
JBT’s report is what I call also his journal.

The evidence of the participants regarding the fatal rapids.
Introduction.
The only possible sources for the following evidences regarding the fatal rapids are J B Tyrrell’s journal (aka his report), his maps, and his correspondence with Moffatt. I say this because neither book of the Tyrrell brothers mentions those rapids.
The evidence available to me has it that J B Tyrrell’s rapids advice had proved accurate for the previous 11 weeks or so of the trip. I refer in particular to the three candidates for the Sports illustrated editor’s churning chutes of white water [SI article, top of right column on p 82], namely the rapids immediately below Nicholson Lake, those immediately below Dubawnt Lake, and those immediately above Wharton Lake.
Argument. Had JBT’s rapids advice proved inaccurate even once in the previous 11 weeks, surely Moffatt would not have followed it in the afternoon of 14 September 1955.
The evidence of Lanouette.
Referring to the rapids where Moffatt died, his bow person wrote the following: This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. [Sports Illustrated (1959), p 85]
The evidence of LeFavour.
Referring to the rapids between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake, he wrote the following: … there were five rapids, the first two rough but shootable, the third long and heavy requiring a portage of a mile [“400 yards” in Tyrrell’s book] and the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. Because this route was described we took it, being careful to look over the first two which were indeed rough. Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken. [Evening Recorder, 29 December 1955, Amsterdam NY]
The evidence of Pessl.
…we were following Tyrrell’s journal description of the river conditions approaching Marjorie Lake. Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake following the last portage. [private correspondence]
Analysis.
Perhaps the key passage is LeFavour’s …the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”, for it was in these rapids that Moffatt died.

The evidence of John Lentz regarding the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.
The following was kindly supplied by Pessl [private correspondence, May 2017].
Begin Pessl material.
Through Bush and Barrens. North, May-June, 1970, p.22-29.
p.22. He (Moffatt) wrote to Tyrrell who replied that the river, “is a succession of lakes separated by wild rivers.” The old man warned of hazards of these rapids, and suggested the following equipment, “high powered rifles so that you can shoot game at long range, otherwise starvation is likely to threaten very early in your journey.”
This quote attributed by Lentz: “Tyrrell’s letter courtesy Rare Books Department, University of Toronto Library.”
Perhaps there is additional reference in John’s papers/correspondence, maybe available at CCM or the Lentz estate.
End Pessl material.
My comments.
0. I failed to find online access to the North article.
1. Lentz had obtained access to the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.
2. I failed to find the Tyrrell’s letter at the Thomas Fisher Rare Books Library of the University of Toronto.
3. I note that the rifles part of Lentz’s quote duplicates material provided in Moffatt’s Prospectus [Sports Illustrated article, p 71].

The evidence of Fred Gaskin regarding the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.
The following was kindly supplied by Pessl (private correspondence, May 2017).
Begin Pessl material.
Retracing Tyrrell’s journey into the Barren Lands. Canadian Geographical Journal, v.93, n.3, Dec. 1976/Jan. 1977, p. 46-53.
p.50: “When preparing for his trip, Moffatt had corresponded in 1953 with J.B. Tyrrell who was then 95 years old and living in Toronto. The old man warned Moffatt of the dangers of the rapids and the risks of starvation.”
End Pessl material.
My comments.
0. I failed to find online access to Gaskin’s article.
1. Given that Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954 was clearly his first contact with J B Tyrrell, Gaskin’s date of 1953 must be incorrect.
2. I don’t know Gaskin’s source for this material, which differs little from that provided by Lentz.

Summary.
The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
My best efforts failed to obtain full access to that journal, which would almost certainly provide important evidence regarding rapids in general. With regard to the rapids where he died, I possess only the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route… of his last journal entry, that for 13 September.
The evidence of James Williams Tyrrell.
Moffatt had accessed JWT’s book, which provides little information regarding rapids in general, nothing regarding the rapids where Moffatt died in particular.
I possess no evidence that Moffatt had corresponded with JWT.
The evidence of Joseph Burr Tyrrell.
Moffatt’s sources are known to have been the following four items.
1. JBT’s maps. I have provided URLs for the entire reach covered by the Moffatt party. The map for the reach where Moffatt died shows no rapids.
Reference. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=6
2. JBT’s book. I possess a copy for the entire reach (Black Lake to Baker Lake) covered by the Moffatt party. The book describes the three candidates that I identified for the SI editor’s churning chutes (namely the rapids below Nicholson Lake, those below immediately below Dubawnt Lake, and those immediately above Wharton Lake), but it makes no mention of the rapids where Moffatt died.
Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
3. JBT’s journal (aka his report). I was unable to access it and so am unable to comment on its contents.
4. Moffatt’s correspondence with JBT. Thanks to Pessl, I was able to provide copies of Moffatt’s two letters to JBT. I was unable to document JBT’s reply (known to have made) to the first. I possess no evidence that JBT had replied to the second.

