Appendix 9. Cause of the tragedy.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Foreword.
Some overlap of material presented here is unavoidable with that presented in Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

Background.
0. Moffatt had obtained a copy of J W Tyrrell’s book, which provides no material regarding the fatal rapids.
1. Moffatt had obtained a copy of J B Tyrrell’s report, which I believe to be identical to his journal; I have been unable to access it.
2. Moffatt had accessed JBT’s book, which makes no mention of the rapids (those between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake) where Moffatt died.
Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
3. Moffatt had accessed JBT’s maps for the entire 1893 trip. The one for the reach where Moffatt died does not show the fatal rapids.
Reference. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=6 .
4. As well, Moffatt had corresponded with JBT; only a little information (kindly provided by participants) from these exchanges is available. It is clear, however, that Tyrrell had provided Moffatt with rapids information significantly beyond that given in JBT’s book. Sub-Appendix 1. Tyrrell sources provides background for the interested reader.
Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

The reliability of JBT’s advice to Moffatt.
As I document below and elsewhere, Moffatt followed closely Tyrrell’s advice regarding rapids on the Dubawnt, most importantly his advice regarding the fatal rapids.
A particular.
His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely lunch time on 14 September, immediately prior to the running of the fatal rapids. [LeFavour, private correspondence, 2015]. LeFavour refers here to the entire 10 or so weeks prior to that point. I assume that by Tyrrell’s journal, LeFavour includes the advice provided in the correspondence.
Initial summary.
Moffatt possessed detailed information from J B Tyrrell regarding Dubawnt rapids. That information had proved accurate for something like 11 weeks previously.
Given the nature of the accusatory literature, I find it necessary to state the obvious:
1. In the 11 weeks prior to his death, had there existed even one significant difference between the three JBT sources (his journal, his correspondence and his maps), Moffatt would have surely have noticed it and would have scouted the rapids where he died.
2. In particular, on 13 and 14 September, the Moffatt party portaged the rapids immediately above those where he died.
The questions.
1. Are we to believe (as the Sports Illustrated editor evidently expects us to do) that, having that very morning completed a portage made in part to protect the film and cameras (the very purposes of the trip), Moffatt changed his mind and, a few hours later, decided to risk the loss of both film and cameras?
2. More importantly, are we to believe (as the SI editor evidently expects us to do), that, a few hours after completing that portage, Moffatt decided to risk the lives of all members of the party and so took the the ultimate chance in running those rapids in desperate haste as the party raced against winter?

START AGAIN HERE
The evidence for 13 and 14 September.
13 September. .
On the day before Moffatt died, the Moffatt party ran two rough rapids, then camped after portaging some gear around a third, a much more serious one. These are the drops of 15 and 6 feet and the portage of 400 yards mentioned in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
14 September.
The party completed the portage of 400 yards and resumed paddling. At the lunch stop that day, the party added 20 lb of lake trout to the food supply, which was already sufficient that the party had no need to hunt caribou again. Reference. Appendix 6. Food.
Trusting Tyrrell’s advice, which had proved accurate for the previous 10 weeks or so, Moffatt led the way downstream without scouting the rapids below the portage. Only when it was too late to bail out and head for shore did Moffatt see major rapids ahead and so realise that Tyrrell had failed him that day. He could only shout “Paddle!” to his bowperson Lanouette and try to tough it out. His canoe and a second overturned in a pair of rapids not mentioned by Tyrrell, spilling the paddlers into the cold waters. Moffatt died of hypothermia about an hour later.
A request.
I ask that the reader compare the above description of events (which is based on the journals of the trip participants) that lead to Moffatt’s death with the following assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor.
…the Moffatt party races against winter… In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance.

The redactions.
Over the 55 years from 1959 to 2014, every accuser got wrong the cause of Moffatt’s death.
I believe that they did so largely because both the Sports Illustrated editor and Grinnell redacted evidence that Moffatt had been advised by J B Tyrrell that there existed no rapids of any significance in that reach.
Particular 1.
Points 1 and 2 (below) compare Moffatt’s journal entry (his last) for 13 September with the Sports Illustrated editor’s version of it [SI article, lower right column on p 82].
One sees that the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September. That phrase shows first that Moffatt had obtained Tyrrell’s advice for that reach, second that he was following it.
Should this redaction be believed to have been accidental, I point out that it falsifies the editor’s assertion …the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. … In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August].
Particular 2.
Points 5 and 6 (below) compare the SI condensation (a faithful one) of Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy with Grinnell’s version of it [Grinnell book, p 202].
One sees that Grinnell redacted, and replaced by an ellipsis, the passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
Does anyone believe this redaction to have been accidental?
Comment.
And so, as I remark several times in this manuscript, it then concerns me that the Sports Illustrated and Grinnell had certainly corresponded [SI article, p 88].

Comments regarding the accusations.
On the basis of no evidence known to me (and none was provided), every defamer who wrote about the tragedy asserted the cause of Moffatt’s death to be rather one or more of those discussed in Appendices 1 through 8. It seems necessary to state that an assertion by a previous defamer is not evidence.
Few of those eight accusations had any support in evidence when they were made. Many of them fly in the face of easily available contrary evidence to the contrary. And every such accusation is falsified by the evidence in toto.
The prime example is James Murphy’s Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary, contributed to his demise. [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11].
I find it worthy of explicit mention that this accusation was made in Murphy’s review of Grinnell’s book.
1. In that book, Grinnell documents a plethora of food from the land and also from the cache in the six weeks before the tragedy. Reference. Appendix 6. Food.
That is, there was no lack of food. In fact, there was not even a shortage of food on the whole; the truth is rather that the party was hungry at times, gorged at others.
2. I believe that George Luste would have been much angered to learn that his recommendations for gear appropriate for paddlers circa 1996 had been used to defame Moffatt, who died in 1955. Reference. Appendix 3. Equipment.
3. The evidence regarding the schedule (Murphy’s planned itinerary) is contradictory, as I document in Appendix 7. Schedule.
Summary. In constructing his case against Moffatt, Murphy ignored evidence that falsifies his accusations.

The evidence regarding the fatal rapids.

Outline.
I repeat that Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the fatal rapids below the portage, which was completed in the morning of 14 September. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Outline. I provide the following paragraphs.
1. Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
2. The Sports Illustrated editor’s version of Moffatt’s entry for that same day.
3. The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
4. Participant Lanouette’s full journal entry for 14 September.
5. The SI condensation of Lanouette’s journal entry for that day.
6. Participant Grinnell’s version of that condensation.
7. Private correspondence from Lanouette.
8. The evidence of participant LeFavour.
9. The evidence of participant Pessl.
10. A comment of Luste.
11. Analysis.
12. Additional evidence.
13. Summary.

1. Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
Note. I lack access to Moffatt’s journal entries for 11 and 12 September, but I have no reason to believe that they contain anything relevant to the tragedy.
Moffatt’s journal for 13 September.
The following is the complete text of Moffatt’s journal entry for the day before the tragedy, as kindly supplied by Pessl (with (?) indicating faint, uncertain words on my copy).
Off at 10:15 across outlet bay [of Wharton Lake], Skip caught 3 trout, then down 15 foot very swift rapids, no rocks but very rough. Took water, had to bail. Following Tyrrell’s route, down 6’ rapid, back in (?) map, lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack. Then along island, water in channels, very fast, no looking it over, about 5 miles of it. Sun out more than for 6 days, but spotty. Pulled into bay by esker, I found good dry portage while canoes unloaded above last very rough + rocky part of rapid. I carried canoe across to little valley below bay, where we camped. Others portaged while I cooked huge glop, fish and bully, pudding + tea. Then, in darkness, I made last portage trip for load of wood, (?), 2 poles. Thought of wolves. Saw none!
Good distance today, Marjorie Lake tomorrow.

Comments regarding this last entry made by Moffatt in his journal.
1. Please note in particular the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route.
2. The 15’ and 6’ rapids are documented in J B Tyrrell’s book, as is the portage (of 400 yards).
3. But please note that JBT’s book makes no mention of the rapids below the portage; it was in these rapids that Moffatt died. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
4. The portage was completed in the morning of 14 September; after a break for lunch (at which time the party added 20 lb of trout to the already considerable food supply), the party continued downstream toward Marjorie Lake.
5. I ask that the reader compare the above with the following.

2. The Sports Illustrated version of Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
The following is the complete relevant text on page 82 (lower right column) of the Sports Illustrated article.
[On September 11, the Moffatt party, having traveled with snow squalls and wind in their faces all day, reached Wharton Lake. The following morning the weather was better than it had been for a week, although the skies were spotted with clouds. After a portage around rapids, Art Moffatt wrote “I cooked fish and bully, pudding and tea. Then, in darkness, I made the last portage trip for a load of wood, my packsack and two poles. I thought of wolves on the way but saw none. Good distance today. Marjorie Lake tomorrow.” And this was the last entry Art Moffatt was to make in his diary.]
The redaction.
One sees that the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route.
To me, that phrase is the key to understanding the tragedy, for it shows that Moffatt was only following Tyrrell’s guide when he chose to run the fatal rapids without a scout.
I suggest that only the most credulous could believe that redaction to have been an accident, a slip of the pen.
And I suggest it to be no coincidence that the redacted passage falsifies both Assertion 1 and Assertion 2 (below) of the editor.

3. The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
I ask that the reader reflect on the relevance of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route to the following assertions (the parts regarding rapids) of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Assertion 1.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [top of right column, p 82].

Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August].

Responses to the rapids parts of Assertions 1 and 2.
As they apply to rapids above those where Moffatt died, both assertions are falsified by the evidence provided in Appendix 8. Other rapids.
With respect to the fatal rapids, both assertions are falsified by the evidence that Moffatt was only following J B Tyrrell’s advice when he ran the fatal rapids without a scout.
And so I suggest it to be no accident, no slip of the pen, that the editor redacted the passage Following Tyrrell’s route… from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September.
And, given that Lanouette’s evidence (provided below) falsifies all of the editor’s Assertion 1 and much of her/his Assertion 2, perhaps the editor failed to read that evidence.
I refer the reader to Ancillary 1. Accusations for a fuller discussion of the accusations regarding the fatal rapids.

Response to the food part of Assertion 2.
The statement game grows scarce is falsified by the evidence of Moffatt’s journal, which documents the shooting of five caribou in the six weeks before the tragedy, the last on 5 September.
It bears mention that Moffatt’s journal documents also the shooting of many ptarmigan, the catching of many fish (three species), and the harvesting of blueberries and mushrooms, all in those six weeks. Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

4. Lanouette’s full journal for 14 September..
The passage that follows (the one relevant to the onset of the fatal rapids) is excerpted from his journal for 14 September, as provided in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
The journal itself is not publicly available and so I express my gratitude to Lanouette (Moffatt’s bowperson) for making it available to me; I hope that the padding community as a whole is similarly grateful for his generosity.
We had a rather satisfying lunch of chowder and three hardtacks (or ‘tacks) apiece and were ready to shove on again around 2:30 or 3:00. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped (I think) almost to a complete calm.
The river flowed on rather swiftly and it was but a few minutes before we heard and saw another rapids on the horizon. (Notes – at this time, Art figured we had shot the last 2 rapids into Lady Marjorie and so we were not anticipating anything more along this line – actually, what we had taken for rapids were only riffles and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids). At the top, these rapids looked as though they would be very easy going – a few small waves, rocks … nothing serious – so much so that we didn’t even haul over to shore to look it over before proceeding as was customary. The river at this point was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rapids quite clearly – however, although we didn’t realize it, we couldn’t see the middle, even though we thought we could – at any rate we barrelled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes but I didn’t mind, as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I, as was my habit, was looking a few feet in front of the canoe, looking for submerged rocks – suddenly, Art shouted “Paddle” – I responded and took up the beat, at the same time looking farther ahead to see what it was we were trying to avoid – to my complete surprise, what I saw were two lines of white, parallel to one another and coming closer with every passing instant – I looked at them in helpless fascination, not altering my stroke any. The lines of white were the crests of two huge waves formed by the water as it crashed over 2, 3 or 4’ ledges or falls). Note: it was too late to pull for shore – all we could was to pick what seemed to be the least turbulent spots and head for them.

Comments.
Lanouette was surprised because J B Tyrrell had advised the party that there existed no rapids of consequence between the portage (the one completed in the morning of 14 September) and Marjorie Lake.
As I document in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt, J B Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the fatal rapids. Those rapids are mentioned in the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, which suggests however that they are a matter of no concern. I refer the reader to the evidence of LaFavour, as provided in Item 7 below: …the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. That correspondence is clearly an item to be pursued; I hope to find the opportunity to do so.
Summary.
Following Tyrrell’s advice, which had proved reliable for many weeks previously, Moffatt continued downstream without a scout, to his death.

5. The Sports Illustrated condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September.
A condensation of Lanouette’s journal entry for 14 September was reported in the SI article of 1959 (the very first publication regarding the tragedy). The following is excerpted from page 85.
After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious. We didn’t even haul to shore to have a look, as we usually did. The river was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rough water quite clearly, or we thought we could. We barreled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes, but I didn’t mind as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I was looking a few feet in front of the canoe for submerged rocks when Art suddenly shouted “Paddle.”

1. The interested reader will verify that the above is a faithful condensation of Lanouette’s journal, as provided in Item 4.
2. The interpretation of the passage is clear to me:
Moffatt had possessed prior information regarding the fatal rapids. From that information (which came from J B Tyrrell), he concluded that the rapids were of no concern, and so he ran them without a scout. Unfortunately, Tyrrell’s information was incorrect.
3. Many of Moffatt’s defamers in the matter of the fatal rapids are known to have possessed the SI article (this from the content of their accusations, some regarding other matters), but not one of them mentioned Lanouette’s exculpatory text, which lay in plain sight in the SI article.
4. Worthy of special mention in this respect is the Sports Illustrated editor her/himself, who not only omitted mention of the passage, but also made accusations falsified by it. Yet worse, the editor redacted the exculpatory passage Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal for 13 September.
5. Summary.
The evidence of Lanouette, as published in the Sports Illustrated condensation of his journal, demonstrates that Moffatt had full reason to believe that the coast was clear to continue downriver without a scout.
But not one defamer in this matter mentioned the exculpatory evidence of Lanouette’s journal, which lay in plain view in the SI article (which was used by them to make other accusations). Did they not act in unseemly haste?

6. Grinnell’s version of the condensation of Lanouette’s journal.
Grinnell provided the following version of Item 5.
In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon… [paragraph break]
At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious.
[Grinnell book, 1996 edition, p 202]
One sees that Grinnell redacted the exculpatory passage
This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from the condensation of Lanouette’s journal [Sports Illustrated, p 85, middle of right column] and replaced it with an ellipsis.
This passage tells me that Moffatt (and so Lanouette) had been told by J B Tyrrell there were no more significant rapids above Marjorie Lake.
Hypothesis.
Grinnell redacted the key passage This surprised us…first rapid because it showed that Moffatt had been misled by Tyrrell’s advice.
Follow-up material.
1. Several accusers are known to have been misled by Grinnell’s redaction.
2. The same three exculpatory sentences were redacted also in the 2010 edition of Grinnell’s book [p 207].
3. Pessl disputes many remarks in Grinnell’s book. Especially noteworthy here is Grinnell’s thinly veiled suggestion that Moffatt was suicidal, this with reference in particular to the running of the fatal rapids without a scout.
4. As I documented above, the Sports Illustrated editor also redacted exculpatory evidence regarding Moffatt’s decision to run the fatal rapids without a scout. And so it concerns me that the two had certainly corresponded (perhaps met in person) before the publication of the SI article in 1959; I refer here to page 88 of that article.

7. Private correspondence from Lanouette.
Comment. Thanks to Lanouette for these email messages and for permission to publish them.
1. …he [Pessl] and Art had studied them [J B Tyrrell’s journals] carefully before setting out and notations from the journals had been made on Art’s maps. [17 January , 2015].
2. I can assure you that, at the time of the accident, there was no sense of panic. But after recovering from that experience, we certainly focussed in getting as much mileage behind us each day. [17 January, 2015].
3. Certainly there was no panicky, helter-skelter paddling down the river to reach Baker Lake. [20 March, 2015].
Comment. I am uncertain regarding the times to which the remarks no sense of panic and no panicky…paddling are intended to apply.

8. The evidence of LeFavour’s article.
For completeness, I quote again LeFavour’s comment His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely the start of the fatal rapids. [Private correspondence, 2015]

The source for the following is LeFavour’s article in the Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3, page 8, 29 December (1955)].

13 September.
…As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. We traveled, and traveled hard.
The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these
[the rightmost] had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before and was described in his journal: there were five rapids, the first two rough but shootable, the third long and heavy requiring a portage of a mile [”400 yards” in Tyrrell’s book] and the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. Because this route was described we took it, being careful to look over the first two which were indeed rough. Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken.
Analysis.
1. Tyrrell’s remarks regarding the first two rapids and the portage square with those of participant LeFavour.
2. The first key passage is the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. I say that this passage is key because these are the rapids where Moffatt died. I should mention that this advice came from the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, rather from Tyrrell’s journal/book (which makes no mention of them).
3. The second key passage is Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken.
I ask that the reader compare this with the Sports Illustrated editor’s assertion
…the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds… In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, bottom right of p 76]

14 September.
A cold breeze blew the morning of the 14th. Thankful for the chance to keep warm by walking we completed the portage around the third rapid and at noon, under the watchful eye of four wolves lounging on a nearby ridge we set off downriver. By two we had stopped to eat a lunch which included hot soup cooked on a sweet smelling dwarf birch fire. Gas was precious, and the constant gathering required to keep the fire going helped to warm our cold feet. Here too, we fished, and after 20 pounds of trout were caught we gave up for the water was freezing in the eyes of the rod. It was cold, there was no doubt about that.
At 3 p.m. we were again on the river. Gone was the wind, and we hoped to get a good way up Marjorie
Lake in the calm before dark. A mile downriver the roar of the next rapid reached our ears, a roar which had become familiar and comforting in this quiet land, a roar which in the past had promised excitement. As we coasted into the top of it all appeared to be well. You could see the bottom, the water, though white, was apparently shootable. Tyrrell had indicated by his neglect that the rapid was an easy one, and it seemed to be just that.
A flock of ptarmigan on the shore caught my eye, but soon we were past them and out in midstream. It was then that Skip and I noticed that Art and Joe in the lead canoe were having trouble. They were over! We saw the two huge waves, walls of white water which seemed almost five feet high. Pete and George had made the one, were heading for the second, and then we saw nothing but the unavoidable waves. We were into it!

Comment.
The objective having been accomplished (namely to document how the tragedy came to pass), more out of respect for the participants, I terminate LeFavour’s account here.

Analysis.
The key passage is … Tyrrell had indicated by his neglect that the rapid was an easy one, and it seemed to be just that. In full agreement with the evidence from other sources (in particular, the condensed version of Lanouette’s journal (SI article, pp 85-87), this passage evinces that, in choosing to run the fatal rapids without a scout, Moffatt had only followed J B Tyrrell’s advice. Given that Tyrrell’s journal makes no mention of these rapids, LeFavour must refer here to the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.

A minor point.
Sub-Appendix 2. The Tyrrell-Moffatt route between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake discusses the passage The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before.

Closing comments.
1. Although Moffatt’s defamers could not have been expected to know of the Evening Recorder article, it does falsify their accusations.
2. I thank LeFavour for providing it and for permission to reproduce it.

9. The evidence of Pessl.

Passage 1.
After completing a short portage, loaded the canoes and continued our dash down the river. It was cold and windy, the sky was overcast and we stopped at frequent intervals to warm our feet and legs.
[We] approached what we thought must be the last rapids with confidence and impatience. Art stood up … looked ahead, and … drove his canoe for the middle of the flow. … The next thing I saw as we shot around the bend was a white wall of huge waves. … Beyond the thundering waves, the yellow camera box and Art’s gray canoe bobbed crazily in the rapids below.
[Canoe&Kayak, May 2012 issue, p 48, right column].

Passage 2.
That’s the other lesson I learned, says Pessl. To be patient. If we had just been patient and confident, if we hadn’t been in such a headlong rush that we didn’t stop to scout the rapid, we would have been fine. It’s very hard to do that, in the grip of panic, but it would have made all the difference. Art would have been with us, his life …. Pessl pauses. When it comes down to it, even with everything that happened, we were so close. [Canoe&Kayak, May 2012 issue, p 102?, left column].

Passage 3.
The tragedy of September 14, when Art Moffatt died, occurred, in my opinion, … , because Art and I tried to concurrently accomplish two mutually exclusive objectives: canoe travel and documentary filming of that journey. The demands of these opposing goals delayed and distracted our commitment to river miles. Art and I remained tragically stubborn in our commitment to filming the journey, even in the face of serious and obvious deterioration of the weather. [Nastawgan, Summer issue, 2013, p 5].

Passage 4.
The weather grew harsh. Freezing temperatures, wind-driven snow, dwindling food supplies, and deteriorating equipment pushed us hard to travel faster and more efficiently, and ultimately we made a fatal mistake. We approached the rapids entering Marjorie Lake with caution, but without an onshore look. Standing up in our canoes as we floated toward the rapids, we saw a modest current sweeping toward a right-hand bend and drove our canoes into that initial current V. [Pessl book, p XVII.]

Passage 5.
The tragedy of September 14 occurred, in my opinion, not because of Art’s alleged mental instability or some sort of Zen nonsense, but because Art and I failed to accurately translate our collective Albany River experiences to northern big-river conditions, especially into late-season, freezing conditions, and because we tried to concurrently accomplish two mutually exclusive objectives: travel and film. …we did not differentiate between what worked on the Albany River and what would not work in late season on the Dubawnt.
The deteriorating weather…changed our modus operandi from cautious land-based scouting of rapids to a floating assessment as we were sucked into the headwater Vs of each successive rapid. It worked for several days and many rapids, except for one.
Somewhere between the robotic distance grinds of… and the tragic disregard for time, distance, and season of the Moffatt leadership (and I include myself I that category), there must be a reasonable balance for wilderness canoeists on long journeys…
[Pessl book, pp 172&173].