Conclusions.
1. All known sources state, implicitly, that there were no rapids of significance in the reach where Moffatt died.
2. In particular, Moffatt had good reason to trust JBT’s advice, for Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake. [Pessl]
3. But J B Tyrrell’s advice failed Moffatt in the afternoon of 14 September 1955.

Appendix. Tyrrell items at the University of Toronto Library.
All known items are held at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, located on the second floor of the Robarts Library, at the corner of St George and Harbord. Access is by permission only; I had a U of T library card, but I believe that a driver’s licence will suffice.
Thanks to the kind, helpful and excessively patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library of the University of Toronto for their assistance throughout my visits.

Item 1. Joseph B Tyrrell’s book.
Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897).
I possess copies of all pages for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.

Item 2. Joseph B Tyrrell’s correspondence
is divided, but only roughly, into professional and personal items.
The largely professional items of interest are provided in two boxes, one for 1951-1953 and one for 1954-1955. I read all material for 1953, 1954 and 1955 but found nothing referring to Moffatt. I did not find the 1953 letter mentioned by Lentz (I believe that he got the date incorrectly).
The largely personal items are provided in a single box. I found nothing referring to Moffatt.
Perhaps I should add that another box contains items related to Tyrrell’s apple orchard in what is now the Toronto suburb of Agincourt.

Item 3. J B Tyrrell, Explorer and Adventurer. The Geological Survey Years 1881-1898.
A Catalogue prepared by Katherine Martyn.
The Catalogue was prepared for an exhibition at the library (3 April to 30 July 1993). The 1893 trip is described in Across the Barren Lands: 1893. [pp 23-30]. Two photos are provided, plus maps for the 1893 Dubawnt and 1894 Kazan trips, the former as described in item 4.
https://fisher.library.utoronto.ca/tyrrell-explorer-and-adventurer
http://link.library.utoronto.ca/Tyrrell/overview.cfm?ID=1893

Item 4. Joseph B Tyrrell’s maps for the reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet and beyond.
His maps for the 1893 expedition show features (rapids, falls, portages, etc), for the following reaches.
Black Lake to south of Selwyn Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=1
Continuation to past Wholdiah/Daly Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=2
Continuation to past Boyd Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=3
Continuation to the middle of Nicholson Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=4
Continuation to the middle of Grant Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=5
Continuation to past Aberdeen Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=6
Continuation to Baker Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=7
etc.
Discussion.
Moffatt certainly possessed map 4, and so almost certainly all maps, especially the vitally important map 6. The Rapid shown shortly below Wharton Lake on that map is the one portaged on 13 and 14 September by the Moffatt party. The important point is that map 6 shows no rapid/s from the end of that portage all the way downstream to Marjorie Lake.
Conclusion.
The rapids where Moffatt died are not shown on J B Tyrrell’s maps.

Item 5. James W Tyrrell’s book/s.
Through the Barren Lands: An Exploration Line of 3,200 Miles. Geological Survey of Canada (1896). Not accessed; believed identical to the following.
Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada (Toronto, 1908).
Comments.
I possess copies of all pages for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
The material (especially that regarding ethnography) provided by JWT is fascinating (to me) but it sheds no light on the conditions that led to Moffatt’s death.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 9. Cause of the tragedy.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Foreword.
Some overlap of material presented here is unavoidable with that presented in Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

Background.
0. Moffatt had obtained a copy of J W Tyrrell’s book, which provides no material regarding the fatal rapids.
1. Moffatt had obtained a copy of J B Tyrrell’s report, which I believe to be identical to his journal; I have been unable to access it.
2. Moffatt had accessed JBT’s book, which makes no mention of the rapids (those between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake) where Moffatt died.
Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
3. Moffatt had accessed JBT’s maps for the entire 1893 trip. The one for the reach where Moffatt died does not show the fatal rapids.
Reference. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=6 .
4. As well, Moffatt had corresponded with JBT; only a little information (kindly provided by participants) from these exchanges is available. It is clear, however, that Tyrrell had provided Moffatt with rapids information significantly beyond that given in JBT’s book. Sub-Appendix 1. Tyrrell sources provides background for the interested reader.
Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

The reliability of JBT’s advice to Moffatt.
As I document below and elsewhere, Moffatt followed closely Tyrrell’s advice regarding rapids on the Dubawnt, most importantly his advice regarding the fatal rapids.
A particular.
His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely lunch time on 14 September, immediately prior to the running of the fatal rapids. [LeFavour, private correspondence, 2015]. LeFavour refers here to the entire 10 or so weeks prior to that point. I assume that by Tyrrell’s journal, LeFavour includes the advice provided in the correspondence.
Initial summary.
Moffatt possessed detailed information from J B Tyrrell regarding Dubawnt rapids. That information had proved accurate for something like 11 weeks previously.
Given the nature of the accusatory literature, I find it necessary to state the obvious:
1. In the 11 weeks prior to his death, had there existed even one significant difference between the three JBT sources (his journal, his correspondence and his maps), Moffatt would have surely have noticed it and would have scouted the rapids where he died.
2. In particular, on 13 and 14 September, the Moffatt party portaged the rapids immediately above those where he died.
The questions.
1. Are we to believe (as the Sports Illustrated editor evidently expects us to do) that, having that very morning completed a portage made in part to protect the film and cameras (the very purposes of the trip), Moffatt changed his mind and, a few hours later, decided to risk the loss of both film and cameras?
2. More importantly, are we to believe (as the SI editor evidently expects us to do), that, a few hours after completing that portage, Moffatt decided to risk the lives of all members of the party and so took the the ultimate chance in running those rapids in desperate haste as the party raced against winter?

START AGAIN HERE
The evidence for 13 and 14 September.
13 September. .
On the day before Moffatt died, the Moffatt party ran two rough rapids, then camped after portaging some gear around a third, a much more serious one. These are the drops of 15 and 6 feet and the portage of 400 yards mentioned in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
14 September.
The party completed the portage of 400 yards and resumed paddling. At the lunch stop that day, the party added 20 lb of lake trout to the food supply, which was already sufficient that the party had no need to hunt caribou again. Reference. Appendix 6. Food.
Trusting Tyrrell’s advice, which had proved accurate for the previous 10 weeks or so, Moffatt led the way downstream without scouting the rapids below the portage. Only when it was too late to bail out and head for shore did Moffatt see major rapids ahead and so realise that Tyrrell had failed him that day. He could only shout “Paddle!” to his bowperson Lanouette and try to tough it out. His canoe and a second overturned in a pair of rapids not mentioned by Tyrrell, spilling the paddlers into the cold waters. Moffatt died of hypothermia about an hour later.
A request.
I ask that the reader compare the above description of events (which is based on the journals of the trip participants) that lead to Moffatt’s death with the following assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor.
…the Moffatt party races against winter… In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance.

The redactions.
Over the 55 years from 1959 to 2014, every accuser got wrong the cause of Moffatt’s death.
I believe that they did so largely because both the Sports Illustrated editor and Grinnell redacted evidence that Moffatt had been advised by J B Tyrrell that there existed no rapids of any significance in that reach.
Particular 1.
Points 1 and 2 (below) compare Moffatt’s journal entry (his last) for 13 September with the Sports Illustrated editor’s version of it [SI article, lower right column on p 82].
One sees that the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September. That phrase shows first that Moffatt had obtained Tyrrell’s advice for that reach, second that he was following it.
Should this redaction be believed to have been accidental, I point out that it falsifies the editor’s assertion …the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. … In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August].
Particular 2.
Points 5 and 6 (below) compare the SI condensation (a faithful one) of Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy with Grinnell’s version of it [Grinnell book, p 202].
One sees that Grinnell redacted, and replaced by an ellipsis, the passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
Does anyone believe this redaction to have been accidental?
Comment.
And so, as I remark several times in this manuscript, it then concerns me that the Sports Illustrated and Grinnell had certainly corresponded [SI article, p 88].

Comments regarding the accusations.
On the basis of no evidence known to me (and none was provided), every defamer who wrote about the tragedy asserted the cause of Moffatt’s death to be rather one or more of those discussed in Appendices 1 through 8. It seems necessary to state that an assertion by a previous defamer is not evidence.
Few of those eight accusations had any support in evidence when they were made. Many of them fly in the face of easily available contrary evidence to the contrary. And every such accusation is falsified by the evidence in toto.
The prime example is James Murphy’s Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary, contributed to his demise. [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11].
I find it worthy of explicit mention that this accusation was made in Murphy’s review of Grinnell’s book.
1. In that book, Grinnell documents a plethora of food from the land and also from the cache in the six weeks before the tragedy. Reference. Appendix 6. Food.
That is, there was no lack of food. In fact, there was not even a shortage of food on the whole; the truth is rather that the party was hungry at times, gorged at others.
2. I believe that George Luste would have been much angered to learn that his recommendations for gear appropriate for paddlers circa 1996 had been used to defame Moffatt, who died in 1955. Reference. Appendix 3. Equipment.
3. The evidence regarding the schedule (Murphy’s planned itinerary) is contradictory, as I document in Appendix 7. Schedule.
Summary. In constructing his case against Moffatt, Murphy ignored evidence that falsifies his accusations.

The evidence regarding the fatal rapids.

Outline.
I repeat that Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the fatal rapids below the portage, which was completed in the morning of 14 September. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Outline. I provide the following paragraphs.
1. Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
2. The Sports Illustrated editor’s version of Moffatt’s entry for that same day.
3. The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
4. Participant Lanouette’s full journal entry for 14 September.
5. The SI condensation of Lanouette’s journal entry for that day.
6. Participant Grinnell’s version of that condensation.
7. Private correspondence from Lanouette.
8. The evidence of participant LeFavour.
9. The evidence of participant Pessl.
10. A comment of Luste.
11. Analysis.
12. Additional evidence.
13. Summary.

1. Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
Note. I lack access to Moffatt’s journal entries for 11 and 12 September, but I have no reason to believe that they contain anything relevant to the tragedy.
Moffatt’s journal for 13 September.
The following is the complete text of Moffatt’s journal entry for the day before the tragedy, as kindly supplied by Pessl (with (?) indicating faint, uncertain words on my copy).
Off at 10:15 across outlet bay [of Wharton Lake], Skip caught 3 trout, then down 15 foot very swift rapids, no rocks but very rough. Took water, had to bail. Following Tyrrell’s route, down 6’ rapid, back in (?) map, lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack. Then along island, water in channels, very fast, no looking it over, about 5 miles of it. Sun out more than for 6 days, but spotty. Pulled into bay by esker, I found good dry portage while canoes unloaded above last very rough + rocky part of rapid. I carried canoe across to little valley below bay, where we camped. Others portaged while I cooked huge glop, fish and bully, pudding + tea. Then, in darkness, I made last portage trip for load of wood, (?), 2 poles. Thought of wolves. Saw none!
Good distance today, Marjorie Lake tomorrow.

Comments regarding this last entry made by Moffatt in his journal.
1. Please note in particular the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route.
2. The 15’ and 6’ rapids are documented in J B Tyrrell’s book, as is the portage (of 400 yards).
3. But please note that JBT’s book makes no mention of the rapids below the portage; it was in these rapids that Moffatt died. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
4. The portage was completed in the morning of 14 September; after a break for lunch (at which time the party added 20 lb of trout to the already considerable food supply), the party continued downstream toward Marjorie Lake.
5. I ask that the reader compare the above with the following.

2. The Sports Illustrated version of Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
The following is the complete relevant text on page 82 (lower right column) of the Sports Illustrated article.
[On September 11, the Moffatt party, having traveled with snow squalls and wind in their faces all day, reached Wharton Lake. The following morning the weather was better than it had been for a week, although the skies were spotted with clouds. After a portage around rapids, Art Moffatt wrote “I cooked fish and bully, pudding and tea. Then, in darkness, I made the last portage trip for a load of wood, my packsack and two poles. I thought of wolves on the way but saw none. Good distance today. Marjorie Lake tomorrow.” And this was the last entry Art Moffatt was to make in his diary.]
The redaction.
One sees that the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route.
To me, that phrase is the key to understanding the tragedy, for it shows that Moffatt was only following Tyrrell’s guide when he chose to run the fatal rapids without a scout.
I suggest that only the most credulous could believe that redaction to have been an accident, a slip of the pen.
And I suggest it to be no coincidence that the redacted passage falsifies both Assertion 1 and Assertion 2 (below) of the editor.

3. The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
I ask that the reader reflect on the relevance of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route to the following assertions (the parts regarding rapids) of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Assertion 1.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [top of right column, p 82].

Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August].

Responses to the rapids parts of Assertions 1 and 2.
As they apply to rapids above those where Moffatt died, both assertions are falsified by the evidence provided in Appendix 8. Other rapids.
With respect to the fatal rapids, both assertions are falsified by the evidence that Moffatt was only following J B Tyrrell’s advice when he ran the fatal rapids without a scout.
And so I suggest it to be no accident, no slip of the pen, that the editor redacted the passage Following Tyrrell’s route… from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
And, given that Lanouette’s evidence (provided below) falsifies all of the editor’s Assertion 1 and much of her/his Assertion 2, perhaps the editor failed to read that evidence.
I refer the reader to Ancillary 1. Accusations for a fuller discussion of the accusations regarding the fatal rapids.

Response to the food part of Assertion 2.
The statement game grows scarce is falsified by the evidence of Moffatt’s journal, which documents the shooting of five caribou in the six weeks before the tragedy, the last on 5 September.
It bears mention that Moffatt’s journal documents also the shooting of many ptarmigan, the catching of many fish (three species), and the harvesting of blueberries and mushrooms, all in those six weeks. Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