Comment regarding passages 2 through 5.
To me, Pessl’s remarks are those of an introspective person still trying, after 59 years, to come to terms with the tragedy; for publishing those remarks, I suggest that he deserves our deep respect.

Passage 6.
Pessl (kindly and most frankly, both as ever) responded as follows regarding an email message of mine.
I understand the confusion, contradiction that the two quotes may create. The quote attributed to me [Excerpt 2] is accurate and comes from a conversation I had with Al Kesselheim when he was preparing to write his C&K article on the Moffatt Dubawnt journey (May 2012). It was a very emotional interview for me; the first time in many years that I shared some of my feelings about Dubawnt ’55. The quote expresses my remorse over Art’s death and my belief, in retrospect, that we should have scouted the Marjorie rapids. My use of the term “panic” was inaccurate, too strong and I regret that. Bruce’s phrase is much more accurate.
But our individual and collective state of mind during those early September days is pretty much conjecture and perhaps mostly semantic after so many years. The much more important question, clearly answered by your detailed research, is WHY we didn’t scout the rapids? And the answer: because we were following Tyrrell’s journal description of the river conditions approaching Marjorie Lake. Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake following the last portage.
[Pessl, private correspondence].
Opinion.
The passage we were following Tyrrell’s journal description of the river conditions approaching Marjorie Lake, alone and itself, falsifies every accusation made by every Moffatt defamer regarding the running of the fatal rapids.

10. A comment of Luste.
Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Luste, in Grinnell’s book, p 284].
Please note the phrase following Tyrrell’s notes. That is, Luste knew (by means unknown) and confirms that Moffatt
had obtained rapids advice from Tyrrell,
was following that advice, and
had been misled by that advice.
Unfortunately, not one defamer mentioned Luste’s exculpatory comment, which appears (it need be repeated) in Grinnell’s book, a prime source for accusations of o’erhasty running of the fatal rapid.
In particular, Grinnell himself (in his own book) had the opportunity to mention Luste’s comment, but failed to do so.

11. Analysis.
1. The Moffatt party possessed information, not provided in Tyrrell’s book, regarding the rapids below the portage. The source for that additional information can be only the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, which is known to have occurred but is not publicly available.
2. Those rapids were apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. [LeFavour, Ibid.]
3. By the time that Moffatt realized the gravity of the situation, it was too late to bail out and head for shore; they had to tough it out. The rapids grew ever wilder, and despite Moffatt’s considerable experience in running white water, his boat and another capsized, spilling all four into the ice-cold river. The paddlers (one of them later fell into the water) in the third boat were able to rescue the other four, but Moffatt died of hypothermia about an hour later. Luste commented as follows. …one is struck by how close all six came to perishing in the cold water. [Grinnell book, pp 294 & 295].

12. Additional evidence.
1. Referring to food and running rapids, Pessl commented as follows. The protection of our supplies dictates our caution. [Pessl, p 90, 16 August]
2. Moffatt took major precautions to protect also the film and the photographs; after all, these were the main purposes for the trip! Indeed, Moffatt portaged parts of some rapids run by the other two canoes. [Pessl, pp 122 & 124 (search incomplete)].
3. Moffatt’s …decided to portage last 100 yds. of rapid, partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or hurting film & cameras… as quoted in private correspondence from Pessl; I refer the reader to Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

13. Summary.
Moffatt’s sources regarding the fatal rapids were J B Tyrrell’s book and correspondence with him.
The evidence of Tyrrell’s book (for the reach between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake) is provided in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt..
The full Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence is presently unavailable, only excerpts.
On 14 September 1955, Moffatt ran the fatal rapids (those below the lunch stop) without a scout because J B Tyrrell had informed him, implicitly, that they were not dangerous.
The evidence of trip participants Moffatt (I refer here to his journal entry for 13 September), Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl attests that Tyrrell’s rapids information, which had proved reliable for the previous ten weeks, failed Moffatt on 14 September.
The efforts of the Sports Illustrated editor and of Grinnell were outstandingly successful, for their redactions misled the paddling community as a whole, including many prominent members of it, for 55 years regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death.
Every author of every accusation regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death got it wrong. They asserted (only) that the cause was one or more of those discussed in Appendices 1 through 8.
What an ugly chapter in the paddling literature are the accusations regarding the fatal rapids.
Sadly, the eight other chapters of the accusatory literature differ but little.
Even John Hornby (Thelon River, 1927) was treated mildly in comparison.
Reference. Ancillary 1. Accusations.

Sub-Appendix 1. Tyrrell sources.

The expedition of 1893 was led by Joseph Burr Tyrrell (1858-1957) and his brother James Williams (1863-1945).
J W Tyrrell’s book.
Assumed to be a full transcription of JWT’s journal, it is available at the University of Toronto library, in microfiche form. I viewed perhaps 20 pages, but in cursory fashion only. I made no copies. I recall much detail regarding ethnography. I found nothing of interest regarding the scene of the tragedy; and I found no mention of weather as severe as that encountered by the Moffatt party.
I did not pursue the matter because I knew that Moffatt’s primary source for Dubawnt information had been rather J B Tyrrell; in fact, as best I know, Moffatt made no use of this item.
J B Tyrrell’s book.
I assume JBT’s book to be a full transcription of his journal; the latter is not publicly available; it might be held at the Thomas Fisher library at the University of Toronto, but I’ll not pursue the matter.
I assume also that, in the following passage, by report Moffatt means JBT’s book.
…who was kind enough to send, on loan until September 30, 1955, a copy of your report. [Moffatt letter to J B Tyrrell, 14 January 1955].
JBT’s book is held at the University of Toronto library. The kind, helpful staff there generously provided me with copies of page 56 F (upstream of “Doobaunt” Lake) to page 70 F (downstream from Aberdeen Lake).
In Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt, I provide the full text of JBT’s journal for the reach between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake. The interested reader will verify that Tyrrell makes no reference to rapids below the portage 400 yards long. It was in those unmentioned rapids that Moffatt died.
The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.
The following items evince that Moffatt had corresponded with J B Tyrrell regarding the Dubawnt River, in particular its rapids.
1. Moffatt’s letters of 18 December 1954 and 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell, (copies kindly provided by Pessl; not available to the general public). In the latter, Moffatt thanks Tyrrell for his response to the first.
2. LeFavour’s newspaper article of 1955.
3. The Sports Illustrated article of 1959 [Art Moffatt’s Prospectus, p 71].
4. Pessl’s Nastawgan article of 2013 [p 3].
5. Pessl’s book of 2014 [pp 10&176].
Comment. The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence itself is not publicly available, only references to some of its contents, and a few excerpts. This is an important matter to be pursued, for we would then learn in detail what Tyrrell told Moffatt regarding the fatal rapids in particular. I believe the correspondence to be held at the Thomas Fisher library at the University of Toronto; if so, I hope to access it, one fine day.

Sub-Appendix 2. The Tyrrell-Moffatt route between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake.

The Dubawnt River exits Wharton Lake by two channels, but some waters of the leftmost channel flow into the rightmost, as one sees easily at Toporama and mytopo. BTW, this is the reason for the <em<three in LeFavour’s passage The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before.
The topos identify the rightmost as the Dubawnt River.
Moffatt followed Tyrrell’s route, namely the rightmost channel. The corresponding evidence is provided in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Comment 1. Bill Layman and Lynda Holland chose the leftmost channel in 2001, I don’t know why.
http://www.out-there.com/bill-jl9.htm#Monday July 30
I note that Layman incorrectly identified the leftmost channel as the one where Moffatt died.
Comment 2. After the tragedy, the Moffatt party portaged from Marjorie Lake to Aberdeen Lake, I assume because the rapids below Marjorie are particularly difficult, as described in another publication by Layman (2002)
http://www.out-there.com/bil-riv.htm
Thanks to Les Wilcox for informing me of the latter.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 2. Holidays.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.
Bibliography.

Appendix 7. Schedule

Major renovations were completed in December 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 7. Schedule.

Summary.
The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor, James Murphy, Andrew MacDonald and Charlie Mahler, namely that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule (and the like), have no basis in any evidence known to me.
The cause of Moffatt’s death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Introduction.
1. The editor of Sports Illustrated article (1959) asserted (provided no evidence) that the Moffatt party had a day-by-day schedule, but was days behind it. And so Moffatt was forced to run the fatal rapids without a scout in desperate haste, to take the ultimate chance, in order to escape the onset of winter.
2. In what were alleged to be reviews of participant Grinnell’s book (1996), James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald asserted that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule and the like. But Grinnell, in that very book, asserted truthfully, repeatedly and consistently that Moffatt had scheduled a date for arrival in Baker Lake (the terminus of the trip).
3. Charlie Mahler asserted that a plodding pace was in part responsible for Moffatt’s death.
4. Eleven independent sources evince that Moffatt had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake: The New York Times, the Manchester Ledger, the Boston Sunday Advertiser, the Winnipeg Tribune, the RCAF, the RCMP, the Baker Lake detachment of the RCMP, the Moffatt family (especially his wife Carol), participant Grinnell (in his book, not his article), participant Lanouette, and participant Pessl.
Absent from this list is the Sports Illustrated article as such.
5. More generally, no barrenlands party (even the Tyrrell 1893 party, whose track Moffatt followed in part) ever had, indeed no such party could have had, a highly prescriptive schedule (the extreme case being a day-by-day schedule). The whims of the weather forbid such; even the Tyrrell party was sidelined on more than one occasion.

Summary.
The evidence, the bulk of which was available to his accusers at the time, begs leave to differ with the assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor, James Murphy, Andrew MacDonald and Charlie Mahler, namely that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule and the like.
The cause of Moffatt’s death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Timeline of the schedule-related Moffatt literature.
1959.
Publication of the Sports Illustrated articles. Issues of
9 March 1959 Man against the Barren Grounds (pp 68-76) and
16 March 1959 Danger and Sacrifice (pp 80-88).
Reader responses were posted at
http://www.si.com/vault/1959/04/06/604104/19th-hole-the-readers-take-over
Contents include the New York Times article of 24 September 1955.
1988.
Publication of Grinnell’s article.
Grinnell, George J. Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment. Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.
1996.
Publication of Grinnell’s book (first edition).
Grinnell, George. A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996).
The editions of 2005 and 2010 are believed not to have been used in the Moffatt literature.
1996.
Reviews of Grinnell’s book by James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald.
Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11.
Online version of Murphy’s review. http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html
2000.
The Tragic Trips…1955 – The Moffat Dubawnt River trip..
Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000, pp 5&6.
2005.
Publication of two articles (identical at first glance) by Charlie Mahler. Contents include comments of Bob Thum and others.
Article 1. Down a Dead Man’s River, Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
Article 2. Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
The formerly active URL (provided just in case).
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm

Paddling in the barrenlands.
1. The purpose of the Tyrrell-Tyrrell party of 1893 was to explore and document lands not before seen by those of European descent.
2. These days, the purpose of most recreational parties is to experience the barrenlands. But some who paddle there do so rather in order to prove something, an act that those who respect the land find distasteful; I provide an example later.
3. The purpose of the Moffatt party of 1955 was none of these. Moffatt went there in order to document the barrenlands, by film, photos and journals. And so the party ad-libed, stopping to photograph the caribou and the artifacts left by the native people, to film the running of rapids, etc, as the occasion arose.
4. Moffatt was fully aware that the party could not dally, for he possessed the weather-related evidence of the books of the Tyrrell brothers, plus other documents.
5. With respect to the schedule, Moffatt had only a tentative arrival date in Baker Lake. It was 15 September, with a grace period of seven days before the air search was started; indeed, the search began on 22 September.
With one eye on the accusatory literature, I mention that Moffatt had chosen not one waypoint to be reached by a particular date.
6. The barrenlands are not Algonquin or Temagami or the BWCAW, for example, where a day-by-day schedule verges on being mandatory. No party paddling in the barrenlands ever had or could have had anything as detailed as a day-by-day schedule. Even the Tyrrell party of 1893 could not paddle every day; inclement weather forced even it to lay over on occasion.
When the wind is up, everyone stays in camp, especially tourists like us.
And so I ask that the reader reflect on the assertions (documented later) of the Sports Illustrated editor, James Murphy, Andrew MacDonald and Charlie Mahler that Moffatt died because of he had no schedule.
7. The Moffatt party had no day-by day schedule, nor could it have had one. But it did have the one essential ingredient, namely a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, as evinced by the eleven independent sources documented above.
8. Additional material is provided in Sub-Appendix 3. Barrenlands paddling in general and the Moffatt party’s response to the wind.
9. Perhaps the reader is already able to assess assertions that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule and the like.

Moffatt’s preparations.
Moffatt possessed the books of both Joseph B Tyrrell and James W Tyrrell, and
he had obtained copies of JBT’s maps (which show many features, including many rapids and falls), and
he had corresponded with JBT, and
he had obtained a copy of JBT’s journal (which differs from his book; likely the same as his report).
And so I am perhaps justified to conclude that Moffatt was well prepared for the 1955 trip; in particular, I suggest that he knew what to expect of mid-September weather.
Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Moffatt had told the RCMP representative in Baker Lake to expect the party on 15 September, with a grace period of a week before the air search was begun. I possess no evidence regarding what, if any, information Moffatt had obtained from the RCMP there.

Comparison of dates for the Tyrrell and Moffatt parties.
Sources. Pessl’s book, at the tops of his pages 17, 41, 69, 129 and 144.
1. Entry-exit dates for Dubawnt Lake.
Tyrrell. 7-17 August, 1893
Moffatt. 21-27 August, 1955.
Other dates for the parties are provided in Sub-Appendix 1.
2. Dates for arrival in Baker Lake.
The Tyrrell party arrived on 2 September [Robertson, p 162], continued to the coast of Hudson Bay (at Chesterfield Inlet), then went down it to Churchill (the last part by sled) and beyond. Aside. Pessl [private communication] suggested this to be the source for Grinnell’s false assertion that the Moffatt party was scheduled to arrive there on 2 September.
As noted above, Moffatt’s arrival was scheduled for 15 September, with a grace period of seven days; the survivors arrived on 24 September.

Paddling the barrenlands and proving something.
1. Moffatt.
He was an American pacifist (a Quaker) who volunteered before December 1941 to serve in the British army as an ambulance driver. Under fire in both Africa and Italy, literally for years, he took the wounded and the dying from the front of the battles to the aid stations.
Let the reader decide whether Moffatt had anything to prove when he chose to paddle the Dubawnt.
2. Thum.
Let Bob Thum describe the mission of his 1966 party.
Moffatt is precisely why we took the trip… I thought experienced trippers could cover Tyrrell’s route safely and skillfully, which we did… Those guys had no business being up there… [Thum, in Che-Mun, Outfit 122, Autumn 2005]
Response 1.
To me, it is no great reach to conclude that the mission of the Thum party was to show up a dead man. Opinion. Such grace, such courage.
Response 2.
With respect to Thum’s safely and skillfully, which we did, it is perhaps not beside the point that Thum possessed information not available to Moffatt. In particular, Thum knew the rapids where Moffatt died (those above Marjorie Lake) to be dangerous in the extreme.

Summary of the evidence available to Moffatt’s accusers in the matter of the schedule.
Of special interest for the assessment of assertions that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule are the following four publications, all of which were available to every accuser in the matter of the schedule.

Publication 1. The New York Times article (1959).
Planes flew over the tundra…looking for a trace of a six-man expedition. The group was a week overdue… [New York Times article, dated 24 September 1955. SI article, top left of p 71]
A question.
How might the later assertions of Murphy, MacDonald and others (that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule) have differed had they read the Sports Illustrated article?

Publication 2. The Sports Illustrated article (1959).
Passage 1.
a week behind…schedule [SI article, upper right column on page 76; dated 8 August]
Passage 2.
nine days behind schedule [SI article, lower right column on p 76; dated between 15 and 18 August].
A question.
How might the later assertions of Murphy, MacDonald and others (that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule) have differed had they read the Sports Illustrated article?

Publication 3. Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
The introduction contains the passage late in the season and behind schedule. The passage is almost certainly due to the editor, rather than to Grinnell. The source for the part behind schedule is likely the similar remark in the SI article (not referenced in Grinnell’s article).
A question.
How might the later assertions of Murphy, MacDonald and others (that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule) have differed had they read Grinnell’s Canoe article?

Publication 4. Grinnell’s book (1996).
Especially important is the evidence provided in Grinnell’s book, for the most influential schedule-related accusations were published in what were alleged to be reviews (by Murphy and MacDonald) of that book.
In his book, Grinnell wanders aimlessly between assertions
that there was only a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake and
that there was a schedule more prescriptive than an arrival date (say a date for exiting Dubawnt Lake, not that the Moffatt part had such).
But he repeatedly and consistently asserts that the party had a date for arrival in Baker Lake; indeed, he gave the date for that arrival, though incorrectly.
A request.
I ask that the reader assess, in the light of this evidence of Grinnell’s book, the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule, this in what both alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book.

Summary of the evidence available to Moffatt’s accusers in the matter of the schedule.
A schedule for arrival in Baker Lake was documented in all four of the earliest publications regarding Moffatt’s death. All four were available to every accuser in the matter of Moffatt’s schedule.
The evidence of Grinnell’s book is of particular importance, for the accusations of Murphy and MacDonald were made in what were alleged to be reviews of that very book.
Unfortunately for the reputation of a person unable to respond, the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald were accepted, indeed promulgated, in the accusatory literature that followed.

The New York Times article (1955).
Comment. The following is the full text of the summary provided above.
On Sept. 24, 1955, the following dispatch appeared in “The New York Times”:
“PRINCE ALBERT, SASK. Planes flew over the tundra of the Arctic region today looking for a trace of a six-man expedition. The group was a week overdue on a 900-mile canoe trip.
Led by a veteran woodsman, Arthur Moffatt, 36, of Norwich, Vt., the explorers had provisions for 80 days. They have been gone 85 days, but officials said there were deer and elk in the area that the men could shoot for food.
The group left Stony Rapids, Sask., en route to Baker Lake, 150 miles south of the Arctic Circle.
[Sports Illustrated article of 1959, top of p 71]
Question 1. What interpretation of the passage The group was a week overdue… is possible but that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, but was a week or more late in arriving there?
Question 2. Does not this evidence of the New York Times, alone and in itself, refute every assertion (especially those of Murphy and MacDonald) that the Moffatt party had no schedule for arrival in Baker Lake?
Lesser matters.
1. 24 September is the publication date of the NYT article, not necessarily the date when it was written. By chance, it is also the date when the survivors reached Baker Lake.
2. Arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, with a grace period of a week before an air search was begun. Indeed, that search was begun on 22 September.
3. A minor point regarding the trip distance (the 900 miles).
Before the trip started (but after writing his Prospectus, provided on page 71 of the SI article), Moffatt decided to exit at Baker Lake (rather than continue to Chesterfield Inlet), thereby shortening the trip by ~200 miles (~300 km). That is, the figure of 900 miles for the distance between Black Lake and Baker Lake (given in the NYT article and elsewhere in the Moffatt literature) is incorrect.
Reference. Ancillary 4. Distances.
4. Even lesser items: deer means caribou; elk is risible.

The Sports Illustrated article.
Passage 1. a week behind…schedule [upper right column on page 76; 8 August].
Passage 2. nine days behind schedule [lower right column on p 76; between 15 and 18 August].
Interpretation.
What is one to make of these passages but
first that the Moffatt party had a day-by-day schedule, and
second that it was days behind it on two documented occasions?
The evidence.
Nowhere in Moffatt’s journal (possessed in full by the SI editor) exists there a reference to a day-by-day schedule, even so much as a waypoint to be reached by some date (even an approximate one).
Moffatt’s journal documents only that the party was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 15 September, but even this had a grace period of a week.
Again, barrenlands weather forbids a day-by-day schedule.
Again, even the Tyrrell party of 1893 had to stay in camp on occasion.
Comment.
Given its mission to document the barrenlands, the Moffatt party paused in order to photograph the caribou and the items left by the native people, to film the running of rapids, etc. And so, even apart from the constraints imposed by the weather, the Moffatt party could not have had a day-by-day schedule.
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on the credibility of the Sports Illustrated article.

The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
Assertion 1.
He [Moffatt] was a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule. [SI article, upper right column on p 76, 8 August].
Discussion is provided below.
Assertion 2.
Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article; bottom right of page 76, appearing between the Moffatt journal entries for 15 and 18 August].
Comment 1.
I agree that the days were growing colder (on average), and also that the Moffatt party was travelling in the barrenlands.
Comment 2.
The items provisions dwindle and game grows scarce are addressed in
Appendix 6. Food.
Comment 3.
The items races against winter, desperate haste and ultimate chance are addressed in the following.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Comment 4.
And so we are left with the nine days behind schedule part of the assertion.

Discussion of the schedule-related parts of Assertions 1 and 2.
I have no quarrel with statements that Moffatt knew the record of the Tyrrell party (1893), for such is indeed the case. Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Key passage 1.
He [Moffatt] was a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule. [Assertion 1]
Interpretation.
The Moffatt party had reached some unspecified waypoint (the entrance to a lake, the exit from one, an esker, or some other prominent feature) on 8 August, ~seven days later than the Tyrrell party.
Key passage 2.
Already nine days behind schedule. [Assertion 2]
Interpretation.
The schedule can be only that of Tyrrell party of 1893.
The main point of the editor’s remark is that the Moffatt party was nine days behind schedule in reaching a second waypoint, also unspecified.
Response to both passages.
The participants beg leave to differ with the Sports Illustrated editor.
The Moffatt party had not even one waypoint to be reached by some date.
It had only a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, but even this was elastic.