4. Lanouette’s full journal for 14 September..
The passage that follows (the one relevant to the onset of the fatal rapids) is excerpted from his journal for 14 September, as provided in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
The journal itself is not publicly available and so I express my gratitude to Lanouette (Moffatt’s bowperson) for making it available to me; I hope that the padding community as a whole is similarly grateful for his generosity.
We had a rather satisfying lunch of chowder and three hardtacks (or ‘tacks) apiece and were ready to shove on again around 2:30 or 3:00. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped (I think) almost to a complete calm.
The river flowed on rather swiftly and it was but a few minutes before we heard and saw another rapids on the horizon. (Notes – at this time, Art figured we had shot the last 2 rapids into Lady Marjorie and so we were not anticipating anything more along this line – actually, what we had taken for rapids were only riffles and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids). At the top, these rapids looked as though they would be very easy going – a few small waves, rocks … nothing serious – so much so that we didn’t even haul over to shore to look it over before proceeding as was customary. The river at this point was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rapids quite clearly – however, although we didn’t realize it, we couldn’t see the middle, even though we thought we could – at any rate we barrelled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes but I didn’t mind, as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I, as was my habit, was looking a few feet in front of the canoe, looking for submerged rocks – suddenly, Art shouted “Paddle” – I responded and took up the beat, at the same time looking farther ahead to see what it was we were trying to avoid – to my complete surprise, what I saw were two lines of white, parallel to one another and coming closer with every passing instant – I looked at them in helpless fascination, not altering my stroke any. The lines of white were the crests of two huge waves formed by the water as it crashed over 2, 3 or 4’ ledges or falls). Note: it was too late to pull for shore – all we could was to pick what seemed to be the least turbulent spots and head for them.

Comments.
Lanouette was surprised because J B Tyrrell had advised the party that there existed no rapids of consequence between the portage (the one completed in the morning of 14 September) and Marjorie Lake.
As I document in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt, J B Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the fatal rapids. Those rapids are mentioned in the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, which suggests however that they are a matter of no concern. I refer the reader to the evidence of LaFavour, as provided in Item 7 below: …the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. That correspondence is clearly an item to be pursued; I hope to find the opportunity to do so.
Summary.
Following Tyrrell’s advice, which had proved reliable for many weeks previously, Moffatt continued downstream without a scout, to his death.

5. The Sports Illustrated condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September.
A condensation of Lanouette’s journal entry for 14 September was reported in the SI article of 1959 (the very first publication regarding the tragedy). The following is excerpted from page 85.
After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious. We didn’t even haul to shore to have a look, as we usually did. The river was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rough water quite clearly, or we thought we could. We barreled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes, but I didn’t mind as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I was looking a few feet in front of the canoe for submerged rocks when Art suddenly shouted “Paddle.”

1. The interested reader will verify that the above is a faithful condensation of Lanouette’s journal, as provided in Item 4.
2. The interpretation of the passage is clear to me:
Moffatt had possessed prior information regarding the fatal rapids. From that information (which came from J B Tyrrell), he concluded that the rapids were of no concern, and so he ran them without a scout. Unfortunately, Tyrrell’s information was incorrect.
3. Many of Moffatt’s defamers in the matter of the fatal rapids are known to have possessed the SI article (this from the content of their accusations, some regarding other matters), but not one of them mentioned Lanouette’s exculpatory text, which lay in plain sight in the SI article.
4. Worthy of special mention in this respect is the Sports Illustrated editor her/himself, who not only omitted mention of the passage, but also made accusations falsified by it. Yet worse, the editor redacted the exculpatory passage Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal for 13 September.
5. Summary.
The evidence of Lanouette, as published in the Sports Illustrated condensation of his journal, demonstrates that Moffatt had full reason to believe that the coast was clear to continue downriver without a scout.
But not one defamer in this matter mentioned the exculpatory evidence of Lanouette’s journal, which lay in plain view in the SI article (which was used by them to make other accusations). Did they not act in unseemly haste?

6. Grinnell’s version of the condensation of Lanouette’s journal.
Grinnell provided the following version of Item 5.
In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon… [paragraph break]
At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious.
[Grinnell book, 1996 edition, p 202]
One sees that Grinnell redacted the exculpatory passage
This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from the condensation of Lanouette’s journal [Sports Illustrated, p 85, middle of right column] and replaced it with an ellipsis.
This passage tells me that Moffatt (and so Lanouette) had been told by J B Tyrrell there were no more significant rapids above Marjorie Lake.
Hypothesis.
Grinnell redacted the key passage This surprised us…first rapid because it showed that Moffatt had been misled by Tyrrell’s advice.
Follow-up material.
1. Several accusers are known to have been misled by Grinnell’s redaction.
2. The same three exculpatory sentences were redacted also in the 2010 edition of Grinnell’s book [p 207].
3. Pessl disputes many remarks in Grinnell’s book. Especially noteworthy here is Grinnell’s thinly veiled suggestion that Moffatt was suicidal, this with reference in particular to the running of the fatal rapids without a scout.
4. As I documented above, the Sports Illustrated editor also redacted exculpatory evidence regarding Moffatt’s decision to run the fatal rapids without a scout. And so it concerns me that the two had certainly corresponded (perhaps met in person) before the publication of the SI article in 1959; I refer here to page 88 of that article.