Summary of the schedule-related parts of Assertions 1 and 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor.
Given
first that the Moffatt party had no day-by-day schedule (indeed it could not have had one; even the Tyrrell party of 1893 had none), and
second that the Moffatt party had not even one waypoint to be reached by some date (it had only an arrival date),
the evidence suggests that the Sports Illustrated editor knowingly and falsely represented the track of the Tyrrell party (1893) to be the schedule of the Moffatt party (1955).
It is then perhaps not beside the point that the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September. [Sports Illustrated, page 82, lower right column].
General comments.
My best efforts failed to obtain full access to Moffatt’s journal; only excerpts are available to me.
But I found that some excerpts provided in the SI article had been severely edited, and that others had been selected to make points detrimental to Moffatt.
Conclusion.
I am unable to trust any content in the SI article that is not confirmed by a source known to be reliable; those sources are identified in the paragraph that follows.
Foretaste.
If I may get ahead of the story considerably, the SI editor redacted the key phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for 13 September.

General comments regarding the evidence of the participants.
The evidence of Moffatt.
I have learned to trust completely the excerpts from Moffatt’s journal as provided by Pessl (in his book and in private correspondence).
I have learned to trust, in the first instance, no corresponding contents of the Sports Illustrated article.
The evidence of participants Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.
I have learned to trust completely the published evidence of all four, and also the contents of private correspondence from them
The evidence of participant Grinnell,
as published in his article (1988) and his book (1996 edition).
I regret to state that I have learned to trust, in the first instance, no content of either Grinnell publication.

Grinnell’s publications and the matter of a schedule.
0. Apart from the Sports Illustrated article (which contains edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal), Grinnell’s article and his book were the only primary sources (the writing of participants) available for material regarding the schedule.
1. I must repeat that I trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by sources that I know to be reliable.
2. As best I can tell (he is remarkably uninformative regarding the matter), Grinnell uses the term schedule in three senses:
(a) a date only for arrival in Baker Lake,
(b) an arrival date plus something more prescriptive (say even as little as a date to exit Dubawnt Lake),
(c) participant Franck’s registration date.
But he fails to distinguish between them. As best I recall at the moment, he does not refer to the record of the Tyrrell trip of 1893.
3. Grinnell, like Murphy and MacDonald who wrote later, failed to explain what he meant by the term schedule. And that failure matters, for schedule could have several interpretations, as discussed elsewhere.
But Grinnell repeatedly and consistently asserted that the Moffatt party had scheduled a date for arrival in Baker Lake. And, at times, he had in mind something more prescriptive.
The reader will soon see what Murphy and MacDonald made of Grinnell’s evidence.

Interjection. The evidentiary basis of the Moffatt literature.
The publications of participant Pessl (his book includes excerpts from the journal of participant Franck) appeared too late to influence that literature (except in the trivial matter noted elsewhere).
The publications of participant LeFavour are not generally available.
The sole published evidence of participant Lanouette is the edited excerpt (I consider it to be a faithful one) from his journal for 14 September, as published in the SI article. The unfaithful version of that excerpt provided in Grinnell’s book went unmentioned in the accusatory literature.
Summary. The entire accusatory literature is based on three items:
the edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal as provided in the SI article,
Grinnell’s article, and
Grinnell’s book.
Conclusion. Given that I learned to trust no content of these three publications unless it is confirmed by the evidence of participants Moffatt (but only in journal excerpts provided by Pessl), Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl,
it follows that I do not trust, in the first instance, any content of the accusatory literature.

The evidence of Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Grinnell, George J.
Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment. Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.

Excerpt 1.
…late in the season and behind schedule, they met disaster. [p 18]
Comment. This assertion appears in the Canoe editor’s Introduction to Grinnell’s article. Also appearing there is a reference to the Sports Illustrated article.
Aside. The Canoe editor was familiar with the contents of the SI article, but s/he made no mention of those contents as they affect the contents of Grinnell’s article.
Conclusion. The unidentified source for the behind schedule part of the Canoe editor’s assertion was the SI editor’s remarks a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule and nine days behind schedule, both of which I discuss above.

Excerpt 2.
We demanded a schedule. Moffatt’s idea of learning to live with nature meant traveling at a rather leisurely pace, but on July 18th, we bowmen…threatened to go on strike if we weren’t provided with a schedule. Moffatt replied that the wind did not blow on schedule. [p 20, top right].
Aside.
Moffatt’s wind remark is addressed below.
Response 1.
Upstream travel on the Chipman River was brutal and so Grinnell’s assertion that the pace was leisurely on that leg is, I gotta say it, absurd. And how could any party, ever, have had a schedule for that leg?
Response 2.
Given that the height of land was crossed only on 17 July [Pessl, p 43], Grinnell’s assertion that, on the very next day (18 July), the bowmen…threatened to go on strike if we weren’t provided with a schedule is well beyond strange, to me anyway.
Again, how was a detailed schedule possible for that reach? And how could the party have gone much faster in the difficult, trying circumstances up to and including 17 July?
Response 3.
Thereafter (until 3 August, when the group held a meeting and decided unanimously to increase the pace), the pace was not leisurely, so that Moffatt could learn to live with nature, as asserted by Grinnell.
Rather, travel was slow in this leg largely so that Moffatt and Pessl could film and photograph; these were the very purposes of the trip!
And it is not beside the point that, on 3 August, the party decided unanimously to increase the pace.
Reference. Appendix 5. Pace.

Excerpt 3.
… we had one last dispute over the schedule…. [p 21, middle of the left column].

Summary.
Excerpt 1 (an editorial insertion) asserts that there was a schedule
Excerpt 2 (due to Grinnell) asserts that there was no schedule.
Excerpt 3 (due to Grinnell) is ambiguous.

Conclusion.
Grinnell’s article provides
both the editorial assertion that there was a schedule,
and what I assess to be weak evidence of Grinnell that there was no schedule.

The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996).
Comment 1.
Again, the term schedule is far too vague, for it could mean only a date for arrival in Baker Lake, or a day-by-day schedule, or anything between those extremes.
But the distinction is vitally important for an informed discussion
both of the evidence of Grinnell’s book
and of the accusations made by Murphy and MacDonald in their reviews of that book.
I use the term arrival schedule for a date to arrive in Baker Lake, nothing more.
And I use the term prescriptive schedule for a plan that includes something in addition to an arrival date (a waypoint if you like), be it ever so humble (say only a date for exiting Dubawnt Lake, not that the Moffatt party had any such date).
In both his article and his book, Grinnell unnecessarily contributed to the confusion by failing to distinguish possible interpretations of the term schedule. In their reviews of his book, Murphy and MacDonald continued that tradition.
Comment 2.
I had thought that everyone who had paddled in the barrenlands (as had one of Moffatt’s accusers in the matter) knew that the weather (especially the wind) forbids the extreme case of a prescriptive schedule, namely a day-by-day schedule. Even the Tyrrell party of 1893 was forced to stay in camp on several occasions.
Caution.
In the writings of the other participants, I found no confirmation of the following 11 comments of Grinnell. Again, I have learned to place no confidence in anything he writes unless it is confirmed by reliable sources. But, although I distrust all Grinnell statements that follow, I must provide them because were the only items (I hesitate to call them evidence) used by Murphy and MacDonald in making their accusations of Moffatt.
Item 1.
Although we were far behind schedule right from the beginning… [Grinnell book, p 17].
And so there was a prescriptive schedule right from the beginning of the trip.
But wait! What then is one to make of Grinnell’s We demanded a schedule. [Grinnell article, p 20, top right]?
Does the evidence of Grinnell’s book then not refute an assertion of his own article?
Item 2.
(a) …what are your thoughts about Art’s schedule? [Grinnell book, p 57, LeFavour speaking].
(b) What schedule! [Lanouette’s reply].
Interpretation. LeFavour suggested that there existed a prescriptive schedule, but the party was not sticking to it; Lanouette was being sarcastic.
Item 3.
I wanted the assurance that we would eventually reach … Baker Lake on September 2nd, as planned, and a schedule seemed to me to be the best way of guaranteeing that. [p 58].
(a) Interpretation. Grinnell has changed his tune. Now there was no prescriptive schedule, only a planned date for arrival in Baker Lake. Grinnell wanted something more prescriptive.
Aside. 2 September is off by 13 days.
(b) Pessl’s question Is it just a coincidence that Tyrrell arrived Baker Lake on Sept. 2? [private correspondence] alerted me to the possibility that Grinnell had confused (in his writing) dates for the Tyrrell trip with dates for the Moffatt trip; I now believe such to be the case. But I insist that the Moffatt party had a date for arrival in Baker Lake, namely 15 September, as I describe below, in detail.
(c) The main point is Grinnell’s statement that there was a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
Item 4.
…we bowmen…would go on strike if we were not given a schedule. [p 62].
Interpretation. No prescriptive schedule.
Item 5.
We bowmen were tired of being governed by the anarchy of wind and rain… [p 62].
The anarchy of wind is exactly what Moffatt meant by his remark …the wind did not blow on schedule…. Everyone who has paddled in the barrens (as had at least one accuser in the matter of the schedule) knows that fact and its consequence: When the wind is up, you stay in camp.
Item 6.
This remark, which has no relevance to the Moffatt trip, is included only for completeness.
On Art’s previous Albany trips, things had been run on schedule. [p 68].
Comment. I know of no evidence that supports this assertion of Grinnell. But if one accepts it, then
Moffatt had used a something like a prescriptive schedule previously.
Again, Moffatt could not possibly have had such a schedule for the Dubawnt trip; barrenlands trips differ considerably from those farther south (like the Albany), because no trees means no shelter from the wind.
Item 7.
Skip…seemed to have desired a more civilized schedule, something along the lines of shift work at General Motors…but Art only smiled sweetly and sipped his tea. [p 146].
Interpretation. Pessl wanted a more prescriptive schedule but Moffatt did not have one.
Item 8.
In the last two months, we had fallen about a month behind schedule. [p 162, ~29 August].
Comment. Grinnell changed his tune again. Now there was again a prescriptive schedule, for the party had fallen…behind schedule..
The reference is likely to the remark in item 3 above [p 17; 18 July], but I fail to understand why it was made on ~29 August. To put the matter another way, how are Grinnell’s remarks of ~six weeks earlier relevant on ~29 August?
A relatively minor point. The month estimate is far outside any constraint imposed by reality. Even with time lost due to the tragedy and to the weather, the party arrived in Baker Lake on 24 September, 9 days later than scheduled (two days after the end of the grace period), somewhat less than the month claimed by Grinnell.
Item 9.
…in the early days of the trip, when it first became apparent that we were falling behind schedule… [p 163].
Again. There was a prescriptive schedule from the very beginning of the trip.
Item 10.
On p 166, Grinnell again mentions (indirectly, again incorrectly) an arrival date of 2 September.
Item 11.
…the impending disaster which Art and the rest of us were so obviously courting. [p 167].
Comment. Get a grip, George! There was nothing obvious about the tragedy, even afterward.
Reference. The assertions of James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald.
Murphy. Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary, contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
MacDonald 1.
As the summer-length trip wore on, and the progress of their three Chestnut canoes lapsed further and further behind schedule, anxiousness and impending climax accompanies the daily accounts.
MacDonald 2.
One of the implications of a quasi-religious resistance to a pragmatic plan of travel was the death of Arthur Moffat.
Source for these assertions. Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11.

Introduction. The schedule-related evidence available to Murphy and MacDonald.
Given that I document fully above the evidence available to Murphy and MacDonald, perhaps I may be excused if I provide here only a few excerpts.
1. The Sports Illustrated article of 1959 provides the two passages
(a) He [Moffatt] was a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule [SI article, upper right column on page 76, 8 August] and
(b) Already nine days behind schedule [SI article, bottom right column on p 76, 15-18 August].
What interpretation of these two passages is possible but that the Moffatt party had a day-by-day schedule or something very close to one?
2. The New York Times article of 24 September 1955 provides the passage Planes flew over the tundra…looking for a trace of a six-man expedition. The group was a week overdue on a 900-mile canoe trip.
What interpretation of this passage is possible but that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake?
3. Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988) provides
weak evidence that there was no schedule, but also
the editorial assertion behind schedule, which evinces that there was a prescriptive schedule at some level.
4. Grinnell’s book provides the passage In the last two months, we had fallen about a month behind schedule. [p 162, ~29 August].
5. Conclusion.
Before writing their reviews of Grinnell’s book, Murphy and MacDonald did not consult
the New York Times article (1955), or
the Sports Illustrated article (1959), or
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Worse, they failed to read Grinnell’s book carefully enough to notice his In the last two months, we had fallen about a month behind schedule.
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on the extent to which these failures attest
to the diligence of Murphy and MacDonald,
to their commitment to get the facts straight,
before making their accusations of Moffatt (a fellow paddler), who (need it be said?) was unable to respond.
5. The evidence of Grinnell’s book.

As documented above, Grinnell asserted
first that there was a prescriptive schedule (something in addition to an arrival date in Baker Lake),
then that there was only a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, and
finally that there was again a prescriptive schedule.
And so the evidence of Grinnell’s book is garbled, indeed self-contradictory, regarding the existence of a prescriptive schedule.
But Grinnell never wavered in one respect. He repeatedly and consistently asserted that was a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
Next, we see what Murphy and MacDonald made of this evidence of Grinnell’s book, in what were asserted to be reviews of that very book.

The assertion of James Murphy.
Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary, contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11.
This was made in what was alleged to be a review of the book Grinnell, George. A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996).
I call this an assertion because Murphy provided no evidence in support of any of its three parts; perhaps I may be indulged for noting that Moffatt was unable to respond to it.
My use of the term alleged is conscious, given that Murphy went well beyond reviewing that book, by making the above assertion regarding the causes of Moffatt’s death.

1. Lack of food.
I ask the reader (come to think of it, I ask also Murphy) to assess Murphy’s assertion that Moffatt died due to lack of food, this made in his review of Grinnell’s book, in the light of the following food-related evidence provided (in Grinnell’s book itself) for the crucial seven weeks (5 August to 14 September) before Moffatt’s death:
Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [Grinnell book, 5 August, pp 97&98].
Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
…picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
…we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
… I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
…we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [p 158]
The acquisition of the supplies from the cache, this on 7 September.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [pp 180 & 181].
The reader may wish to consult
Appendix 6. Food for the full evidence regarding the Moffatt party’s supply of food.

2. Lack of proper equipment.
I refer the reader to Appendix 3. Equipment for the evidence regarding Murphy’s assertion that Moffatt died due to lack of proper equipment.
I record here only my belief that George Luste, whom I knew reasonably well, would have been much angered had he known that Murphy had used his recommendations for paddlers circa 1996 to defame Moffatt, who died forty-one years earlier.

3. In passing, I note that Murphy, in his review of Grinnell’s book, devoted much of a paragraph to a discussion of whether Moffatt was a bodhisatva.
At best, Moffatt was a cracked bodhisatva, a partially enlightened being with a fatal flaw. One who is doomed to repeat his mistakes in an endless cycle….
Opinion.
Better use of that space would have been for Murphy to provide evidence in support of his assertions of Arthur Moffatt, who, it seems necessary to say, was unable to respond to them.

4. Demystification.
Later, Murphy’s editor explained that by lack of a planned itinerary, Murphy meant what most of us would lack of schedule. [Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000, pp 5&6].

A request.
I ask that the reader assess Murphy’s assertion that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule in the light of his only documented source, namely Grinnell’s book:
first there was a prescriptive schedule (something in addition to an arrival date in Baker Lake),
then there was only a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, and
finally there was again a prescriptive schedule.
But Grinnell never wavered in one respect: He repeatedly and consistently asserted that was a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.

The assertions of Andrew MacDonald.
Both assertions were made in what was alleged to be a review of the book Grinnell, George. A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996).
My use of the term alleged is conscious, for MacDonald went beyond reviewing Grinnell’s book, in that he asserted that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule.

Begin aside.
In passing, I note that MacDonald reproduced two passages from Grinnell’s book, both of which I thought deserving of replies.
MacDonald, passage 1.
Referring to Grinnell, he offered the following:
This sense of humour is exhibited in a comment on Art Moffatt’s abdication of leadership, whose apparent quest for inner peace paralyzed the pace of the trip, and left a void unfilled: “Skip found himself in the difficult position of having become second-in-command to a cup of tea.” [Grinnell book, top of p 146]
Response. Pessl’s book documents that Moffatt did not abdicate leadership at any time. Perhaps MacDonald would have made better use of this space to provide evidence for his assertion that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule.
MacDonald, passage 2.
Our only hope of survival lay in living off the land. If we were lucky to run across a herd of caribou, we would probably survive. If not, we should expect the same fate as Hornby, Adlard and Christian, death by starvation. [Grinnell book, top of p 91; the date (not provided) must have been before 4 August, when the first caribou was sighted].
Response. The quote Our only hope of survival…by starvation. is entirely accurate as it stands. But MacDonald omitted mention of the contrary food-related evidence of Grinnell’s book, the very subject of his review. I refer the reader, and particularly MacDonald, to the evidence presented above in my response to the food-related assertion of Murphy.
1. An example of food from the land. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [Grinnell book, 5 August, pp 97&98].
2. Food from provisions. As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [Grinnell book, 7 September, pp 180 & 181].
Reference. Appendix 6. Food.
Suggestion regarding both MacDonald passages.
Perhaps better use of the space available to MacDonald would have been provide evidence in support of his accusations of Moffatt.
End aside.

Assertion 1 of Andrew MacDonald.
As the summer-length trip wore on, and the progress of their three Chestnut canoes lapsed further and further behind schedule, anxiousness and impending climax accompanies the daily accounts. [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, bottom of p 5.]
Comment. I use the term assertion because MacDonald provided neither source nor supporting evidence.
Question.
What interpretation of this passage is possible but that the Moffatt party possessed a schedule more detailed than a mere date for arrival in Baker Lake?
But wait! What then is one to make of the following MacDonald assertion that Moffatt died due to lack of a pragmatic plan of travel, aka a schedule?

Assertion 2 of Andrew MacDonald.
One of the implications of a quasi-religious resistance to a pragmatic plan of travel was the death of Arthur Moffat. [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, last paragraph on p 11.]
Comment. I use the term assertion because MacDonald provided neither source nor supporting evidence.

Demystification. Later, his editor explained that by lack of a pragmatic plan of travel, MacDonald meant lack of schedule. [Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000, pp 5&6].
Rephrasing.
MacDonald asserted that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule.

Discussion of MacDonald’s assertions.
1. What is one to make of MacDonald’s passage the progress of their three Chestnut canoes lapsed further and further behind schedule…
but first that the Moffatt party had a schedule more prescriptive than a date for arrival in Baker Lake,
and second that the party was not adhering to it?
2. And what is one to make of MacDonald’s passage One of the implications of a quasi-religious resistance to a pragmatic plan of travel was the death of Arthur Moffat
but that Arthur Moffatt died due to a lack of schedule?
3. Admission. My best efforts have failed to reconcile the two passages.

Discussion of the schedule-related assertions of Murphy and MacDonald.
Item 1. What evidence did Murphy and MacDonald provide to substantiate their claims that Moffatt died because the party lacked a planned itinerary or a pragmatic plan of travel or a schedule?
The answer: None. Murphy and MacDonald made only assertions.
And so I ask. Did Moffatt, the leader of the trip (and a fellow paddler), being unable to defend himself, not deserve that evidence be presented to support the suggestion that he was guilty of his own death?
Item 2. The articles of Murphy and MacDonald were made in what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book (1996).
I use the term alleged because both went beyond writing reviews, for they asserted that Arthur Moffatt died because of lack of schedule. But the reader will find, in Grinnell’s very book, repeated and consistent references to a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake. Indeed, Grinnell asserts there several times that the Moffatt party had a schedule more prescriptive than an arrival date.
Item 3. Murphy and MacDonald used the term schedule vaguely and loosely, failing to distinguish possibilities such as
(i) Something like we’ll arrive in Baker Lake when we get there.
(ii) Only a date for arrival for arrival in Baker Lake.
(iii) A day-by-day schedule such as many parties use in Algonquin, Temagami, the BWCAW and the like.
(iv) Something between the extremes of items (ii) and (iii); examples: perhaps a week-by-week schedule, or a date to enter Dubawnt Lake….
(v) Or whatever else that was in their minds (they declined to be specific).
Item 4. With respect to the possibility of a day-by-day schedule, I mention yet again that no party (recreational, professional, whatever), ever had or ever could have had such a highly prescriptive schedule for travel in the barrenlands. The vagaries of the weather, especially the wind, forbid any such schedule. Even the Tyrrell party of 1893 had no schedule; even it was weather-bound on occasion.
In this connection, the reader might reflect on the fact that one defamer in the matter of the schedule had paddled the Morse River (a tributary of the Back River) and so was no stranger to the barrenlands and its winds.
Item 5. Evidence available to Murphy and MacDonald but not mentioned by them.
(a) The New York Times article states that the Moffatt party was a week overdue in arriving at Baker Lake.
(b) The Sports Illustrated article contains the phrases a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule and Already nine days behind schedule.
(c) Grinnell’s Canoe article contains the editorial comment that the party was behind schedule.
(d) Most importantly of all, in his book (the very subject of the reviews of Murphy and MacDonald), Grinnell asserts repeatedly and consistently that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
And so I ask the reader to consider the schedule-related assertions of Murphy and MacDonald in the light of this evidence of their only source, namely Grinnell’s book.
Item 6. Surely an essential ingredient of a schedule is a date for arrival in Baker Lake. By asserting that the Moffatt party lacked a schedule, do not Murphy and MacDonald then assert that Moffatt’s schedule amounted to something like “we’ll arrive in Baker Lake when we get there”?
Hmmm. The New York Times, the Manchester Ledger, the Boston Sunday Advertiser, the Winnipeg Tribune, the RCAF, the RCMP, the Baker Lake detachment of the RCMP, the Moffatt family (especially his wife Carol), participant Grinnell, participant Lanouette, and participant Pessl, beg leave to differ with Murphy and MacDonald.
Every one of the eleven attests that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake. Perhaps one example suffices: The New York Times documents the beginning of the air search.
Item 7. More generally, what did Murphy and MacDonald mean (they did not explain) when they asserted that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule?
Were they asserting that the party had no schedule of any kind (not even a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake), and that the lack thereof was responsible for Moffatt’s death? If so, they are quite wrong, as evinced by the above.
Or were they asserting that the lack of a highly prescriptive schedule (the extreme case is a day-by-day one) was responsible for Moffatt’s death? If so, they are quite wrong, for Moffatt died because he had been misled by the advice of J B Tyrrell.
Or did Murphy and MacDonald prefer to make vague, unsubstantiated accusations that lack of planning was responsible for Moffatt’s death? Only they can inform us of their intentions; they didn’t do so at the time and they are unlikely to help us now.
A request.
I ask that the reader assess the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald, namely that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule, in the light of these evidences, in particular the evidence of Grinnell’s book, the very subject of their reviews.
An unfortunate consequence.
Murphy and MacDonald misled their own editor to assert the following:
Moffat, a seasoned traveller, took a group of young men on a slow and undisciplined trip down the Dubawnt. Their lack of schedule meant they took risks to catchup on time and Moffatt died of exposure after they dumped in a large rapid they did not scout. [Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000, pp 5&6].
The tragedy is mentioned also on p 4, but with a slip of the pen.
The cause of Moffatt’s death.
Contrary to the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald, the matter of the schedule played no role in the death of Arthur Moffatt.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

QUESTION. IS THE FOLLOWING NECESSARY?

Review of the Murphy-MacDonald assertions regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death.
Murphy’s assertion that Moffatt died due to lack of proper equipment is addressed in Appendix 3. Equipment.
Murphy’s assertion that Moffatt died due to lack of food is addressed in Appendix 6. Food.
The assertions in question are then the following.
Murphy. lack of a planned itinerary, contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
MacDonald 1. As the summer-length trip wore on, and the progress of their three Chestnut canoes lapsed further and further behind schedule…
MacDonald 2. One of the implications of a quasi-religious resistance to a pragmatic plan of travel was the death of Arthur Moffatt.

The schedule-related assertions of Murphy and Macdonald, confronted by the evidence of Grinnell’s book.
Reminder. Grinnell’s book was the sole source used by both Murphy and MacDonald.
Reminder. Murphy’s assertions that lack of food and lack of proper equipment were also responsible for Moffatt’s death are addressed in the following.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Summary of the schedule-related evidence of Grinnell’s book.
As I document in the paragraph The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996) (above),
Grinnell asserted
first that there was a prescriptive schedule (something in addition to an arrival date in Baker Lake),
then that there was only a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake,
finally that there was again a prescriptive schedule.
And so the evidence of Grinnell’s book is garbled, indeed self-contradictory, regarding the existence of a prescriptive schedule.
But Grinnell never wavered in one respect. He repeatedly and consistently asserted that was a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
Nevertheless, in their reviews of that very book, Murphy and MacDonald asserted (that is provided no evidence) that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule.

Discussion of the schedule-related assertions made by James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald.
1. The unstated but clear substance of their schedule-related accusations (I omit discussion here of Murphy’s accusations regarding lack of food and lack of proper equipment) is
that the Moffatt party wasted time early in the trip,
that Moffatt realised only very late that the party had get out fast in order to escape the onset of winter,
and so he threw caution to the winds, being unable to afford time to scout the rapids where he died. That is, both suggest that Moffatt was entirely responsible for his own death, due to his alleged lack of schedule.
In rebuttal, I point out to Murphy and MacDonald that Grinnell’s book (their only source) documents repeatedly and consistently that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
Their accusations are called into question also by the evidence regarding Moffatt’s preparations for the trip. From the books of the Tyrrell brothers (and likely also from correspondence with J B Tyrrell), Moffatt was well aware of the weather to be expected in September, as reported in Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
2. Neither Murphy nor MacDonald referred to the schedule-related evidence of three previous publications in which Moffatt’s death is mentioned:
the New York Times article (1955),
the Sports Illustrated article (1959), and
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
On the whole, the contents of these three publications refute the Murphy-MacDonald assertions that Moffatt died because of lack of schedule.
3. More seriously, the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald are refuted by the evidence of their only source, namely Grinnell’s book (1996). I refer the reader to the evidence provided in the previous paragraph.
4. Even today, twenty years after the publication of the Murphy-MacDonald articles, no evidence (as distinct from assertions) has surfaced that the Moffatt party took risks to catchup on time. The evidence continues to accumulate that Moffatt died for a reason unrelated to the lack of schedule alleged by Murphy and MacDonald; I refer here to J B Tyrrell’s maps.
5. Opinion. Given that Moffatt was dead and so unable to respond, perhaps he deserved that Murphy and MacDonald evince their accusations, rather than assert them.
6. Who are Murphy and MacDonald, that they assume the right to judge Moffatt?

Conclusions.
Eleven sources attest that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake. I refer the reader to the paragraph The Moffatt party had no schedule for arrival in Baker Lake? below.
In particular, in his book (the sole source used by Murphy and MacDonald), Grinnell asserts repeatedly that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake. As well, he asserts several times that the party had a schedule more prescriptive than an arrival date.
Nevertheless, Murphy and MacDonald (in their reviews of that very book), denied that the party had a schedule of any kind, one gathers even so much as an arrival date.
The Moffatt party did not take risks to catchup on time because of a lack of schedule as asserted by Murphy and MacDonald. In particular, the Moffatt party did not panic and so run the fatal rapids without a scout. Indeed, as I remark also elsewhere, the only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the fatal rapids. And, on the very day that he died, the party completed the portage around the entire rapids immediately above the fatal rapids. Do Murphy and MacDonald (and many others) really expect us to believe that, a few hours later, Moffatt suddenly realised that winter was fast approaching and so decided to forgo a scout?
The cause of Moffatt’s death was not lack of a planned itinerary, or lack of a pragmatic plan of travel, or lack of schedule, as alleged by Murphy and MacDonald. For that matter, neither was the cause lack of food or lack of proper equipment as alleged also by Murphy.
The evidence is rather that Moffatt party exercised due caution at all times, for example in the rapids below Nicholson Lake, those immediately below Dubawnt Lake, those immediately above Wharton Lake, and in particular those between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake.
The evidence is rather that the fatal rapids were run without a scout for one reason and one reason only. It is that J B Tyrrell had advised Moffatt that the fatal rapids were of no concern. And I suggest it not beside the point that that rapids advice of Tyrrell had proved reliable for eleven weeks previously. But JBT’s advice failed Moffatt on 14 September 1995.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Murphy and MacDonald suggest that, due to lack of schedule, Moffatt realised only very late in the game that he had to get off the river pdq, and so he threw caution to the winds and ran the fatal rapids in desperate haste without scouting them.
The evidence of Grinnell (as provided particularly in his book), and that of the other participants, begs leave to differ.
Comment.
I find it a considerable temptation, but assess it to be an excerise in futility, to speculate how the Murphy-MacDonald reviews of Grinnell’s book might have differed had either consulted any of the previous literature, namely
the 1959 Sports Illustrated article (with its two references to the schedule of the Moffatt party),
the 1959 New York Times article (with its reference to the start of the air search on 22 September), and
Grinnell’s 1988 Canoe article (which contains the passage late in the season and behind schedule).
On the other hand, perhaps we need not speculate, perhaps the answer is provided already in how Murphy and MacDonald treated the evidence of their only source, namely Grinnell’s book.
References to the cause.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Summary.
Contrary to the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald, Moffatt had scheduled a date (it was 15 September) for arrival in Baker Lake, as evinced by the eleven sources listed in my paragraph The Moffatt party had no schedule for arrival in Baker Lake? Included in that list is Grinnell’s book, the only source used by Murphy and MacDonald.
The Moffatt trip was not of the irresponsible We’ll arrive in Baker Lake when we get there variety, as Murphy and MacDonald suggest.
Given both the vagaries of the weather and the very purpose of the trip (namely to document the barrenlands), Moffatt could not have had, and did not have, a highly prescriptive schedule.
The cause of Moffatt’s death was not lack of schedule as asserted by Murphy and MacDonald. The cause was rather incorrect information provided by J B Tyrrell; his advice had proved correct for something like eleven weeks previously and so Moffatt followed it in the afternoon of 14 September.
Murphy and MacDonald failed Moffatt and the paddling community as a whole, for they made no mention of the contrary evidence (of both the New York Times article and the Sports Illustrated article) that Moffatt had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
General comments.
1. Are we are to believe that Moffatt left his wife Carol and their two children for months without telling her when he planned to arrive in Baker Lake? Of course he told her. [Carol Moffatt’s telegram to Peter Franck’s father. Pessl, p 141]
2. Are we are to believe that Moffatt did not tell the RCMP of his plan. Of course he told the RCMP. Had he not done so, why was the air search was started on 22 September? [New York Times article, on p 71 of the Sports Illustrated article]
3. Assertions (in particular those made by Murphy and MacDonald) that there existed no schedule for arrival in Baker Lake are refuted by multiple, independent sources. And I suggest it not beside the point that assertions of Murphy and MacDonald were made in reviews of Grinnell’s book, which evidence refutes those assertions.
4. More generally, eleven independent sources evince that there was a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake; all but Grinnell (need it be said) agree that the date was 15 September, with a week’s grace period.
5. Those Moffatt accusers who knew the evidence failed to mention that the Moffatt party had portaged the rapids immediately above the fatal ones.
Is anyone so credulous as to believe that, having that very morning completed a portage, only a few hours later Moffatt was in such desperate haste to reach Baker Lake before freeze-up that he chose to run the fatal rapids without a scout, thereby risking the film, photos and camera, not to mention the lives of all six participants?

References.
Appendix 8. Other rapids.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

END OF QUESTION

The matter of the schedule and Moffatt’s death.

Introduction.
Every accuser (some only implicitly) in the matter of the schedule agrees with the assertion Their lack of schedule meant they took risks to catchup on time….
Interpretation. Moffatt was in such a hurry (indeed, desperate haste according to the Sports Illustrated editor) to reach Baker Lake before the weather closed in that he chose to run the fatal rapids without a scout.
The evidence begs leave to differ.
1. Throughout the trip, Moffatt exercised great care in running rapids, not least to protect the film and cameras. Indeed, he portaged at least one set of rapids (those above Grant Lake) run by the others in order to protect those two items, for which the very trip was undertaken.
2. That care is demonstrated elsewhere, for example in his caution regarding the rapids below Nicholson Lake, the gorge below Dubawnt Lake, and the falls above Wharton Lake.
3. The only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the fatal rapids.
4. More importantly, in the very morning of the day that Moffatt died, the party completed the portage around the rapids immediately above those where he died.
Do the Sports Illustrated editor, Murphy, MacDonald, Mahler and others really expect us to believe that, no more than a few hours later, Moffatt suddenly realised that the party had get out ASAP, that he panicked and so decided to risk everything, lives included, by running those rapids without a scout, in desperate haste, taking the the ultimate chance in so doing?
The evidence has it that the fatal rapids were run without a scout for one reason and one reason only: J B Tyrrell had advised Moffatt that they were of no concern.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Summary.
Murphy and MacDonald omitted all mention of the schedule-related evidences of
the New York Times article,
the Sports Illustrated article (two items),
Grinnell’s Canoe article,
and most importantly of all, Grinnell’s book (the very subject of their reviews).
Opinion 1. The evidences of these sources refute their assertions that Arthur Moffatt died due to lack of schedule and the like.
Opinion 2. So is destroyed the reputations of defenceless innocents.
On the other hand, perhaps I am being overly judgemental here. Rather, perhaps we have here the ingredients for an opera buffa.

The assertion of Charlie Mahler.

…the Moffatt story unfolds as a tragedy just waiting to happen – indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party, bad chemistry, a plodding pace, and an apparent apathy toward the season closing on them…
References, identical at first sight.
1. Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
2. Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm
Comments.
I deal here only with Mahler’s assertion of a plodding pace, which is clearly related to the matter of the Moffatt party’s schedule.
I call this an assertion because Mahler provided no evidence in support of it.
The assertion is addressed also in Appendix 5. Pace and weather, as is the assertion apparent apathy toward the season closing on them…
The evidence.
The pace was certainly slow until 3 August,
in part because of the difficulty of upstream travel on the Chipman River,
in part because time had been spent in documenting the land (the very purpose of the trip).
On that day though, the party decided unanimously to hurry up, and the pace was not plodding thereafter.
Indeed, the evidence suggests to me that, on 14 September, the Moffatt party was on schedule to reach Baker Lake on or about 22 September (when the air search would have begun, indeed did begin).
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.
Conclusion.
Contrary to the assertion of Charlie Mahler, the pace was not plodding after 3 August.
Contrary to the suggestion of Charlie Mahler, pace played no role in Moffatt’s death. The cause is identified in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Summary.

The Moffatt party had no schedule for arrival in Baker Lake?
Hmmm,
the New York Times,
the Manchester Ledger,
the Boston Sunday Advertiser,
the Winnipeg Tribune,
the RCAF,
the RCMP,
the Baker Lake detachment of the RCMP,
the Moffatt family (especially his wife Carol),
participant Grinnell,
participant Lanouette, and
participant Pessl,
all eleven of them, respectfully request permission to disagree.

The Sports Illustrated article.
Item 1.
The schedule evidence of the New York Times article was published in the Sports Illustrated article itself. Some may find it amusing that the SI editor made no mention of that item.
Item 2.
Let me remind the reader of the SI editor’s assertions
a week behind…schedule [SI article, upper right column on page 76; dated 8 August] and nine days behind schedule [SI article, lower right column on p 76; dated between 15 and 18 August].
Given that there exists no evidence that the Moffatt party had no day-by-day schedule, the only possible explanation of these assertions is that the Sports Illustrated editor represented the record of Moffatt party (1955) to be the schedule of the Tyrrell party (1893).
The evidence begs leave to differ.
1. The Moffatt party was not following the day-by-day record of the Tyrrell party (1893).
2. As is obvious from even a cursory reading of the evidence (I recommend that of Pessl’s book), the Moffatt party had no day-by-day schedule.
3. Indeed, no barrenlands party, ever, had a day-by day schedule. Even the Tyrrell party was sidelined on occasion.

The schedule-related assertions of James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald.
Opinion. Murphy’s assertion Lack … of a planned itinerary, contributed to his demise, this made in a review of Grinnell’s book, is refuted by the evidence of Grinnell’s book alone and in itself.
Opinion. MacDonald’s assertion One of the implications of a quasi-religious resistance to a pragmatic plan of travel was the death of Arthur Moffatt, this made in a review of Grinnell’s book, is refuted by the evidence of Grinnell’s book, alone and in itself.

The cause of Moffatt’s death.
The cause was not lack of schedule, as asserted by both James Murphy and Andrew MacDonald.
The cause was not lack of food, as asserted by James Murphy.
The cause was not lack of proper equipment, as asserted by James Murphy.
The cause was not a plodding pace as asserted by Charlie Mahler.
Over the course of 55 years (and perhaps counting), every person who wrote regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death got it completely wrong.
Reference. Sub-Appendices.

Sub-Appendix 1. Dates for the Tyrrell and Moffatt parties.
At the tops of his pages 17, 41, 69, 129 and 144, Pessl provides the following
Black Lake. 7 July (Tyrrell); 2 July (Moffatt).
Selwyn Lake. 16 July; 12-16 July.
Wholdaia Lake. 20 July; 17-25 July.
Hinde Lake. 22-26 July; 28 July.
Boyd Lake. 27 July; 1-3 August.
Carey Lake. 29 July-2 August; 7-8 August.
Dubawnt Lake. 7-17 August; 21-27 August.
Wharton Lake. 22 August; 8 September.
Schultz Lake. 29 August; 22 September.
One fine day, I may attempt to meld these evidences with the other records.

Sub-Appendix 2. 2 September vs 15 September for arrival in Baker Lake.
1. I do not understand why Grinnell does not give 15 September as the planned arrival date in Baker Lake, as given by ten other sources, why instead he repeatedly asserts the arrival date to be rather 2 September (likely not coincidentally the date that the Tyrrell party arrived in Baker Lake [Pessl, private correspondence]).
2. As I document below, Moffatt provided the date of 15 September to his wife, to the other five participants (including Grinnell!) and to the RCMP.
3. Certainly Kingsley was misled by Grinnell’s date of 2 September.
By August 29, three days before they’d planned to complete the trip, they’d travelled half the distance. [Kingsley book, middle of p 188; also Kingsley Up Here article, lower right column on p 90].
Response 1. At the campsite on 29 August, the Moffatt party was 15 miles (25 km) upstream from the end of Dubawnt Lake. On 30 August, it re-entered the river and continued downstream for an unknown distance before camping again. [Pessl, p 111].
Response 2.
Kingsley was misled also by multiple incorrect statement that the Moffatt trip was 900 miles long. I measured
the distance along the Moffatt route (Black Lake to Baker Lake) to be 1095 km (680 miles), and
the distance from the end of Dubawnt Lake to Baker Lake to be 375 km (233 miles).
References.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
The distance from the campsite on 29 August to Baker Lake is then ~250 miles; of course, my point is that 250 miles is much less than half of 900 miles.
Summary. Entirely due to incorrect information provided by others, Kingsley’s statement is incorrect with respect to both time and distance.
4. Sept. 2 certainly had no relevance in terms of expedition planning or announced Baker Lake arrival expectations. [Pessl, private correspondence].
5. Further confusing the issue, in Grinnell’s book only of course, is that 2 September was important for Franck’s registration at Harvard [Grinnell, p 162; Pessl, p 105]. I find Grinnell a bit unclear here: Because Peter had planned to enter his sophomore year at Harvard that Autumn, the September 2nd date was particularly important to him. He would have to travel to Cambridge, Massachusetts and register for classes within a few days of our return.
6. I ‘fess up. I am unable to understand why Grinnell insists that the scheduled arrival date was 2 September rather than 15 September, as given by ten other sources.
7. The only possibility that occurs to me, strange as it no doubt seems.
Was Grinnell being mischievous here, trying to see how many people he could fool,
just as perhaps he was in providing the yes/no/yes evidence regarding a prescriptive schedule,
just as I believe he was just as he was when he claimed I was not the least experienced canoeist, but the most experienced.
I suggest that this possibility not be rejected outright.

Sub-Appendix 3. The Moffatt party’s response to the wind.
1. Moffatt replied that the wind did not blow on schedule [Grinnell article, p 20, top right]. I believe that every recreational paddler with experience on the barrens will agree with Moffatt.
When the wind is up on the barrens, we stay put, for there are no trees to provide shelter. Bring reading material and hiking boots, spend the day cleaning up, repairing gear, resting, telling stories, in short do anything but try to paddle. Of course one can have a week-by-week schedule, or something even less prescriptive. But a day-by-day schedule for travel in the barrenlands is impossible for anyone.
Even the Tyrrell party of 1893 was unable to travel some days. On my to-do list is an examination of the Tyrrell journals, in an attempt to estimate the fraction of days that they did not travel.
2. Lanouette speaks to the matter. Of course we had no day to day plan. Weather played a crucial role in our travels and made such planning impossible. [Private correspondence].
3. The Moffatt party adjusted to the wind by getting up early, especially on Dubawnt Lake, as Pessl and Franck describe in the following passages.
(a) 23 August (on Dubawnt Lake). …we have once again decided on emergency scheduling and will get up at 4 AM if the wind is down, paddle until 8 or so, have breakfast and continue paddling until the wind stops us again. It is interesting to note that these measures initially come from one of the gang, seldom from Art. In any case, I am confident that we will arrive in Baker Lake with plenty of meat on our bones. [Pessl, p 101]
(b) 24 August. Heavy frost … as we shivered out of the sack at 4 A.M. … paddling the entire day with a break at 9 AM for breakfast and another at 2 PM for lunch. Now at 6 PM we have made camp. [Pessl, p 101]
(c) 26 August. Left camp at 5 AM after breakfast… [Pessl, p 103]
(d) 27 August. Questionable winds and general early morning reluctance combined to form another beautiful day in camp. [Pessl, p 104]
(e) 27 August. Another good day, but still a breeze from the south. We could have travelled, but Art declared a day of rest because he wanted to go over to the mainland and see what it was like; what animals he could get pictures of… [Franck, in Pessl, p 105]
(f) 28 August. A fine breakfast … an open water journey … The wind freshened at noon…wait for the wind to lessen… We paddled continuously until 9 PM. [Pessl, p 107]
(g) 29 August. …another “day off” [Pessl, p 108]
(h) 29 August. Windy this morning, so we stayed put. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
(i) 30 August. Heavy wind and rain squalls chased us back into the tents this morning… After lunch, skies cleared and we enjoyed one more rare “shirts off” day as we padded the remaining 15 miles across the bay to the outlet of the lake… We are back on the river now… [Pessl, pp 110&111]

Sub-Appendix 4. Evidences regarding the existence of a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake.
Comment. The complete list of evidences is provided above, in the paragraph The Moffatt party had no schedule for arrival in Baker Lake? I provide here comments and text for some items.
Source 1. The New York Times article.
As I discussed above, the NYT article evinces that the party was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 15 September, with a grace period of seven days.
Source 2. The Manchester Ledger.
Article of 23 September 1955.
Six Explorers Missing in Northwest Territory.
Dartmouth college said today six men are more than a week overdue on a 900-mile canoe trip to the barren wastelands of the Canadian North. … Concern was expressed for their safety when they did not check in September 15 as scheduled at a lonely outpost of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. A search was organized.
Comment. Thanks to Lanouette for a copy of the article.
Source 3. Boston Sunday Advertiser.
Article of 25 September 1955.
Six Canoeists Safe in Wilds.
Six canoeists, objects of a wide air search in Canada’s barren eastern Northwest Territories, turned up yesterday in good health at the destination they announced when they set out three months ago on their adventurous journey.
The canoeists…arrived at Baker Lake…yesterday afternoon, the Royal Canadian Air Force announced.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police and RCAF had undertaken search flights along the 700-mile route mapped out by the canoeists at the outset of their journey.
The canoeists left Stony Rapids, Saskatchewan, June 29, … They had expected to reach Baker Lake by Sept. 15.
Moffatt had left a note with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at Stony Rapids in northern Saskatchewan, giving the party’s projected route. Since then the only clue to the whereabouts was the discovery of a supply cache half way along the proposed route at Dubawnt Lake. The RCMP at Prince Albert, Sask., were notified of the find Friday.
… Details of the canoeists’ adventures and the cause of their being almost 10 days overdue at their destination were not immediately available.