7. Private correspondence from Lanouette.
Comment. Thanks to Lanouette for these email messages and for permission to publish them.
1. …he [Pessl] and Art had studied them [J B Tyrrell’s journals] carefully before setting out and notations from the journals had been made on Art’s maps. [17 January , 2015].
2. I can assure you that, at the time of the accident, there was no sense of panic. But after recovering from that experience, we certainly focussed in getting as much mileage behind us each day. [17 January, 2015].
3. Certainly there was no panicky, helter-skelter paddling down the river to reach Baker Lake. [20 March, 2015].
Comment. I am uncertain regarding the times to which the remarks no sense of panic and no panicky…paddling are intended to apply.

8. The evidence of LeFavour’s article.
For completeness, I quote again LeFavour’s comment His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely the start of the fatal rapids. [Private correspondence, 2015]

The source for the following is LeFavour’s article in the Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3, page 8, 29 December (1955)].

13 September.
…As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. We traveled, and traveled hard.
The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these
[the rightmost] had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before and was described in his journal: there were five rapids, the first two rough but shootable, the third long and heavy requiring a portage of a mile [”400 yards” in Tyrrell’s book] and the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. Because this route was described we took it, being careful to look over the first two which were indeed rough. Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken.
Analysis.
1. Tyrrell’s remarks regarding the first two rapids and the portage square with those of participant LeFavour.
2. The first key passage is the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. I say that this passage is key because these are the rapids where Moffatt died. I should mention that this advice came from the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, rather from Tyrrell’s journal/book (which makes no mention of them).
3. The second key passage is Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken.
I ask that the reader compare this with the Sports Illustrated editor’s assertion
…the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds… In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, bottom right of p 76]

14 September.
A cold breeze blew the morning of the 14th. Thankful for the chance to keep warm by walking we completed the portage around the third rapid and at noon, under the watchful eye of four wolves lounging on a nearby ridge we set off downriver. By two we had stopped to eat a lunch which included hot soup cooked on a sweet smelling dwarf birch fire. Gas was precious, and the constant gathering required to keep the fire going helped to warm our cold feet. Here too, we fished, and after 20 pounds of trout were caught we gave up for the water was freezing in the eyes of the rod. It was cold, there was no doubt about that.
At 3 p.m. we were again on the river. Gone was the wind, and we hoped to get a good way up Marjorie
Lake in the calm before dark. A mile downriver the roar of the next rapid reached our ears, a roar which had become familiar and comforting in this quiet land, a roar which in the past had promised excitement. As we coasted into the top of it all appeared to be well. You could see the bottom, the water, though white, was apparently shootable. Tyrrell had indicated by his neglect that the rapid was an easy one, and it seemed to be just that.
A flock of ptarmigan on the shore caught my eye, but soon we were past them and out in midstream. It was then that Skip and I noticed that Art and Joe in the lead canoe were having trouble. They were over! We saw the two huge waves, walls of white water which seemed almost five feet high. Pete and George had made the one, were heading for the second, and then we saw nothing but the unavoidable waves. We were into it!

Comment.
The objective having been accomplished (namely to document how the tragedy came to pass), more out of respect for the participants, I terminate LeFavour’s account here.

Analysis.
The key passage is … Tyrrell had indicated by his neglect that the rapid was an easy one, and it seemed to be just that. In full agreement with the evidence from other sources (in particular, the condensed version of Lanouette’s journal (SI article, pp 85-87), this passage evinces that, in choosing to run the fatal rapids without a scout, Moffatt had only followed J B Tyrrell’s advice. Given that Tyrrell’s journal makes no mention of these rapids, LeFavour must refer here to the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.

A minor point.
Sub-Appendix 2. The Tyrrell-Moffatt route between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake discusses the passage The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before.

Closing comments.
1. Although Moffatt’s defamers could not have been expected to know of the Evening Recorder article, it does falsify their accusations.
2. I thank LeFavour for providing it and for permission to reproduce it.

9. The evidence of Pessl.

Passage 1.
After completing a short portage, loaded the canoes and continued our dash down the river. It was cold and windy, the sky was overcast and we stopped at frequent intervals to warm our feet and legs.
[We] approached what we thought must be the last rapids with confidence and impatience. Art stood up … looked ahead, and … drove his canoe for the middle of the flow. … The next thing I saw as we shot around the bend was a white wall of huge waves. … Beyond the thundering waves, the yellow camera box and Art’s gray canoe bobbed crazily in the rapids below.
[Canoe&Kayak, May 2012 issue, p 48, right column].

Passage 2.
That’s the other lesson I learned, says Pessl. To be patient. If we had just been patient and confident, if we hadn’t been in such a headlong rush that we didn’t stop to scout the rapid, we would have been fine. It’s very hard to do that, in the grip of panic, but it would have made all the difference. Art would have been with us, his life …. Pessl pauses. When it comes down to it, even with everything that happened, we were so close. [Canoe&Kayak, May 2012 issue, p 102?, left column].