Comment 1. We all wish that the title had been accurate.
Comment 2. Thanks to Lanouette for a copy of the article.
Source 4. Carol Moffatt’s telegram.
Sent on 22 September to Thomas Franck (Peter’s father).
MOFFATT EXPEDITION HOPED TO REACH BAKER SEPT 15. … [Pessl, p 141].
Comment. That the telegram was sent seven days after 15 September suggests that Moffatt told her to be concerned only if she had not heard from him by a week later. The suggestion that Moffatt had arranged a grace period of seven days is confirmed by other sources.
Source 5. Lanouette, private correspondence.
Our ETA Baker Lake: Sept. 15. This in July 1 letter to Carol Moffatt and also verbal to RCMP officer in Stony Rapids.
Winnipeg Tribune of Sat. Sept. 24 headlines missing canoeists. Same paper Monday Sept. 26 says canoeists found; 1 dead, 5 okay. I assume Skip, Bruce or George have actual arrival dates.
Carol M. notified RCMP after we were overdue by several days. Also Lowell Thomas, the most distinguished news commentator of his time, broadcast our tardiness.
At no time in our journey did we hear search planes, but evidently, according to the Winnipeg Tribune, at least one float plane was sent out from Stony Rapids around Sept 23 or 24.
[Lanouette, private correspondence].
Comment. Pessl confirmed that date, also in private correspondence.
Source 6. Grinnell’s book.
As I describe above, in his book Grinnell asserts repeatedly that there was a planned date for arrival in Baker Lake. Nevertheless, Murphy and MacDonald, in their reviews of that of very book, asserted that Moffatt died due to lack of schedule.
Source 7. Pessl’s book.
(a) His …about 25 days left gives 17 September or so (in agreement with 15 September) for the intended arrival date [p 100, 23 August].
(b) On the party’s arrival in Baker lake on 24 September, We were met by Corporal Clair Dent of the RCMP … and were quickly informed that the Air Force and local authorities were to have started a search for us this very day. [p 144].
Comment. Given that the RCMP and the RCAF had already started searches, Dent’s local authorities must refer to an initiative of the RCMP detachment at Baker Lake.

Sub-Appendix 5. Arrival in Baker Lake by the due date?
The evidence suggests to me that, in late August, the Moffatt party was on track to reach Baker Lake within the grace period arranged by Moffatt with the RCMP (that is by 22 September), perhaps even by the planned and announced date of 15 September.
The evidence, part 1.
On 29 August, the party reached Outlet Bay of Dubawnt Lake [Pessl, p 108; also Franck in Pessl, p 109]
To arrive early on the scheduled date of 15 September, the party would have had to travel the remaining 255 miles or so in 16 days; the average of 16 miles (30 km) per day is not such a demanding pace. In fairness though, the party should have expected conditions to deteriorate. In fact, it was weather-bound on 1, 2 and 3 September, and again on 7 and 8 September. On the other hand, it certainly had no reason to expect anything like the storm of 9 September; according to the Sports Illustrated article [p 82, top of right column] (far from the most reliable of sources) hurricane-force winds were recorded in Churchill.
The evidence, part 2.
Even with three travelling days lost due to the foul weather of 1-3 September, three lost due to the storm of 7-9 September and two lost due to the tragedy, the party arrived on 24 September, two days after the expiry of the grace period.
And so I think it likely that, in the morning of 14 September, the party could have reasonably expected to reach Baker Lake within the grace period, that is by 22 September, while at the same time exercising due caution.
A question.
Barrenlands paddlers know now (I believe) to exit well before mid-September.
Should the Moffatt party have expected foul weather in early September? Apart from the storm of 9 September, I believe the answer to be yes, as I document in
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 2. Holidays.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 2. Holidays and Inquest.

Summary.
1. Contrary to assertions, Arthur Moffatt did not die because the party had taken too many holidays and so later had to take risks to catchup on time….
2. Contrary to assertions, no inquest was held into Moffatt’s death.

Holidays.

The assertion.

For half of August, they voted to take “holidays” and went nowhere.
Source. Kingsley. Up Here (2012), p 90, bottom of the right column); also book (2014), middle of p 188); not mentioned in Lake (2013).
From the content of the assertion, I identified the source to be both Grinnell’s article (1988) and his book (1996).

Holidays on paddling trips.

In neither his article nor his book did Grinnell explain what he meant by holiday.
Neither did Kingsley explain what was meant by the term.
And so I ask. What is a reasonable definition of a holiday on a paddling trip?
My attempt at such a definition. We have no reason not to paddle but we stay in camp anyway; to be judgmental, we are plain lazy.
If one accepts this definition, it follows that
The Moffatt party took not a single holiday on the entire trip.
That is, every layover/nonpaddling day had a cause/reason… .
The reader who does not accept this definition is invited to devise another and to report her/his analysis of the evidence.

Grinnell’s article (1988) and his assertions regarding holidays.

Grinnell article, assertion 1.
On July 16 Moffatt called another of many holidays. [p 20, left column]
Responses.
1. Camp was near the north end of Selwyn Lake; the portage from there crossed the height of land to the basin of the Dubawnt River. [Pessl, 14 July, p 38]
2. The corresponding Pessl comment: Spent the day in camp… [15 July, p 39].
Aside. The difference in dates 16 July [Grinnell] vs 15 July [Pessl] is inconsequential, except for the suggestion (confirmed by other evidence) that Grinnell did not keep a journal. The evidence suggests, to put the matter as gently as possible, that Grinnell’s memory failed him very badly on multiple occasions, that his imagination often took control of his pen.
3. Pessl lists this as a rest day. By this, I believe that he means a recovery day, largely forced, after completion of the brutal trip up the Chipman River. [Pessl, p 181].
4. Conjecture. Perhaps there was also an element of celebration, for it was downstream all the way from there.
Summary.
I see no justification to call 15/16 July a holiday in any responsible use of the term.

Grinnell article, passage 2.
In the last days of August, now that we [the alleged United Bowman’s Association] were in command, we took more holidays than Moffatt had ever contemplated, averaging one every other day. When we reached the end of Dubawnt lake, we took another holiday to celebrate. [Grinnell article, p 21, left column].
Pessl’s response. I have no idea what he was imagining. [Pessl, p 168]
As well, Pessl presents evidence that the UBA never existed [Pessl, p 168]
Summary.
The holiday/s parts of the passage are refuted by the evidence (presented below) of Pessl.

Grinnell article, passage 3.
It snowed during the first four days of September, and we took holidays on all four of them. [Grinnell article, p 21, right column].
Relevant passages from Pessl’s book.
1 September. … driving rain, joining the cold, windy day… Rain stopped and after running like crazy…to get warm, … [Pessl, p 115]
2 September. Another bitch of a day, worse than yesterday by a long shot. Wind, rain, cold from dawn to darkness with very few intervals of relative calm … terrific gale hit…the canoes were lifted off the ground. … It remained clear until we were ready to eat our fish pot soup for dinner and then it came down again…“piss pot”! [Pessl, pp 115&116]
3 September. Another day of the same hellish weather… Returned to camp as another shower dampened dinner. [Pessl, pp 117&118]
Comment. Part of the day was spent scouting the gorge above Grant Lake.
4 September. … After breakfast, we loaded in the snow, shot one rapid in the midst of a heavy flurry and then unloaded for the long portage [around the gorge]. [Pessl, p 119]
Summary.
I see no justification to call any of these four days a holiday.
In particular, 4 September was a travel day.
And so I consider Grinnell’s statement to be untrue as applied to any of those four days.

Grinnell article, passage 4.
At the inquest held by the mounties, it was disclosed that we had taken holidays on more than half the days of the trip. [Grinnell article, p 56, right column].
Comment. I address below the statement that the RCMP had held an inquest into Moffatt’s death. Here, I deal only with the holidays part.
Who disclosed that we had taken holidays on more than half the days of the trip?
The RCMP certainly didn’t.
And no survivor, including Grinnell, records providing such information.
And I think it most unlikely that the RCMP went through the party’s journals; indeed, no survivor records providing his journal.
And if it had gone through the journals, the RCMP would have discovered that more than half of anything is untrue.
Summary.
Grinnell’s we had taken holidays on more than half the days of the trip has no basis in evidence known to me. Moreover, the accusation is refuted by the evidence (provided below) of Pessl.

Grinnell’s book (1996) and his assertions regarding holidays.

Some passages.
1. … we all voted to take a holiday to kill another [caribou]. [p 115].
2. … we voted for the holiday because we were out of meat. [p 134].
Comment. The day was spent hunting, fishing and foraging.
3. … yet another Holy Day, and another, and another … . [p 147].
4. … we took more and more holidays … . [p 158].
Comment 1. Should these four quotes not suffice, I record that my less-than-thorough search found a total of 19 pages with instances of holiday and variants, as follows:
pp 17, 41, 115, 117, 127, 134, 144, 147, 158, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 171, 173 and 244.
Comment 2. Grinnell includes, as holidays, days when the party stopped to replenish food supplies (pages 115 and 134, for example).

The evidence of Pessl.
Sources.
Pessl’s book Barren Grounds … and correspondence with him.
Background.
The trip lasted 87 days (30 June to 24 September, inclusive); I note though that the party began paddling only on 3 July.
Nontravel days.
Pessl lists 33 nontravel days: one in June, 12 in July, 11 in August and 9 in September.
Comment. That figure of 33 includes three days not listed with the other 30 on pages 181 and 182, as follows: 15 and 16 September were recovery days immediately following the tragedy [Pessl, p 133]. The layover on 21 September was weather-induced [Pessl, p 139].
Pessl distinguishes between forced and voluntary nontravel days.
Forced nontravel days.
Example 1. Nicholson Rapids were scouted on 16 and 18 August; nothing could be done on 17 August but hunker down and wait out the weather. The cost was three days.
Example 2. Due to severe weather, the party was tent-bound on 1, 2 and 3 September, above Grant Lake.
Example 3. No paddler on earth, ever, could have travelled in the winds of 9 September (recorded as hurricane-force in Churchill, according to Grinnell).
Example 4. 15 and 16 September were recovery days after the tragedy.
Other nontravel days were imposed by adverse weather conditions (mostly wind and/or rain, including storms) and by the necessity to scout rapids. In no sense were any of these optional stopovers.
Voluntary nontravel days.
Only four nontravel days were voluntary. They were imposed for reasons of fatigue or other activities, hunting and photography for example. [Pessl, private correspondence]
Pessl’s list of the four voluntary nontravel days.
Day 1. 8 July.
After 5 days of walking and carrying with incidental puddle-hopping in the canoe, we took a welcome day off… [Pessl, p 32]
We decided to have a day of rest today. [Franck, in Pessl, p 32]
Comment. The five days 3 through 7 July required strenuous portaging.
Day 2. 15 July.
Spent the day in camp and enjoyed the idleness of reading, loafing unsuccessful fishing, canoe patching and very peaceful dozing outside. [Pessl, p 39]
Comment. That day saw the party enter the basin of the Dubawnt River, and so there was perhaps an element of celebration, for it was downstream for the rest of the trip. I note that Pessl records a shortage of food.
Day 3. 27 August.
Questionable winds and general early morning reluctance combined to form another beautiful day in camp. [Pessl, pp 104&105]
Another good day, but still a breeze from the south. We could have traveled, but Art declared a day of rest because he wanted to go over to the mainland and see what it is like; what animals he could get pictures of. [Franck, in Pessl, p 105]
Comment. And so the day was spent in an attempt to document the barrenlands; the result was not recorded.
Day 4. 29 August (Outlet Bay of Dubawnt Lake).
The leisurely breakfast of another “day off” saw us on our way to a prominent hill… We built a pretty big cairn atop the hill… Caught a few ”lakers” for tomorrow’s breakfast and enjoyed a good portion of fried roe for lunch. [Pessl, p 109]
Bruce and I cut up the caribou meat and cooked dinner for Art as he was still out with his camera. [Franck, in Pessl, p 110]

The difference between Grinnell’s count of holidays and Pessl’s.
Reminder.
Pessl gives not one holiday (by the too-lazy-to-paddle definition) for the entire trip, whereas Grinnell claims 44 or so holidays (by his unknown definition).
Investigation of a possibility. Perhaps Grinnell defined any nontravel day to be a holiday? Well, the numbers are well off, even by this unusual, indeed misleading, definition. Pessl documents a total of 33 nontravel days, whereas Grinnell claims at least 44 holidays.
Conclusion. There is no way to reconcile Grinnell’s assertion with Pessl’s record.
I prefer Pessl’s figure for three reasons:
(a) As I document both in the above and elsewhere, the evidence is that Grinnell did not keep a journal; that is, it appears that his figure is a ballpark estimate.
(b) A related comment. Only Pessl’s figure is documented.
(c) Grinnell’s evidence in other matters is seriously flawed, in part as documented above. In fact, I have learned to trust nothing written by him unless it is verified by a trustworthy source.

Summary.
Grinnell’s statement that we had taken holidays on more than half the days of the trip (and the like) is refutied by the evidence of Pessl.
Kingsley was misled by Grinnell.

Comment regarding weather-induced delays in September.

The statement
…the weather changed overnight, and the men were trapped on the land [Kingsley book, p 188] is by no means an accusation, but I decided to record the evidence.
Due to weather, the party was unable to travel on 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 10 September [Pessl, p 182] and also on 21 September [Pessl, p 139].

The evidence.
Pessl’s evidence for 1, 2 and 3 September is provided above.
The party travelled from 4 through 7 September inclusive [Pessl, pp 119-127], but was weather-bound again on 8 September. A severe storm (hurricane-force winds were recorded in Churchill, according to the Sports Illustrated article, not the most reliable source) struck on 9 September, and the party was unable to travel again also on 10 September. [Pessl, p 182].
The party travelled from 11 through 14 September inclusive.
15 and 16 September were recovery days after the tragedy [Pessl, p 133] and so the weather on those days is immaterial.
Fortunately, the weather changed shortly after the tragedy; that change perhaps saved the lives of all five.
Ever since we dragged each other out of that miserable tent on the cloudy morning of the 15th, we have been blessed with warm, sunny weather with a continual south wind to dry us, warm us, and, above all, renew our confidence in our chances for survival. [Pessl, pp 136&137].
The party was weather-bound for the last time on 21 September. [Pessl, p 139]

Summary.
Non-travel days induced by the weather totaled seven of the 24 days in September; two of these (9 and 10 September) were occasioned by a storm the likes of which are not recorded in either J B Tyrrell’s or J W Tyrrell’s accounts of the 1893 trip.
The matter of the storm aside, on the whole the weather encountered by the Moffatt party was milder than in 1893.
Reference. Appendix 5. Pace and weather.

Conclusions and comments.

1. Grinnell’s use of the term holiday is misleading in even the most generous interpretation of the term.
2. Both Grinnell assertions
(a) …last days of August…averaging one every other day, and
(b) we had taken holidays on more than half the days of the trip.
are refuted by the evidence of Pessl.
3. I don’t understand how anyone could take either assertion literally, for the evidence of Grinnell’s book itself (Kingsley’s primary source) shows that the party was well aware of the distance yet to be covered.
4. A possibility worth considering? Was Grinnell being mischievous in his claims regarding holidays, just as he was (I believe) when he claimed I was not the least experienced canoeist, but the most experienced, as noted in Appendix 4. Experience?
I suggest that this possibility not be rejected out of hand.
5. More importantly, Grinnell’s accusations (and so those of Kingsley, who was misled) are irrelevant to the tragedy, which had quite another cause.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The Inquest.

The alleged inquest into Moffatt’s death.
Reference. At the inquest held by the mounties… [Grinnell article, p 56, right column].
Response 1.
The four governments (more properly the coroner’s office or equivalent) of Canada, Nunavut, Northwest Territories and Manitoba (four survivors were interviewed in Churchill) were unable to help me in my search for a record of an inquest into Moffatt’s death. Indeed, none confirmed even that such an inquest had been held.
In particular, Mathieu Sabourin (Library and Archives, Canada) kindly responded as follows (in part).
Based on the information provided in your request, I would imagine that if an investigation in the death of Arthur Moffatt did happen, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police would have been involved. Therefore, I concentrated my research in the RCMP archival fonds (RG18).
Two series in that fonds might be of interest for your research. The first would be the “Criminal Investigation Branch” (RG18-F-2) and the other would be the “G Division” (R196-124-3). The latter refer to the RCMP Branch division associated to the Northwest Territories during the period you are researching. Here are the links to the two series:
Criminal Investigation Branch:
http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/ourl/res.php?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&url_tim=2016-06-17T17%3A12%3A02Z&url_ctx_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&rft_dat=134177&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fcollectionscanada.gc.ca%3Apam&lang=eng
G Division:
http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/ourl/res.php?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&url_tim=2016-06-17T17%3A11%3A45Z&url_ctx_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Actx&rft_dat=158663&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fcollectionscanada.gc.ca%3Apam&lang=eng
It is important to note that I did not locate any specific file related to Mr. Moffatt in either series.

Response 2.
My limited understanding of inquests has it that they are highly formal affairs. And so I expect that the person in charge would not have accepted (as evidence) transcripts of interviews with the survivors; surely s/he would have required the survivors to attend in person. But no survivor (including Grinnell) records attendance at such an inquest.
I note though that his assertion regarding the inquest had no known effect on the later literature.
A request.

I ask that the reader assess Grinnell’s assertion regarding the inquest in the light of the evidence presented above.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 1. Reality

Major renovations were completed in late October 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 1. Reality.

Introduction.
Arthur Moffatt did not die because the party had lost sense of reality.
The cause of his death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The accusation,
an implicit one, was made in the following one-sentence paragraph.
When the five young men stumbled into Baker Lake, an RCMP officer made a quick assessment: “So, ‘he said’ you lost your sense of reality.” [Kingsley, Up Here, bottom of p 91; also Kingsley book, bottom of p 189]
As I document in the next paragraph, the unspecified source for the passage was Grinnell’s book.
Caution. I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is supported by evidence from a reliable, independent source.

The source of the passage.
0. All five survivors were interviewed by the RCMP, Pessl in Baker Lake, the others in Churchill MB.
1. The text of the accusation matches poorly with the following.
One Mountie commented that we had “lost sense of reality”. Actually, we thought of it differently. We felt that we had discovered reality. Something had transformed us as Moffatt knew it would: we had begun to feel an inner peace, that sense of gratitude not only for the gifts of the caribou, which had died for us, the mushrooms, the fish, the berries, but also a sense of gratitude toward one another, our little group of kind friends across the abyss, and gratitude for the awesome harmony, the beauty and the terror that we had discovered on that inward voyage across the “Barrenlands”. [Grinnell article (1988), p 56]
2. The text agrees well with the following.
The Mounties divided us up into separate rooms and asked us to tell of the events which had led to the death of our leader, Arthur Moffatt. The Mountie who interviewed me was friendly and encouraging as I spoke. At the end, he concluded: “So you lost your sense of reality.”
I stared at him in uncomprehending disbelief. Perhaps it is true that back in June, when I had first joined the others at Stony Rapids, a Hudson’s Bay post on Lake Athabaska, I had not had a very profound appreciation of reality. I had had visions of heroic deeds and epic accomplishments. I had been on my best behavior. But the luxury of my youthful illusions had been stripped from me soon enough.
[Grinnell book (1996), p 2]
3. The text agrees very well also with the passages
(a) The Mountie stared at me, as if waiting for an answer. “… so you lost your sense of reality.” I stared back. [Grinnell book, p 44]
(b) “So you lost your sense of reality”, the young RCMP officer had said. It had not seemed like a loss to me at the time. The reality I had discovered was the reality of the Garden of Eden, the most beautiful reality I have ever experienced. [Grinnell book, p 156].
4. Conclusion. Kingsley’s source was Grinnell’s book.
5. Another Grinnell assertion.
Perhaps, during the course of my tale, he [the RCMP officer who interviewed Grinnell] had developed a certain amount of sympathy for me and was hinting that a plea of insanity, or a “loss of a sense of reality,” might not be viewed unfavorably by the civilized authorities. [Grinnell book, p 4]
Response.
Grinnell appears to suggest that the RCMP was considering laying a charge of criminal negligence, perhaps even murder, against one or more of the survivors.
No evidence is known to me that such was the case. Certainly Grinnell provided no evidence in support, nothing comparable is provided in Pessl’s book, and I found none elsewhere in the Moffatt literature.

Comment.
The accuser, whose source was Grinnell’s book, thereby had access to the expository material I stared at him in uncomprehending disbelief … the civilized authorities that starts near the top of page 2 and continues to near the bottom of page 4. That passage is a mini essay, Grinnell’s musings on the meaning of reality in the context of Moffatt’s death, nothing more. But the accuser made no mention of this passage.
There exists no evidence that Grinnell was even so much as hinting that loss of sense of reality, whatever the interpretation of that phrase, was responsible for the tragedy.

Summary.
1. It misrepresented the evidence to quote out of context the remark “So, ‘he said’ you lost your sense of reality.” The same conclusion would apply had the source been Grinnell’s article, for there also the phrase lost sense of reality was an introduction to a discussion of the meaning of reality in the context of Moffatt’s death.
2. Grinnell’s statement Perhaps, during the course of my tale, he [the RCMP officer who interviewed Grinnell] had developed a certain amount of sympathy for me and was hinting that a plea of insanity, or a “loss of a sense of reality,” might not be viewed unfavorably by the civilized authorities [Grinnell book, p 4] has no known basis in truth.
3. If anyone lost sense of reality, it was no member of the Moffatt party. It was rather James Murphy, who wrote the following of Moffatt.
Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit. Logically you know you shouldn’t tarry but you linger there for weeks, entranced, as if moving would break some spell, disturbing your reverie. Danger lurks, yet you can’t seem to focus on it.
[James Murphy; Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11].
http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Foreword and Forum.

Major renovations were completed in March 2018 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Foreword and Forum.

Welcome! I hope that you will consider your time here to have been well spent.
The blog is intended to provide
both evidence and analysis regarding the Moffatt trip and his death,
and also a forum for discussion.

Evidence and analysis.
The evidence and my analysis of it are provided in the Internal URLs listed below.
I continue to tweak the contents.

Forum.
Contributions (suggestions, comments, questions) will be welcomed.

Canadian Canoe Routes.
If you wish, you may post comments at http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=45362 ,
but you must first become a member (no cost).

Yours in paddling, Allan

Internal URLs.

These URLs are provided for navigation within the blog.
URLs for accessing the following items from outside the blog are provided elsewhere.
Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Ancillary 10. My sources.
Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript.
Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Edition of 15 March 2018.

Appendix 3. Equipment.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 3. Equipment.

Arthur Moffatt did not die due to lack of…proper equipment.
The cause of his death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The assertion.

Lack of…proper equipment…contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Source. James Murphy’s review of Grinnell’s book (1996).
Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11.
Online version. http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html ]

Response.
Murphy provided no source, no evidence, no anything in support of the accusation; that is why I call it an assertion.
Given that the assertion appears in a review of Grinnell’s book, and that I found no alternative, I conclude that Murphy refers to George Luste’s recommendations in Grinnell’s book [pp 297&298].

Luste’s preface.
We can try to be better prepared to deal with a similar situation. My short list would be as follows.
Please note that Luste is recommending equipment for paddlers circa 1996.
In particular, he is not suggesting that the Moffatt party of 1955 should have been so equipped.

Luste’s recommendation 1.
… use a water-tight snap on canoe cover …
Comment 1. Spray covers, let alone the snap-on variety, were not in general use by recreational paddlers in 1955. Luste, writing 41 years later, certainly knew this. The thread
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=44587
at Canadian Canoe Routes is not so informative in this respect.
Comment 2. Thum’s Dubawnt party of 1966 knew about spray decking but chose not to use same.
Che-Mun, Autumn 2005; p 18, bottom of the middle column.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm
Comment 3. …I made a very primitive nylon decking for part of my canoe for the 1969 trip… It was a crude affair and only partially effective. [Luste, in Grinnell, 1996]

Luste’s recommendation 2.
… have a very long rope, 100 feet or more, on at least one end of every canoe.
Comment 1. I don’t know whether the Moffatt party carried such long ropes; neither, I submit, does the defamer Murphy.
Comment 2. I know neither whether other canoe parties carried such ropes in the 50s; neither, I submit, does the defamer Murphy.
Comment 3. Had such long ropes had been available, it is unclear that they would have helped in the difficult circumstances of 14 September 1955.

Luste’s recommendation 3.
… always carry a gas stove, and an emergency supply of fuel in reserve for such an accident above the tree line …
Comment. The Moffatt party carried a stove and it survived the accident, as did the supply of wood: Peter’s bag of dry wood enabled them to provide some hot food. [Luste, in Grinnell, p 295]

Luste’s recommendation 4.
… carry an emergency EPIRB…
Comment 1. EPIRBs (or equivalent) were not available in 1955.
Comment 2. The Moffatt party was refused permission to carry a radio, as I document below.

Comment regarding floatation devices.
Luste did not mention pfds, I expect because they were in common use well before 1996. But it seems necessary to state that no suitable floatation device was available in 1955, as discussed in my Nastawgan article.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/winter_2014.pdf
Briefly, life preservers were available in 1955 (of course), but they hinder swimming; as well, they can jolt the head when one hits the water.

Comment of Pessl.
…lack of improved equipment technologies did not doom the Moffatt Dubawnt journey… [Pessl book, p 163].

Response to Murphy’s accusations.
George Luste and I were professional colleagues for four decades.
Always generous with his time, he helped me considerably when I began tripping in earnest.
I knew him reasonably well. He had a strong sense of right and wrong.
I believe that he would have been much angered to learn that Murphy had used his recommendations for paddlers circa 1996 to defame Moffatt, who died forty years earlier.

A request.
I ask that the reader assess Murphy’s assertion that Lack of…proper equipment…contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise in the light of the evidence presented above.

The assertion of Kingsley.

There was no satellite technology in those days to provide either the illusion or the reality of decreased risk, but they didn’t even bring a radio. [Back and Beyond, p 14].
Comment. The unstated source can be only We carried no radio. [Grinnell book, p 11].
Response.
Moffatt asked for permission to carry a transmit-receive radio but the Canadian government refused the request, even though they recognize the increase in safety such a set would give our party. [Pessl, p 13].
Question.
Given that there exists no evidence that the lack of a radio played a role in the tragedy, why was the accusation made?
Conclusion.
An accusation remarkable (as best I know unique) in the Moffatt literature, for it is true.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 4. Experience.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 4. Experience.

Arthur Moffatt did not die due to lack of experience or poor leadership (a group of novices…an inexperienced party…indifferent leadership…poor leadership skills or poor planning) as asserted by James Murphy, Charlie Mahler and Bob Thum.
The cause of his death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The opinion of James Murphy.

Grinnell and four other young men were led on a poorly planned and lackadaisically executed canoe trip by Arthur Moffatt… I…would recommend this one as an excellent example of how not to conduct a canoe trip. [Murphy’s review (1996) of Grinnell’s book].
Response. Murphy’s accusation is only peripherally related to the matter of experience and so I omit further discussion of it, here.

The opinions of Charlie Mahler and Bob Thum.

Source. The following articles (likely identical) of 2005.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm
Comment. I say that the accusations are opinions because neither Mahler nor Thum provided supporting evidence.
The opinion of Mahler.
…the Moffatt story unfolds as a tragedy just waiting to happen – indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party, bad chemistry, a plodding pace, and an apparent apathy to the season closing on them…
Thum, opinion 1.
Those guys had no business being up there. … They were a bunch of guys who didn’t know what they were doing and led by a guy with poor leadership skills. They fooled around and did a lot of crap and it finally came back to bite them. This was simply a group of novices led by someone more interested in film than travel, which squandered its time and resources and then made some tragic mistakes.
Thum 2, opinion 2.
Moffatt … had some experience, but not much.
Comment. One might have expected Thum, a lawyer, to provide evidence in support of these two assertions.

Item 1.

Thum.
… a group of novices and Moffatt … had some experience, but not much.
Mahler.
…an inexperienced party…
Comment 1.
As in nearly all the accusatory literature, no supporting evidence was provided, no source was mentioned.
Comment 2.
As I document in Ancillary 1. Accusations, Thum and Pessl had corresponded prior to the former’s 1966 Dubawnt trip; perhaps then much of the evidence provided below was known to Thum at the time.
Response 1.
…Art Moffatt was already an accomplished adventurer when other boys were still tying their first Boy Scout knots. At 17, he embarked on a major expedition, 700 miles down the Albany River from Sioux Lookout in western Ontario to the lower part of Hudson Bay. Incredibly, he made the trip alone. …
From 1950 to 1954, he led yearly trips down the Albany, studying the region’s geology and wild life as he went.
[Sports Illustrated, p 71, left column].
Response 2.
As well, Moffatt had paddled the Allagash, Androscoggin and Penobscot Rivers in Maine.
I suggest that he must have known what he was doing to make such demanding trips.
Response 3.
Pessl had made two Albany trips with Moffatt and other trips as well. Franck had tripped with Moffatt on the Albany. Grinnell had paddled but not tripped. Lanouette and LeFavour were young outdoorsmen but with no canoeing experience. [Pessl, p XIV].
Response 4. The matter of Grinnell’s experience.
The literature is contradictory and so I provide the following clarification.
(a) On page 14 of a follow-up to Kesselheim’s C&K article of 2012, Grinnell asserted the following. I was not the least experienced canoeist, but the most experienced.
That claim was denied by Pessl, in a later follow-up to the same article.
(b) In his book, Grinnell comments as follows regarding his experience.
But Joe Lanouette and Bruce LeFavour, my fellow bowmen and novices like me… [p 6].
But we novices in the bows… [p 33].
We three bowmen had never been on a long-distance canoe trip. [p 53].
Conclusion. Grinnell’s statement that he was most experienced paddler in the Moffatt party is at variance with his own evidence. Perhaps he was baiting Pessl.
Summary. The Thum-Mahler assertions
… a group of novices, and
Moffatt … had some experience, but not much, and
an inexperienced party
have no basis in evidence.

Item 2.

… didn’t know what they were doing … [Thum]
Again, the accusation is an opinion only.
Summary.
Early on 14 September (after 11 weeks on the water), the party had gotten through many rapids on the Dubawnt (some highly dangerous) without a wrap, without a dump, without serious damage to the boat.
Damage.
Results of an incomplete search.
I heard the stem crack…I heard the ribs cracking… [Grinnell, p 75].
A hole in one canoe [Grinnell, p 126].
There was a small dent in the bow…the real damage as from the rock in the tail. The inner planking had a cracked place and the canvas was scraped. [Franck, in Pessl, 26 July, p 53.]
…struck a rock…a brief check showed no water… [Pessl, 6 September, p 122].
…splintered a plank…[Pessl, 6 September, p 122].
…cracked a rib pretty badly [Pessl, 6 September, p 123].
…a little piece of planking knocked in, but the ribs weren’t broken and the canvas wasn’t cut; no serious damage. [Franck, in Pessl, 6 September, p 124].
Summary of the damage. … we had some scrapes / and dings … but no serious damage nor significant mishaps. [Pessl, private correspondence].
Swamps.
There were two swamps, neither in rapids. [Grinnell, pp 79 & 80. Pessl, p 168, 26 August].
Wraps.
None.
Dumps.
The only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died.
Summary.
Thum’s assertion … didn’t know what they were doing … has no basis in evidence.
I repeat that the Moffatt party descended a dangerous river without serious incident, even a single dump, until the afternoon of 14 September.
To put the matter gently, evidence that I provide elsewhere in this document demonstrates that the tragedy did not result from inexperience (as asserted by Thum); the cause was rather incorrect information from a source (J B Tyrrell) that had proved trustworthy for weeks previously.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
To put the matter bluntly, Thum was just mouthing off, building himself up in his own mind, at the expense of the reputation of a dead man.

Item 3.

…poor leadership skills…. [Thum]
Responses.
1. The accusation of poor leadership is an assertion only, a gratuitous judgment, one made without supporting evidence.
2. The burden of proof would appear to lie with the defamer. Evidently, Thum considers an assertion by himself to be proof; others might disagree.
3. As every paddler knows (I had thought), there are several ways to lead a party. Indeed, some groups have no leader; they work by consensus (sometimes not achieved). Some paddlers demand to be the boss, others resent being bossed. And a guided party is very different from a group of friends. As I see matters, the Moffatt party lay somewhere in the middle. Perhaps Moffatt could have been more assertive, but perhaps the others would have objected had he been. Who is to say, especially someone, like Thum, who was not there? In short, there is no one answer regarding which leadership style is best. Thum should have known that.
4. To me, the key question is whether/how the leadership affected the tragedy.
In fairness, I record Pessl’s comment
…the tragic disregard for time, distance, and season of the Moffatt leadership (and I include myself in that category)… [Pessl book, p 173 (2014).]
Response. I believe that Pessl was being overly self-critical here, as he was in other comments on nearby pages.
5. My reading of the literature leads me to conclude that the leadership was not poor at any time.
6. The evidence of Appendices 8 and 9 is that the cause of the tragedy had nothing to do with leadership, or experience, or planning, or blah, or blah, or blah. The cause was rather incorrect information from a source (J B Tyrrell) that had proved trustworthy for the entire trip up to the afternoon of 14 September 1955.
Appendix 8. Other rapids and
Appendix 9. Fatal rapids.

Summary.

Moffatt’s defamers Thum and Mahler asserted only that lack of experience was a cause of his death. But they provided no supporting evidence and so assertions are at best only opinions.
Certainly some participants were poorly experienced initially, but they acquired plenty of that in the 11 weeks on the river before Moffatt died. But, after 11 weeks in difficult conditions, likely all members of the party were sufficiently experienced by the afternoon of 14 September.
The challenge.
Let Thum and Mahler to explain why the only dumps of the entire trip on a dangerous river occurred in the fatal rapids. Let not hold our breaths waiting for either to respond.

Conclusion.

The assertions of Thum and Mahler, namely that lack of experience and poor leadership played a role in Moffatt’s death, have no basis in any evidence known to me.
The cause of the tragedy is described in Appendix 9. Fatal rapids.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 2. Holidays.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 5. Pace and Weather

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.

Summary.

Arthur Moffatt did not die due to a plodding pace early in the trip, forcing him later to race in desperate haste…against winter and so to take the ultimate chance in the fatal rapids.
The cause of his death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The assertions.

Comment. I call the following items assertions because in no case was any evidence provided in support of them.
Assertion 1.
Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated article, bottom of the right column, p 76].
Assertion 2.
Arthur Moffat, a seasoned traveller, took a group of young men on a slow and undisciplined trip down the Dubawnt. [2000]
Assertion 3.
Their lack of schedule meant they took risks to catchup on time and Moffatt died of exposure after they dumped in a large rapid they did not scout. [2000]
Assertion 4.
They were a bunch of guys who didn’t know what they were doing and led by a guy with poor leadership skills. They fooled around and did a lot of crap and it finally came back to bite them. This was simply a group of novices led by someone more interested in film than travel, which squandered its time and resources and then made some tragic mistakes. [2005]
Assertion 5.
…the Moffatt story unfolds as a tragedy just waiting to happen – indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party, bad chemistry, a plodding pace, and an apparent apathy toward the season closing on them… [2005]
Assertion 6.
For half of August, they voted to take “holidays” and went nowhere. [2012]
Assertion 7.
The men talked less and took more risks…all three boats plunged over two sets of waterfalls the paddlers hadn’t bothered to scout…. [2014]

Responses to side issues.
I refer the reader to the following Appendices for the evidence regarding the corresponding parts of the assertions of Moffatt’s accusers.
Appendix 4. Experience addresses the assertions poor leadership skills, indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party and the like.
Appendix 6. Food addresses the assertion provisions dwindle, game grows scarce and the like.
Appendix 7. Schedule addresses the assertions Already nine days behind schedule, lack of schedule and the like.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids addresses the assertion take an ultimate chance (which refers to the running of the fatal rapids without a scout) and the like.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general provides more general evidence regarding the Moffatt party’s approach to running rapids.

The pace/weather/schedule/holidays accusations.

The essence of the accusations is that the party travelled too slowly early,
in part out of laziness (that is, it took too many holidays),
in part because it lacked a schedule,
and who knows what else went on in the minds of Moffatt’s accusers.
Later, in desperate haste to make up time, the Moffatt party
raced against winter (perhaps even freeze-up),
and so it took risks to catchup on time,
and one of those risks resulted in the death of Arthur Moffatt.
The two lesser accusations are addressed in the following Appendices.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
The major accusations, those regarding pace and weather are addressed separately.
Part 1 (Pace) provides the pace-related evidence in the four legs of the trip. And so it addresses accusations that the early pace was too slow, forcing the party to take the ultimate chance by running the fatal rapids without a scout.
Part 2 (Weather) documents the weather experienced by the Tyrrell-Tyrrell party of 1893, as evinced by the books of J B Tyrrell and J W Tyrrell. It provides also a few pieces of weather evidence known to Moffatt from the 1893 trip.

Pace.

The evidence regarding the pace.
The trip breaks naturally into four legs.

Leg 1. 3 July to 16 July.
The Moffatt party started from Black lake (on the Fond du Lac River), then ascended the Chipman River (with its brutal portages), reaching the south end of Selwyn Lake (from which the basin of the Dubawnt River was reached by portage) on 16 July [Pessl, p 41]; part of the portage across the height of land was completed that day.
Comment of the Sports illustrated editor.
In the days that immediately followed, the expedition made good time despite erratic winds and rain, the back-stiffening portages and missed routes. The maps the party used – they were the only ones in existence – were never precise enough, and there were many times when, after long wearying hours of working up a stream, the canoeists would have to admit their mistake and painfully retreat. [SI article, bottom of right column, p 73]
Response.
The maps could be the government-issue maps of the time (not available to me) or (more likely?) J B Tyrrell’s maps. The latter for the reach from Black Lake to Selwyn Lake are the following.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=1
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=2

The evidence of Grinnell’s book.
1. The long portage up to the Height of Land dragged on for weeks. [p 19]
2. After climbing up the rapids of the Chipman River for nearly a month, we approached the Height of Land. [p 41]
3. The next day [22 July], we completed the portage across the Height of Land. [p 48]
4. For the first month, we had been travelling upstream to the Height of Land… p 73]
Remark. These passages support my conclusion that Grinnell did not keep a journal.
In particular, the height-of-land portage was completed on 17 July [Pessl, p 43] (not on 22 July), and so Leg 1 was completed in 15 days (not nearly a month).
Summary for Leg 1.
The pace was not plodding.
The pace was not undisciplined.
The pace was necessarily slow, but the party nevertheless made good time, considering the difficult circumstances.

Leg 2. 17 July to 3 August.
The party completed the height-of-land portage on 17 July.
By barrens-basher, river-bagger, ego-tripper standards only, slow, plodding and undisciplined are fair comments for this leg. One piece of evidence suffices: Pessl described this leg as a leisurely summer vacation. [p 66, 3 August]
But much of that period was devoted to filming and photographing, the very reasons for making the trip in the first place!
Participant Lanouette speaks to the matter. On sunny days Art and Skip would often be off loping around filming scenery and wild life- why not? That was a major goal of the trip. Incidentally … Art’s film became a feature attraction on a television show called “Bold Journey”. It was repeated several times, to my knowledge. [private correspondence]

Leg 3. 3 August to 14 September.
1. At a group meeting on 3 August, the party decided unanimously to continue to Baker Lake, rather than return to Stony Rapids.
2. In the early part of Leg 3, the pace was not plodding and the trip was neither slow nor undisciplined.
3. In the later part of the same leg, the pace was never desperate, especially on 14 September. In more detail, there was never an OMG-we-gotta-get-outa-here-ASAP decision, as suggested by the Sports Illustrated editor’s gratuitous assertion Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. … In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, p 76, bottom of right column]
Response 1. The passage nine days behind schedule has no basis in any evidence known to me.
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.
Response 2. The SI editor provided no evidence to support her/his assertions races against winter, desperate haste and ultimate chance. Nothing in all the literature that I have read, most noteworthy of all the writings of the trip participants, provides any support for any of the three.
I conclude that none of the three is graced by a basis in any evidence known to me.
4. In fairness, I quote the following: After the initial “halfway” scare of time-distance regarding food supplies…we are slowly drifting back into our previous lethargy. [Pessl, p 84, 13 August]
5. In fairness, the start was unnecessarily delayed some mornings. The result of a less-than-thorough search:
(a) Grinnell book [top of p 68].
(b) Pessl [p 100 (23 August)].
(c) Franck [in Pessl, p 108 (28 August).
(d) Sports Illustrated [top left of p 82, second paragraph (6 September)].
6. The party took to getting up very early, to beat the wind (especially on Dubawnt Lake), as I document in Appendix 7. Schedule.

Leg 4. 14 to 24 September.
After taking two days to recover from Moffatt’s death, the party certainly pushed hard. Too little is documented to say much more. Indeed, what more need be said?

Weather.

Introduction.
One question is whether the Moffatt party had cause to expect the harsh weather that it experienced in early September.
The far more important question is whether the weather had anything to do with the death of Arthur Moffatt.
Given that weather early in the two trips is less relevant to the tragedy, I document only that met by the Tyrrell party in the lower reach, from Dubawnt Lake to Baker Lake inclusive.
Today, we are told (I believe) that recreational paddlers should exit the barrens early; perhaps incorrectly, I recall advice (I can’t find the source, if ever it existed) to be gone by mid-August.
Even Eric Morse and party ventured into the barrens only in 1959, four years after the Moffatt party.
Moffatt’s sources regarding the weather.
I remind the reader that Moffatt had access to both J B Tyrrell’s
book, which I was able to access, and also to his
journal (aka his report), which I was unable to access.
But I was not able to access the full Moffatt–Tyrrell correspondence, in particular what (if anything) JBT told Moffatt about the weather.
As well, Moffatt had accessed J W Tyrrell’s book.
I possess some evidence (known to Moffatt) regarding the weather experienced in the 1893 trip, as I describe later.
I am able to assess, and I do, whether the weather experienced by the Moffatt party differed significantly from that experienced in 1893. The latter evidence from my inspection of both JBT’s book (which provides little weather-related material) and that of JWT (which provides lots).
Preview.
I provide the following items.
1. Some J B Tyrrell evidence known to Moffatt.
2. The evidence of J B Tyrrell’s book.
3. The evidence of J W Tyrrell’s book.
4. Analysis of the evidence.
5. Summary.
6. Conclusions.

1. Some Joseph Burr Tyrrell evidence known to Moffatt,
as documented in the writings of the participants.
A cursory search found only two items.
Item 1.
Tyrrell…had constant rain and cold, also patches of old snow everywhere. But for us it has been very pleasant… [Moffatt, 16 August, top left of p 80 of the SI article].
Item 2.
Throughout Tyrrell’s journal, he speaks of seeing patches of snow well to the south and he suffered his first snow storm on August 10. [Pessl, 28 August, bottom of p 107].
Comment.
J B Tyrrell’s journal (available to Moffatt but not to me) is distinct from J B Tyrrell’s book (which both Moffatt and I were able to access).
Observation.
The weather experienced by the Moffatt party on Dubawnt Lake was milder than that experienced by the Tyrrell party 62 years earlier. In particular, the former saw no snow remaining from the previous winter. [Pessl book, pp 97-110]

The weather-related evidence of Joseph Burr Tyrrell’s book.
1. Dubawnt Lake. Eleven days were spent on the lake during five of which we were unable to move on account of heavy storms. [p 56F].
Tyrrell’s days for Dubawnt Lake were 7-17 August 1893, Moffatt’s 21-27 August 1955 [Pessl, p 129]. In partial explanation of the longer time taken by the Tyrrell party, I note first that it was ice-bound as well as storm-bound, second that it had to find the exit (a difficulty compounded by the ice).
2. Dubawnt Lake. On the shore of this and the adjoining islands the bases of the cliffs were often covered with an accumulation of old snow and ice. [p 59F]
3. Wharton Lake. The greater part of two days was spent in this lake, struggling against head winds, …looking for its outlet… [p 65F].
Comment. The date was before 23 August, when the Tyrrell party completed the portage between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake. [p 66F]
4. Aberdeen Lake. On 28 August, Tyrrell recorded the temperature as 40 F [p 69 F].
5. Below Schultz Lake (date not provided). A heavy storm, with rain, now set in… The storm continued to rage for three days, during which time we were unable to launch our canoes. [p 72F]
6. The Tyrrell party reached the west end of Baker Lake on 2 September; on 6 September, he recorded the water temperature of the lake as 41 F. [p 74F]
Observations.
J B Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the following.
Moffatt item 1, in part. constant rain and cold, also patches of old snow everywhere….
Moffatt item 2, in part. …Tyrrell’s journal, he speaks of seeing patches of snow well to the south….
And so one sees that Moffatt had possessed Tyrrell information beyond that provided in Tyrrell’s book. I decided to take Tyrrell’s journal (in part 2) literally; I have been unable to access the Tyrrell part of the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.