Passage 3.
The tragedy of September 14, when Art Moffatt died, occurred, in my opinion, … , because Art and I tried to concurrently accomplish two mutually exclusive objectives: canoe travel and documentary filming of that journey. The demands of these opposing goals delayed and distracted our commitment to river miles. Art and I remained tragically stubborn in our commitment to filming the journey, even in the face of serious and obvious deterioration of the weather. [Nastawgan, Summer issue, 2013, p 5].

Passage 4.
The weather grew harsh. Freezing temperatures, wind-driven snow, dwindling food supplies, and deteriorating equipment pushed us hard to travel faster and more efficiently, and ultimately we made a fatal mistake. We approached the rapids entering Marjorie Lake with caution, but without an onshore look. Standing up in our canoes as we floated toward the rapids, we saw a modest current sweeping toward a right-hand bend and drove our canoes into that initial current V. [Pessl book, p XVII.]

Passage 5.
The tragedy of September 14 occurred, in my opinion, not because of Art’s alleged mental instability or some sort of Zen nonsense, but because Art and I failed to accurately translate our collective Albany River experiences to northern big-river conditions, especially into late-season, freezing conditions, and because we tried to concurrently accomplish two mutually exclusive objectives: travel and film. …we did not differentiate between what worked on the Albany River and what would not work in late season on the Dubawnt.
The deteriorating weather…changed our modus operandi from cautious land-based scouting of rapids to a floating assessment as we were sucked into the headwater Vs of each successive rapid. It worked for several days and many rapids, except for one.
Somewhere between the robotic distance grinds of… and the tragic disregard for time, distance, and season of the Moffatt leadership (and I include myself I that category), there must be a reasonable balance for wilderness canoeists on long journeys…
[Pessl book, pp 172&173].

Comment regarding passages 2 through 5.
To me, Pessl’s remarks are those of an introspective person still trying, after 59 years, to come to terms with the tragedy; for publishing those remarks, I suggest that he deserves our deep respect.

Passage 6.
Pessl (kindly and most frankly, both as ever) responded as follows regarding an email message of mine.
I understand the confusion, contradiction that the two quotes may create. The quote attributed to me [Excerpt 2] is accurate and comes from a conversation I had with Al Kesselheim when he was preparing to write his C&K article on the Moffatt Dubawnt journey (May 2012). It was a very emotional interview for me; the first time in many years that I shared some of my feelings about Dubawnt ’55. The quote expresses my remorse over Art’s death and my belief, in retrospect, that we should have scouted the Marjorie rapids. My use of the term “panic” was inaccurate, too strong and I regret that. Bruce’s phrase is much more accurate.
But our individual and collective state of mind during those early September days is pretty much conjecture and perhaps mostly semantic after so many years. The much more important question, clearly answered by your detailed research, is WHY we didn’t scout the rapids? And the answer: because we were following Tyrrell’s journal description of the river conditions approaching Marjorie Lake. Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake following the last portage.
[Pessl, private correspondence].
Opinion.
The passage we were following Tyrrell’s journal description of the river conditions approaching Marjorie Lake, alone and itself, falsifies every accusation made by every Moffatt defamer regarding the running of the fatal rapids.

10. A comment of Luste.
Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Luste, in Grinnell’s book, p 284].
Please note the phrase following Tyrrell’s notes. That is, Luste knew (by means unknown) and confirms that Moffatt
had obtained rapids advice from Tyrrell,
was following that advice, and
had been misled by that advice.
Unfortunately, not one defamer mentioned Luste’s exculpatory comment, which appears (it need be repeated) in Grinnell’s book, a prime source for accusations of o’erhasty running of the fatal rapid.
In particular, Grinnell himself (in his own book) had the opportunity to mention Luste’s comment, but failed to do so.

11. Analysis.
1. The Moffatt party possessed information, not provided in Tyrrell’s book, regarding the rapids below the portage. The source for that additional information can be only the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, which is known to have occurred but is not publicly available.
2. Those rapids were apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. [LeFavour, Ibid.]
3. By the time that Moffatt realized the gravity of the situation, it was too late to bail out and head for shore; they had to tough it out. The rapids grew ever wilder, and despite Moffatt’s considerable experience in running white water, his boat and another capsized, spilling all four into the ice-cold river. The paddlers (one of them later fell into the water) in the third boat were able to rescue the other four, but Moffatt died of hypothermia about an hour later. Luste commented as follows. …one is struck by how close all six came to perishing in the cold water. [Grinnell book, pp 294 & 295].