The weather-related evidence of James Williams Tyrrell’s book.
Note. I possess no evidence that Moffatt had access to any of the following.
7 August. …we broke camp early…down the river toward the frozen lake. … By this time, however, the wind was again blowing strongly, and a cold heavy rain setting in drove us to camp. During the night the wind increased to a gale, accompanied by torrents of rain… For three days the storm continued. On the fourth it turned to snow and the temperature went down to freezing—rather inhospitable weather for the 10th of August. … [p 95 & 96]
As we proceeded across the country we found the ground frozen and all the little ponds covered by new ice…it was a point of discussion with us whether the season of this land was spring or autumn. … The morning of the 12th broke cold and dreary. New ice everywhere covered the ponds… [p 97] …
On the morning of the 16th we were early aroused by the voice of a howling gale and the pelting rain… This storm continued with fury for two days…wet and shivering in the tents… On the afternoon of the second day, the rain ceased and the wind fell sufficiently to enable us to faintly hear to the north the roar of heavy rapids. [pp 102&103] Comment. These were the exit rapids from Dubawnt Lake.
On Aberdeen Lake, the party enjoyed fine weather—something unusual in the Barren Land districts for two days. [p 113]
On the morning of the 29th, enshrouded by a dense fog, we entered the river…we entered the west end of Schultz Lake… We were evidently in for a blow… No sooner had we reached shore than the storm burst upon us, but once in the river channel we were able to obtain shelter from the force of the gale if not from the pelting rain. [p 115]
After reloading the canoes…the wind beating the cold rain and the spray from the crest of the waves in our faces…our soaked and shivering party sought comfort… By the morning of the first of September, the rain had ceased and the clouds partially cleared away. The gale, however, continued to blow so fiercely as to frequently whip clouds of spray off the surface of the river, so that we were quite unable to travel in canoes. [pp 116 & 117].
The Tyrrell-Tyrrell party reached the encampment now known as Baker Lake on 2 September.

Analysis of the evidence.
1. The Moffatt party could have reasonably expected something like the foul weather that it experienced on 1, 2 and 3 September, at some time.
2. Before 9 September 1955, even apart from the matter of the ice on Dubawnt Lake, the weather appears to have been kinder to the Moffatt party than it was to the Tyrrell party by 9 September 1893.
3. At no time did the Tyrrell party of 1893 experience anything like the storm that struck Moffatt’s party 62 years later, on 9 September 1955. That storm (which destroyed one of the three tents) is described by both Grinnell [p 193] and Pessl [p 129].
Comment. The Sports Illustrated article [top right of p 82] reported that the winds of the storm of 9 September destroyed the anemometer in Churchill. That statement was repeated by Grinnell [p 193], whose source must have been the SI article.
I express elsewhere my opinion of the veracity of the SI editor and that of Grinnell, but I see no reason to doubt that the anemometer was destroyed.

Summary.

The Moffatt party knew there to be no possibility of freeze-up until well into October, that is, well after its scheduled arrival in Baker Lake.
In the morning of 14 September, the party was on track to reach Baker Lake within a week or so of the hoped-for arrival date of 15 September. Indeed, despite the tragedy, it arrived on 24 September, two days later than the deadline (set by Moffatt) before an air search was begun.
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.

Conclusions.

Pace.
Contrary to the unevinced statements of Moffatt’s accusers, the early pace played no role in his death, for he exercised due caution even on the day that he died
Weather.
The Sports illustrated editor’s the Moffatt party races against winter…In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance is at best an exaggeration, given that freeze-up would not occur until well into October.
Reference for both items. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Appendix. Earlier barrenlands trips.

1. Samuel Hearne, 1771.
As best I know, his was the earliest lengthy trip made by Europeans.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Hearne
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/samuel-hearne/
http://www.hbcheritage.ca/people/explorers/samuel-hearne
McGoogan, Ken. Ancient Mariner: The Arctic Adventures of Samuel Hearne, the Sailor Who Inspired Coleridge’s Masterpiece.
2. Other early barrenlands trips are documented in the thread
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=125&t=46158
3. Oberholtzer-Magee, 1912.

The party reached the north end of Nueltin Lake on or about 30 August, then continued down the Thlewiaza River to Hudson Bay and points south.
I doubt very much that Moffatt had access to the record of this trip. One fine day, out of curiosity, I might compare the weather experienced by the two parties.
http://www.wilderness.net/NWPS/Oberholtzer

Celebrating the Oberholtzer-Magee 1912 Journey to Hudson Bay


Source not consulted. Bound for the Barrens: Journal of the Ernest Oberholtzer & Bill Magee 2,000-mile Canoe Voyage to Hudson Bay in 1912. Edited by Jean Sanford Replinger with Nancy Paddock.
http://arcticjournal.ca/bound-for-the-barrens/ , etc.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 6. Food.

Appendix 6. Food.

Preliminaries.

I (perhaps most of all) regret the length of this Appendix. But I felt it necessary to provide all the food-related evidence, as I know it and am able to report it, so that readers may judge the food situation for themselves.
Thanks to Fred “Skip” Pessl, Ed “Joe” Lanouette and his daughter Elizabeth Emge, and Bruce LeFavour for assistance in compiling the following. But I am solely responsible for every error.
I distinguish between
provisions, aka staples and supplies (oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes, macaroni, sugar, salt, powdered milk, and cornmeal), and
food from the land (caribou, fish, ptarmigan, mushrooms and blueberries).
Not all accusers make the distinction, referring only to food. The distinction is significant, for provisions could of course not be replaced (except from the cache, as was done on 7 September). And, it seems necessary to state, food from the land was unpredictable.
With respect to the only previous non-native trip on the Dubawnt River, Moffatt possessed the food-related evidence of J B Tyrrell’s book, J B Tyrrell’s journal (aka his report), correspondence with J B Tyrrell, and J W Tyrrell’s book.
Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Given multiple assertions that a shortage of food (indeed a lack of food) was in large part responsible for Moffatt’s death, the important period is the seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (the day of the tragedy). The evidence of the participants for that period is provided in the various parts of Sub-Appendix 4.

Participant publications used in the food-related accusatory literature.
The Sports Illustrated article (1959), which contains edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal.
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Grinnell’s book (1996 edition; the two later editions appear not to have influenced that literature).

Participant publications not used in the food-related accusatory literature.
For various reasons, none of the following items was mentioned in that literature prior to my efforts.
1. LeFavour’s four articles (1955). None is easily available. The most important one of these (the third, which deals with the events of 13 and 14 September) became available to me only because LeFavour provided a copy of it.
2. Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012) is by no means a participant publication, but it contains some Pessl comments, plus the following Kesselheim comments: Food almost gone… Hunger and the closing season weighed heavily on the team… half-starved men…
As best I know, these items did not influence the food-related literature more generally, in particular the publications of Kingsley (who had accessed Kesselheim’s article).
3. Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) and Pessl’s book (2014, which contains also the evidence of participant Franck). Both appeared too late to influence that literature.

Summary.
The entire evidentiary basis of the food-related accusatory literature (indeed, of the entire accusatory literature) lies in only three items:
the edited excerpts of Moffatt’s journal (provided in the SI article),
Grinnell’s article and
Grinnell’s book.
If I may get ahead of the story, the material provided in all three items deserves thought before being accepted.

The assertions.
In the matter of the supply of food, the assertions are the following.
Food was becoming the question now. [Sports Illustrated editor].
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated editor].
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. [Murphy].
Slightly giddy from lack of food… [Murphy].
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal. [Kingsley].
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Kingsley].
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley]
Comment. I thought it worthy of explicit mention that Arthur Moffatt is unable to respond to these assertions made of him. By chance, that responsibility has fallen to me.

Directory.

Item 0. Introduction.
Item 1. My sources regarding the food supply.
Item 2. Sub-Appendix 1. Preparations.
Item 3. Sub-Appendix 2. Fat and other food with high caloric content.
Item 4. Sub-Appendix 3. Food in the period from the start to 5 August.
Item 5. Introduction to the evidence of the participants regarding the food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September.
Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. The evidence of Moffatt for that period.
Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. The evidence of Grinnell for the same period.
Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. Ditto for the evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.
Item 9. Sub-Appendix 5a. The food-related assertions of the SI editor.
Item 10. Sub-Appendix 5b. The food-related assertions of Murphy.
Item 11. Sub-Appendix 5c. The food-related assertions of Kingsley.
Item 12. Summary of the food-related evidence for the period from 5 August to 14 September.
Item 13. Sub-Appendix 6. Food in the period from 15 September to 24 September.

Item 0. Introduction.

Planning.
Moffatt had assumed that the party could live entirely off the initial supply of provisions, that it would be necessary to obtain no food from the land.
Start to 5 August.
Moffatt had seriously underestimated the appetites of his five young companions, and so food was uncomfortably short in the period from the start to 5 August (when the first caribou was shot). Even in this period though, no member of the party was anywhere close to starvation.
5 August to 14 September.
The land was one of plenty in those crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death.
Five caribou were shot (the first on 5 August, the last on 5 September), many ptarmigan were killed, many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (these two only earlier in the period).
As well, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache, this on 7 September.
Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
Most important of all is the evidence of participant LeFavour for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour, The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).]
And 20 lb of lake trout were caught at the lunch stop on 14 September. [LeFavour article; confirmed in private correspondence from Lanouette].
Perhaps the reader is ready to assess, in the light of these evidences alone, the assertions
Food was becoming the question now.
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance.
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food…
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past.

Item 1. My sources regarding the supply of food.

Source 1. Moffatt’s journal.
The item is not publicly available and my best efforts failed to obtain full access to it.
Passages alleged to excerpts from it were provided in the Sports Illustrated article. Some passages were substantially edited; the prime example is the editor’s redaction of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last entry, that for 13 September. And other passages appear to have been picked in order to make points detrimental to Moffatt.
Other excerpts were provided in Grinnell’s book (1996), none in his article (1988).
Too late to influence the accusatory literature, participant Pessl provided excerpts in his book (2014).
As well, Pessl provided me with excerpts in private correspondence.
Source 2. The article (1988) of participant Grinnell.
Known to have been accessed by Kingsley.
Source 3. Grinnell’s book (1996).
Aside. As best I know, the later editions (those of 2005 and 2010) did not influence the Moffatt literature.
(a) The book is the only source used by Murphy and MacDonald in their articles of 1996; it bears explicit mention that these articles were billed as reviews of the book.
(b) Kingsley’s primary source.
Source 4. Pessl’s remarks in Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012).
Only Kingsley is known to have accessed the article. The corresponding evidence: Pessl’s People revealed themselves as imperfect… [Canoe&Kayak, top of the left column on p 52]. Reference. Kingsley, Paddle North, top of p 202.
Source 5.
Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013).
Not known to have influenced the accusatory literature, one assumes because it appeared so late.
Source 6.
Pessl’s book (2014), which contains excerpts from both his journal and that of Franck, plus other material. Not known to have influenced the accusatory literature, because it appeared so late.
Source 7.
Private correspondence
with Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.
Opinion 1.
I have learned to place full confidence in the following.
1. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal, but only as provided by Pessl in private correspondence; again, I place no trust in the versions provided in the SI article.
3. The evidence of Pessl (his book and private correspondence).
4. The evidence of Franck (in Pessl’s book).
5. The evidence of Lanouette (the SI condensation of his journal for 14 September, and private correspondence).
6. The evidence of LeFavour (his article of 1955 and private correspondence).
Opinion 2.
I have learned to trust, in the first instance,
no content of the Sports Illustrated article,
no content of Grinnell’s article, and
no content of Grinnell’s book.
The consequence.
Given that these three sources were the only primary sources used in the food-related accusatory literature (indeed, in the entire accusatory literature), it follows that
I place no trust in any of the accusatory literature, in the first instance.

Item 2. Sub-Appendix 1. Preparations.

This Sub-Appendix describes both Moffatt’s planning and also events prior to hitting the water.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954 to J B Tyrrell.
Of great importance also is the fact that we must carry sufficient supplies for the entire trip—the administration of the Northwest Territories will allow us to carry a rifle, but it is only to be used if we are in danger of starvation—which we feel is rather late in the game to begin living off the country. Nevertheless, we are prepared to travel under these conditions.
We shall, of course, attempt to take as many fish as we can, and here again we should appreciate specific information about the kinds of fish we shall encounter, places they may be taken, and methods used in taking them.
[Pessl, private correspondence]
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
Note. The following was written in response to a letter (not available to me) from JBT.
Your suggestion that we will face starvation unless we have good rifles is certainly to the point, and I wish the Administration of the Northwest Territories realised that in forbidding us to use rifles until we are in imminent danger of death they are putting us in a very difficult position. However, if those are the terms on which we may enter the country, we will have to face them or stay home. I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived. [Pessl, private correspondence]
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s Prospectus.
…In our journey north we will pass into the hunting and trapping grounds of the Chipewyan Indians and out into the Barren Grounds, beyond the northern limit of the trees. This is the summer range of the vast herds of caribou. The lakes and streams are reported to be full of trout up to 25 pounds in weight. …
Two of the major problems we shall face are food and fire. The greater part of the route is through the treeless tundra, and what fuel there is often too green or wet to burn. We will not be able to pack enough gas to cook two meals a day.
Food may be even more acute. I have a letter from Dr. Tyrrell…He writes: “You will need to have a couple of high-powered rifles so that you can shoot game at long range, otherwise starvation is likely to threaten from early in the trip…”

Reference. Sports Illustrated, p 71 (1959).

Excerpt from the Sports Illustrated article (1959).
The article consists of selections from Moffatt’s journal, plus insertions made by the editor (who remained anonymous). Lacking full access to Moffatt’s journal, I am unable to comment
either on the editor’s reasons for making those selections,
or on whether those selections faithfully reflect the contents of Moffatt’s journal.
For a week the Moffatt party waited. Grinnell, the last man to join the party, arrived at Stony Rapids on June 27 on schedule, but food supplies, which were supposed to accompany him on the Hudson’s Bay Company boat, were left off the manifest. Moffatt canceled the order, took what supplies he could get from the Hudson’s Bay Company post at Stony Rapids and set off by truck over 15 miles of rugged road for the jumping-off place at Black Lake. [SI article, pp 72&73]
Comment 1. As well as food (1,000 lb, much of it in wooden boxes [Pessl]), the party carried Moffatt’s camera box of 86 lb [SI article, bottom of the right column on p 72].
Comment 2. Grinnell actually arrived by air. The requested supply of peanut butter in plastic jars arrived neither on his flight nor on the one two days later.

Excerpt from The New York Times article (1959).
…the explorers had provisions for 80 days. They have been gone 85 days… [Sports Illustrated article, top of p 71].
Comment. With regard to the 80 days, I refer reader to the evidence (provided below) of Grinnell’s book.

Excerpt from Grinnell’s article (1988).
… In addition to oatmeal, we had three pilot biscuits for lunch with a ration of cheese, of jam and of peanut butter. For dinner Moffatt threw two pounds of macaroni into a five gallon pot which he flavoured with a couple of cans of “Spam”, “spork”, corned beef and the like along with a package of dehydrated soup. As a matter of principle, Moffatt believed in boiling everything. After eating the solid stuff, we then got to drink the juices. … After the first month, no food had ever tasted as good as Moffatt’s boiled “glops”. [pp 18&20]

Excerpts from Grinnell’s book (1996).
1. My discharge from the Army was slow in coming…and I did not arrive at Stony Rapids…until the 27th of June, about two weeks later than Art had originally planned to embark. The others had been waiting for me about a week, but we had not headed into the wilderness immediately. …our food had been left off the manifest [of the barge], and Art had had to scrounge three months supply from the Hudson’s Bay Post and from a private trader. He was able to fill the canoes to the gunwales, but the makeshift supplies were heavy; and the only case of peanut butter available was in glass jars. Art preferred unbreakable plastic jars for obvious reasons. He had radioed out to civilization, but the case of peanut butter in plastic jars did not arrive on my flight, nor on the next plane, which arrived two days later; and so, after too many delays, we loaded our ton of food and equipment onto Stony Rapids’ one truck and headed … to Black Lake with our peanut butter in glass jars. [pp 8&9]
Note. Some jars of peanut butter were broken later in the trip.
2. On his previous trips, Moffatt … had discovered how much oatmeal is eaten each day: about three times as much as one would have believed possible. He had multiplied this figure by eighty, added a little extra for emergencies,… Grinnell made similar remarks for lunch and dinner. [p 54].
Response. And so Moffatt had planned a trip of eighty days on the water, I assume starting on 28 June. Well, 80 days after the morning on 28 June gets one to the morning of 16 September. It is then perhaps no accident that Moffatt had informed the RCMP detachment in Baker Lake to expect the party to arrive there on 15 September.

Private correspondence from Lanouette.
Message 1.
Food: Always a hot topic of conversation. Initial supplies were insufficient. Art figured our appetites would double; actually they tripled! Eventually, as my diary makes abundantly clear, food became obsessive with us and at times quite divisive. Our final lunch enroute to Baker Lake: a moldy hardtack slathered with curry paste. Yum!
Comments. The above is lightly edited from the original. I don’t know what to make of the difference between the comments of Grinnell and Lanouette; but perhaps that difference is unworthy of discussion, given the party could not have started out with much more than it did.
Message 2.
… The food we left Stony Rapids with was insufficient for our ballooning appetites. Portions had to be stretched or diluted long before the accident. For one thing our original supplies by barge were delayed, so we had to leave Stony Rapids with locally available supplies. The supplies we had were kept in well-used packsacks we had to scrounge. The sacks were not altogether waterproof, so some foods got wet and deteriorated or spoiled (from weather or waves washing into the heavily laden canoes). … Our heavily laden canoes had very little freeboard and could not take waves of any significance. … We relished all the food we had – even liver, tongue, or half-rotted haunches of caribou, swarming with bot and blackflies. …
Comments. The above is lightly edited. I assume that the group’s food had been shipped in their packsacks; that is why they had to scrounge packsacks (inferior ones) in Stony Rapids.
Message 3.
…even before the accident our initial store-bought supplies were not adequate because:
1. Our appetites exploded.
2. Our canoes initially could barely carry what food we did have.
3. Waves and rain occasionally got into our supplies, sometimes deteriorating them.
4. Weather and filming delays impeded our schedule.

Comments. The above was lightly edited. Please excuse the overlap with messages 2 and 3, but I was reluctant to edit further.
My thanks, and I hope also those of the paddling community as a whole, to Lanouette for this information.

Comments of Luste (1996).
Luste comment 1. The most I have ever carried in my canoes is seven weeks of food. … I don’t think one can carry food for three months. [Grinnell book, p 286].
Interpretation. three months refers to the Moffatt trip, which was planned for 80 days.
Comment. It is perhaps relevant
first that Luste often soloed,
second that the Moffatt party’s boats (18-footers at that) were so heavily loaded initially that they could scarcely stay afloat, especially in the waves on the upstream route to Selwyn Lake.
Luste comment 2. In reading George’s [Grinnell’s] account, it is evident that not enough food, or more specifically, food with high caloric content, such as fat, was purchased for the trip. [Grinnell book, p 286].
Luste comment 3. The Moffatt party was woefully short of provisions and caloric energy sustenance… [Grinnell book, p 288].
Response to Luste comments 2 and 3.
The initial supply of provisions certainly proved inadequate, but the Moffatt party could have carried little more and still have stayed afloat.
Again, Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men.
The evidence (especially that of Pessl, provided below) leads me to agree with Luste that the initial supply of food contained little of caloric energy substance. But later, especially in the crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, some fat was obtained from the five caribou and the many fish.

Pessl’s book (2014).
Five members of the party arrived in Stony Rapids on 22 June, Grinnell on 27 June. To replace those that had been ordered but had not arrived on the HBC barge, provisions were purchased at the local HBC store.
We are carrying almost 1000 lbs. of grub, much of which is stored in wooden boxes … [Pessl, p 17].
In the morning of 29 June, the party was driven to the end of the road, at Black Lake. Misadventures and misfortune delayed the start of the trip to the evening of 2 July [Pessl, p 26].
Pessl comments regarding the food supply.
1. Our standard daily meals were generally minimal, approximately 2,400 calories … But even with these additions [long list, including food from the land] we were probably well short of the recommended 4,000 calories per day. [p 162]
2. I don’t think our food supplies were significantly compromised by the failure of our original order to arrive on schedule at Stony Rapids. [p 162]
Responses. I believe that Pessl’s 2,400 calories refers to provisions on board. I don’t know the source for 4,000 calories per day. Moffatt had planned to obtain no food at all from the land; nevertheless, the party carried two rifles, a .22 and fishing gear.

Summary regarding Moffatt’s preparations.
Moffatt’s considerable experience in outfitting trips led him to believe that the party could live entirely off the initial supply of provisions. Nevertheless, he had provided the party with equipment (documented above) to obtain food from the land.
At the start the boats could not have carried much more of anything and still have stayed afloat.