12. Additional evidence.
1. Referring to food and running rapids, Pessl commented as follows. The protection of our supplies dictates our caution. [Pessl, p 90, 16 August]
2. Moffatt took major precautions to protect also the film and the photographs; after all, these were the main purposes for the trip! Indeed, Moffatt portaged parts of some rapids run by the other two canoes. [Pessl, pp 122 & 124 (search incomplete)].
3. Moffatt’s …decided to portage last 100 yds. of rapid, partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or hurting film & cameras… as quoted in private correspondence from Pessl; I refer the reader to Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

13. Summary.
Moffatt’s sources regarding the fatal rapids were J B Tyrrell’s book and correspondence with him.
The evidence of Tyrrell’s book (for the reach between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake) is provided in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt..
The full Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence is presently unavailable, only excerpts.
On 14 September 1955, Moffatt ran the fatal rapids (those below the lunch stop) without a scout because J B Tyrrell had informed him, implicitly, that they were not dangerous.
The evidence of trip participants Moffatt (I refer here to his journal entry for 13 September), Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl attests that Tyrrell’s rapids information, which had proved reliable for the previous ten weeks, failed Moffatt on 14 September.
The efforts of the Sports Illustrated editor and of Grinnell were outstandingly successful, for their redactions misled the paddling community as a whole, including many prominent members of it, for 55 years regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death.
Every author of every accusation regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death got it wrong. They asserted (only) that the cause was one or more of those discussed in Appendices 1 through 8.
What an ugly chapter in the paddling literature are the accusations regarding the fatal rapids.
Sadly, the eight other chapters of the accusatory literature differ but little.
Even John Hornby (Thelon River, 1927) was treated mildly in comparison.
Reference. Ancillary 1. Accusations.

Sub-Appendix 1. Tyrrell sources.

The expedition of 1893 was led by Joseph Burr Tyrrell (1858-1957) and his brother James Williams (1863-1945).
J W Tyrrell’s book.
Assumed to be a full transcription of JWT’s journal, it is available at the University of Toronto library, in microfiche form. I viewed perhaps 20 pages, but in cursory fashion only. I made no copies. I recall much detail regarding ethnography. I found nothing of interest regarding the scene of the tragedy; and I found no mention of weather as severe as that encountered by the Moffatt party.
I did not pursue the matter because I knew that Moffatt’s primary source for Dubawnt information had been rather J B Tyrrell; in fact, as best I know, Moffatt made no use of this item.
J B Tyrrell’s book.
I assume JBT’s book to be a full transcription of his journal; the latter is not publicly available; it might be held at the Thomas Fisher library at the University of Toronto, but I’ll not pursue the matter.
I assume also that, in the following passage, by report Moffatt means JBT’s book.
…who was kind enough to send, on loan until September 30, 1955, a copy of your report. [Moffatt letter to J B Tyrrell, 14 January 1955].
JBT’s book is held at the University of Toronto library. The kind, helpful staff there generously provided me with copies of page 56 F (upstream of “Doobaunt” Lake) to page 70 F (downstream from Aberdeen Lake).
In Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt, I provide the full text of JBT’s journal for the reach between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake. The interested reader will verify that Tyrrell makes no reference to rapids below the portage 400 yards long. It was in those unmentioned rapids that Moffatt died.
The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.
The following items evince that Moffatt had corresponded with J B Tyrrell regarding the Dubawnt River, in particular its rapids.
1. Moffatt’s letters of 18 December 1954 and 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell, (copies kindly provided by Pessl; not available to the general public). In the latter, Moffatt thanks Tyrrell for his response to the first.
2. LeFavour’s newspaper article of 1955.
3. The Sports Illustrated article of 1959 [Art Moffatt’s Prospectus, p 71].
4. Pessl’s Nastawgan article of 2013 [p 3].
5. Pessl’s book of 2014 [pp 10&176].
Comment. The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence itself is not publicly available, only references to some of its contents, and a few excerpts. This is an important matter to be pursued, for we would then learn in detail what Tyrrell told Moffatt regarding the fatal rapids in particular. I believe the correspondence to be held at the Thomas Fisher library at the University of Toronto; if so, I hope to access it, one fine day.

Sub-Appendix 2. The Tyrrell-Moffatt route between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake.

The Dubawnt River exits Wharton Lake by two channels, but some waters of the leftmost channel flow into the rightmost, as one sees easily at Toporama and mytopo. BTW, this is the reason for the <em<three in LeFavour’s passage The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before.
The topos identify the rightmost as the Dubawnt River.
Moffatt followed Tyrrell’s route, namely the rightmost channel. The corresponding evidence is provided in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Comment 1. Bill Layman and Lynda Holland chose the leftmost channel in 2001, I don’t know why.
http://www.out-there.com/bill-jl9.htm#Monday July 30
I note that Layman incorrectly identified the leftmost channel as the one where Moffatt died.
Comment 2. After the tragedy, the Moffatt party portaged from Marjorie Lake to Aberdeen Lake, I assume because the rapids below Marjorie are particularly difficult, as described in another publication by Layman (2002)
http://www.out-there.com/bil-riv.htm
Thanks to Les Wilcox for informing me of the latter.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 2. Holidays.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.
Bibliography.