A glance ahead.
It turned out that Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men, and so bellies were not full for much of the period before 5 August (when the first caribou, of five) was shot.
But, in the crucial seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (Moffatt’s death), the party enjoyed an abundance of food on the whole.
At times, appetites were not satisfied. On the other hand, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
On 7 September, the party acquired a major resupply of provisions from the cache. [SI article, lower part of the left column on p 82]. Grinnell book [p 180&181]. Pessl book [pp 125&126].
Food from the land in that period included five caribou, many fish (three species), many ptarmigan, and blueberries and mushrooms (the latter two only earlier in that period).
To me, the evidence of participant LeFavour is particularly important: As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [13 September, LeFavour article, 1955]
As well, the party caught 20 lb of lake trout at lunch on the very day that Moffatt died. [LeFavour, Lanouette]

Item 3. Sub-Appendix 2. Fat and other food with high caloric content.

0. Perhaps the matter of fat… is important enough to merit its own Sub-Appendix.
1. The relevant content of Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the Barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.
2. I repeat Luste’s comment …it is evident that not enough food, or more specifically, food with high caloric content, such as fat, was purchased for the trip. [Grinnell book, p 286].
3. A Pessl comment.
The lack of fat in our diet, on the other hand, probably contributed to a serious caloric deficiency that may have exacerbated our discomfort in the cold, wet late season and may have resulted in reduced energy and endurance. We made a curious mistake early in the trip in not taking advantage of the Canada goose as a ready source of fat…although perhaps the need for animal fat in our diet was not as apparent when the birds were readily available and wood for roasting fires on hand was also at hand. Cooking a sturdy goose on a smoldering heather/twig fire on a wet, windy day in the Barrens would probably have been a real challenge, no matter how much we craved the fat. [Pessl, pp 162&163]
Comment. Pessl appears to acknowledge the validity of Luste’s comment regarding fat. But neither he nor Luste suggests that such lack contributed in any way to the tragedy.
4. Does anyone know (I sure don’t) whether the importance of fat and other food with high caloric content on such a long trip (~12 weeks) was understood by the paddling community ca 1955? That is, should Moffatt have known to provide such food?
If then, could much fat have been carried, given that the canoes were already very heavily laden?
5. The fat-related evidence of the participants.
5 August. Spent the day in camp … . Bruce and Joe shot a young spike horn… This sudden presence of wildlife not only provides good protein and fat, it also makes the hope of adequate provisions more realistic. [Pessl, p 69].
10 August. Right now, my thoughts are constantly preoccupied with food to an alarming extent. What I miss is not fresh meat, because we have plenty of that. I crave fats, sugar and starch. I would like big slabs of cornbread with lots of butter, fat meat like bacon or pork, and chocolate. [Franck, in Pessl, p 79].
20 August. … we have had to cut almost our entire food consumption in 1/2. We still have plenty of meat, but the lack of fat and starches make dinner rather unsatisfying. [Pessl, p 100].
Interpretation. food consumption refers to the consumption of provisions, only.
27 August. This caribou had more fat on him than the others and we could peel enough off the neck and shoulders to fry the meat without bacon. I never seem to grow tired of caribou as I think I would of beef. [Franck, in Pessl, p 106].
3 September. …I made four casts and got three fine trout. They are in lovely shape with lots of fat under the skin. [Franck, in Pessl, p 119].
Summary.
I lack the background in nutrition science to assess
either how much in the way of fat was provided by the caribou, fish (lake trout, arctic char and grayling) and ptarmigan,
or how much the participants needed.
But I refer the reader again to Moffatt’s earlier tripping experience.
The main point is that a caloric deficiency (or a fat deficiency, or any other food deficiency), if indeed such existed, bore no responsibility for Moffatt’s death. The cause is identified in Item 4. Sub-Appendix 3. The supply of food in the period from the start to 5 August.

Background.
Again, Moffatt’s personal experience was that initial supply of provisions would suffice for the entire trip. That is, he believed that no food from the land would be needed for the entire trip of ~80 days. Reference. Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
Aside. I don’t know how to reconcile Moffatt’s experience with that of Luste: The most I have ever carried in my canoes is seven weeks of food. … I don’t think one can carry food for three months. [Grinnell book, p 286].

Summary of the evidence.
Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men (recall Lanouette’s tripled). It would be of some interest to understand the reason for the error (the metabolism of young males? I have distant memories of such), but such a venture is well beyond my capabilities.
Some food from the land (blueberries and fish, but no caribou) was obtained in that period, but there was no guarantee of more, and so provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip.
Although the participants were often hungry (even ravenous at times, they were never at each other’s throats, they were never starving, as evinced by Grinnell’s The hunger began to express itself at dinner with a friendly rivalry to be first in line… [book, p 23].
On 3 August, the party decided unanimously to continue to Baker Lake, rather than return to Black Lake.

Conclusion.
The evidence is unequivocal. At times before 5 August (when the first caribou was shot), food was uncomfortably short. And so the short-of-food claims are reasonable for the period before 5 August.
But the party was far from starvation at any time.

The evidence of the Sports Illustrated article (1959) for the period from the start to 5 August.
Introduction. The article consists of passages alleged to be selections from Moffatt’s journal, plus assertions/insertions made by the anonymous editor. Lacking full access to Moffatt’s journal, and having learned to trust nothing in the SI article unless it is confirmed by a reliable source, I am unable to confirm whether the following passages indeed come from Moffatt’s journal, and if so, whether they are representative of it.
8 July. The men tired of their diet of imported stores and wanted to hunt, but Moffatt, mindful of the dangers that lay in expending ammunition, clamped down on shooting. [lower part of the right column on p 73; source not identified].
Question. What would they be shooting? Certainly not caribou, for the first was seen on 4 August. Ptarmigan?
15 July. The sharp talk at supper made everyone edgy. Heretofore we have all been equals. Now I have assumed the sergeant’s position. But someone has to stop the foolishness before it goes too far [Suggested to be a Moffatt comment, likely regarding food; p 73, lower part of right column].
26 July. We celebrated that night with a tremendous dinner of two-pound grayling per man, mashed potatoes and pudding. [Suggested to be a Moffatt comment; p 75, middle of left column].

The evidence of Grinnell’s article (1988) for the period from the start to 5 August.
To avoid unnecessary repetition, I include here relevant material provided also in Grinnell’s book. If I may be explicit, material provided only in his book is documented below (in a separate paragraph).
Grinnell gives dates only occasionally; this and other evidence led me to conclude that he did not keep a journal.
Unless stated otherwise, none of the following is confirmed by the evidence of other participants. I make this point because I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by a source that I know to be reliable.

1. The supply of sugar.
…Pessl announced that we had consumed half our sugar supply while covering less than one-third the distance to Baker Lake. It was clear that we would run out of sugar before reaching our destination unless… [Grinnell article, p 20, right column].
Confirmation by Pessl.
Had a grumpy outbreak over the sugar situation. We are now 1/2 through the supply and only about 1/3 of the distance to Baker Lake. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. Hope it works. [Pessl, 29 July, p 56]
Comment.
The first reach of the trip, the ascent of the Chipman River from Black Lake to the height of land and so to the waters of the Dubawnt River, was difficult and consequently slow. And so a better comparison would have been to the time remaining. I now do that analysis.
The time remaining on 29 July.
The trip began on 29 June, and so the party was 31 days into it on 29 July. The trip was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 15 September, but with a grace period of seven days, for a maximum of 87 days.
Conclusion.
Pessl’s less than one-third is accurate with respect to both distance and time remaining.

2. Controlling the men.
Grinnell alleged the following to have been asserted by Moffatt.
He who controls the food controls the men. [Grinnell article, p 21, top of the left column; Grinnell book, top of p 7 and top of p 17].
Response. This allegation has no basis in any evidence known to me.
Reminder. I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by a source known to be reliable.

3. The supply of powdered milk.
The next fight was over how the powdered milk was mixed. The United Bowmen’s Association felt that it should be watered down more: Moffatt felt that the quality should be maintained but the quantity cut back. [article, p 21, top of the left column]
Response. I’m unsure that this matter merits the term fight.

4. Moffatt took more than his share of the food?
1. Moffatt always helped himself first before calling the rest of us to dinner… [Grinnell book, p 21, top of the left column]
2. …the possibility that none would be left by time the sixth man got his. [same source]
3. Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours..
Response. The evidence (especially that provided in Items 5 and 6 below) supports the suggestion that Moffatt was getting more than his share of the food, for at least early in the trip.

5. The oatmeal question,
conflated with the matter of the size of Moffatt’s bowl/dishes.
Then there was the oatmeal question. Lefavour took to counting the number of spoonfulls of oatmeal we each took every morning. This did not much from bowl to bowl for the rest of us because we all had the same size bowl and always filled it as full as we could get it, but Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours.
On August 22, Moffatt came to breakfast, and picked up one of the standard bowls, somewhat to our surprise, and helped himself to oatmeal.
[Grinnell article. p 21, middle of the left column]

6. The size of Moffatt’s bowls/dishes.
Skip…says my pankin…is causing grumbling among the men, since they think I’m getting more than they are. Could be. Will use bowl from now on. [21 August. SI article, top of right column on p 80]
Grinnell’s comment Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours is confirmed by Pessl’s photo and the corresponding comment …Art…filling his controversial pannikin. [Pessl journal entry for 14 August, p 85]
Indeed, Grinnell’s comment is extended by the following: …He uses a special aluminum pannikin instead of the common bowl, thus causing suspicion of larger portions. When frying meat, he always fries his separately, thus implying special pieces and extra preparation… [14 August. Pessl, p 86]
Conclusions.
It appears that Moffatt was getting more that his fair share of food in the first six weeks of trip.
The matter was resolved four weeks before his death.

Comment.
Given the accusations made of Moffatt, I thought it necessary to state that none of the items
the supply of sugar,
how the powdered milk was mixed,
the oatmeal question,
the size of Moffatt’s bowl/dishes,
and so on,
was life-threatening.
In particular, none played a role in Moffatt’s death.

The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996) for the period from the start to 5 August.
Comments.
Again, comments duplicated in his article are addressed above.
Again, I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell. I lack independent confirmation of some of the following passages from his book.
Grinnell and Moffatt’s journal.
As I document in particular in
Ancillary 1. Accusations, Grinnell must have possessed Moffatt’s journal.
Given
1. that the SI editor is known to have possessed Moffatt’s journal, and
2. that the participants were not provided with copies of Moffatt’s journal [Pessl, private correspondence], and
3. that the editor and Grinnell are known to have had been in written contact (at the very least; witness the Epilogue of the SI article),
I suggest that the editor had supplied Grinnell with a copy of Moffatt’s journal.
And so it appears that they had cooperated to some extent. This possibility disturbs me, especially given
(a) that Grinnell (in neither his article nor his book) objected to any assertion made by the SI editor, and
(b) that both Grinnell and the SI editor redacted passages of significance regarding the running of the fatal rapids.

Passage 1.
As the days passed into weeks, we burned off the fatty lining from our oesophagi so that we felt hungry before, after, and during meals. The hunger began to express itself at dinner with a friendly rivalry to be first in line… [p 23].
Opinions.
1. The passage we felt hungry…first in line fairly represents the food supply from the start to 5 August (when the first caribou was shot).
2. That same passage represents not at all the food supply in the crucial period from 5 August to 14 September (when Moffatt died).
Passage 2.
The food was not elegant, but we loved Art’s glops. … On the portages, we were burning up about twice as many calories as we were getting from our rations. The more calories we burned, the more we craved food, especially fatty foods. … For the first time in my life, I had experienced the reality of hunger, the long-term, gnawing reality of hunger that reminded me of things beyond our control. …When the last item was eaten out of the bottom of our canoes, what then, Art? [pp 24&25].
Comment.
Given that Grinnell did not keep a journal, the passage When the last item…, what then, Art? was written after Moffatt’s death. I ask that the reader reflect on Grinnell’s motivation in providing the passage.
Passage 3.
In reference to the waters of the Dubawnt River. Every imaginable migratory bird nests there. The lakes are teeming with fish. The wolves follow the migrating caribou herds… [p 49].
Passage 4.
…which we felt was reasonable enough until we had spent forty days hungry in the wilderness; and then we went into revolt. [p 55].
Comment. The revolt remark is almost certainly a reference to the formation of the alleged United Bowmen’s Association.
The corresponding evidence of LeFavour: The UBA was simply a way for the three of us to bitch among ourselves and thereby relieve some tensions, not in any way a revolt. [LeFavour, private communication to Pessl; bottom of the right column on p 8 of Pessl’s Nastawgan article, Vol 40, No.2 (2013). Also Pessl book, p 168].
Passage 5.
…after nearly forty days in the wilderness on short rations, I was bored. [book, p 57].
Comment. Rations were indeed short in the almost 7 weeks before 5 August.
Passage 6.
…decided to make camp early so that we would have time to catch some fish before dinner. Bruce, Pete and Skip brought in fifteen fish thought to be grayling. [book, p 84].
Comment. The date for the last item is likely 26 July, as evidenced by Pessl’s journal (below).
Passage 7.
Art caught a lake trout that was almost as large as he was. [top of p 90].
Passage 8.
He (Moffatt) elaborated on what we already knew: at our current rate of travel we no longer carried enough food in our canoes to reach the outpost at Baker Lake. Our progress across the Barrens had been slower than he had anticipated, so that we were in danger of being trapped by freeze-up as well as by hunger.
Our only hope of survival lay in living off the land. If we were lucky enough to run across a herd of migrating caribou, we would probably survive: if not, we should expect the same fate as Hornby, Adlard and Christian, death by starvation.
[book, pp 90&91].
Comment 0.
The date was 3 August, when the party decided unanimously to continue downstream to Baker Lake, rather than return to Black Lake.
Comment 1.
The provisions on board from the beginning had turned out to be insufficient to reach Baker Lake at a comfortable level of consumption, and so the party would have to acquire food from the land, to some unknown extent.
Comment 2.
Grinnell’s Our progress across the Barrens had been slower than anticipated… is supported by the following excerpt from Pessl’s book.
During dinner today, Art brought up the condition of the supplies and distance to travel, and for the first time made everyone collectively conscious of the situation. We discussed the possibility of returning to Stony Rapids before it was too late, but agreed to a man to continue, with the definite intention of longer, more strenuous travel days. The attitude of the party finally is changing from that of a summer vacation to the serious determination faced with an urgent objective, and serious consequences if it fails. [Pessl, 3 August, pp 65&66].
Comment 3.
To me, Grinnell’s Our only hope of survival … death by starvation is at best sophomoric hyperbole. Perhaps it bears repeating that the party had already obtained considerable food from the land, certainly fish (Passages 4 and 7 above) and perhaps ptarmigan.
Comment 4.
We (the Moffatt party) had spent forty days fasting in the wilderness together… [p 95]. The allusion is clear, but artistic licence. Lest the assertion be taken literally, no member of the party fasted for even one day in the period before 5 August. I refer the reader to the evidence (provided above) in Grinnell’s book, and also to the evidence of Pessl and Franck (provided immediately below) for that same period (start to 5 August).
Comment 5.
The sighting of the first caribou occurred on 4 August, the shooting of the first the next day yet. Unfortunately for Moffatt’s reputation, Grinnell made no mention of either event, in either his article or his book.
Comment 6.
There was no possibility of freeze-up until well into October (well past the outer limit of 22 September for arrival in Baker Lake, after which date an aircraft search would have begun, indeed did begin). Reference. Appendix 5. Pace and weather.

Summary of the evidence of Grinnell’s book for the period from the start to 5 August.
Appetites far exceeded Moffatt’s expectations. Food from the land was plentiful at times, but short overall until the first caribou was shot. And so portions were insufficient.

The evidence of Pessl and Franck for the period from the start to 5 August.
1 July. The glop is getting very tasteless without the tomato paste and with macaroni every God damn night. … good spot for lake trout and Bruce caught two around 4½ lb. [Franck, in Pessl, p 25].
Comment. The party had yet to hit the water.
2 July. Some of the food got wet and we had to spread it out to dry. … we got water in and soaked a little oatmeal. … We spread the wet food out on a big rock shelf to dry… [Franck, in Pessl, p 27].
3 July. We had a roast beef with all the trimmings. [Franck, in Pessl, p 28].
4 July. … after the usual pause of hardtack, etc … . [Pessl, p 28].
7 July. Art broke out one of the cans of ham and we feasted. [Franck, in Pessl, p 31].
8 July. Two pounds of macaroni in the glop and it all disappeared in short order. [Franck, in Pessl, p 33].
9 July. … the smell of boiling glop pervaded the hungry dreams of 6 tired, “not so iron men.” [Pessl, p 33].
10 July. … after dinner, Bruce came back to camp with a 7-lb. lake trout … a morning supplement to the usual oats and coffee. [Pessl, p 34].
11 July. Taking the lake trout supplement as the keynote for an outstanding breakfast… [Pessl, p 34].
11 July. Skip fried the fish for breakfast. … We all ate so much that everyone laid around for an hour or two. Later, at camp I took George’s .22 and walked around … to see if I could find a spruce hen … I took a long shot and got her in the neck … a small meal for one man. [Franck, in Pessl, p 35].
14 July. We all have ravenous appetites and are still hungry after even the largest meal. [Franck, in Pessl, p 39].
15 July. … unsuccessful fishing … already the lack of food, or perhaps the psychological need for a little extra left in the pot is beginning to affect the party. … as the joke begins to wear off, the rush for an extra portion becomes tense. [Pessl, pp 39&40].
16 July. The usual meal of glop fixed things up pretty well… [Pessl (in reference to feeling woozy) p 41].
22 July. Made a detailed inventory of our food stock and we seem to be in good shape for about 50 more days. This brings us into the first part of September when we should likely reach Baker Lake. Sugar and other sweets pose somewhat of a problem in as much as the longer we are away the more intense the sweet tooth becomes. However, minor rationing should take care of this. [Pessl, p 48].
Interjections.
1. By food stock, Pessl means provisions.
2. 50 more days after 22 July gives 10 September, five days before the scheduled date for arrival in Baker Lake. That is, Pessl believed the provisions on hand to be pretty well sufficient to complete the trip. I emphasise that Pessl was counting on obtaining no food from the land in making that estimate.
3. The party encountered the caribou two weeks after 22 July, namely on 4 August.
4. Given the accusations made of Moffatt, it seems necessary to state that a shortage of sugar and other sweets is not life-threatening.
Also not life-threatening is Moffatt’s personal supply of cigarettes (falsely represented by the SI editor as the expedition’s supply of the same). [SI article, middle of the right column on p 75]
23 July. Cold, wet and the pot refusing to boil! At last the tell-tale bubbles and a hot meal of glop, pudding and tea. [Pessl, p 49].
23 July. The party was windbound. George [went] to hunt grouse; the result was not documented. [Franck, in Pessl, p 49].
25 July. The realization that prolonged periods of immobility eat into our supplies with no increase in mileage to balance the scale eats into the minds of everyone. [Pessl, p 51]
26 July. We…have enjoyed excellent fishing … 13 grayling within 1/2 hr! [Pessl, p 52].
26 July.We camped on the left bank, and Bruce and I got out fishing. The Arctic grayling were very abundant here and we had a tremendous meal. They must be scaled but they make excellent eating. [Franck, in Pessl, p 53].
27 July. The end of firewood has not really touched us yet and we enjoy the fuel of the bush in the form of driftwood… [Pessl, p 54].
28 July. Art seems somewhat overly cautious, probably due to the risk of the camera equipment…Art had swamped… very little damage… 1/2 bag oatmeal, some wet hardtack and considerable quantities of dampened pride. [Pessl, p 55].
29 July. We continued drying our wet supplies…Had a grumpy outbreak over the sugar situation. We are now 1/2 through the supply and only about 1/3 of the distance to Baker Lake. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. [Pessl, p 56].
Interjections.
1. The earlier part of the trip had been slow, in part because of the difficult upstream travel on the Chipman River.
2. Again, I suggest that a shortage of sugar is not life-threatening.
30 July. Doled out the sugar ration into six small cans…great concern whether it should go over the oatmeal or into the tea. Not sure how Art feels about all this. … the gradually narrowing circle of men standing close to the campfire, holding steaming red bowls in both hands. [Pessl, p 58].
31 July. The problem of catching fish and then cleaning them and cooking them became a major issue today … an argument developed into a battle … On the brighter side, I caught my first grayling today: fine jumpy, fighty fish but a great big lake trout is still my favorite; calories prevail! We are camped in the midst of blueberry heaven. …Tonight, we had a big meal of glop and blueberry bannock …. [Pessl, pp 59-60].
1 August. Trees have disappeared for most practical purposes . . . firewood becomes the object of very passionate scavenger hunts; twisted stumps and watersoaked driftwood are treasures. [Pessl, p 61].
1 August. … we found two jars [of peanut butter] out of twelve broken. [Franck, in Pessl, p 62].
2 August. … the usual wind-bound day, highlighted by Art’s catching a tremendous 15# lake trout … a bountiful dinner of fish, mashed pots, bacon and tea. [Pessl, p 63].
2 August. I am really beginning to get worried that we will run out of food before we get to Baker Lake. … After lunch, Art caught a huge lake trout…39”long, 15.5 lb. Then he caught one half that size and we had enough for a fish dinner. [Franck, in Pessl, p 64].
Comment. Franck’s run out of food refers to the supply of provisions, only.
Interpretation. Despite the catching of the trout, Franck was counting on obtaining no more food from the land for the remainder of the trip. And so it bears mention that five caribou were shot in the weeks before 14 September, and that much more food (many ptarmigan, three species of fish, blueberries and mushrooms) was obtained from the land in those weeks.
3 August. Pessl, passage 1. Oats, fried fish and tea for breakfast … this lake is full of large lake trout … This is a big help to our supply inventory in as much as we have about 45 days of food left and we estimate that it will take us at least that long to reach Baker Lake. [Pessl, p 64]
Comment 1. supply inventory and food refer to provisions, only.
Comment 2. about 45 days of provisions would feed the party until about 17 September. The scheduled date for arrival in Baker Lake was 15 September, with a week’s grace before the air search was begun. But, from his at least that long, Pessl was concerned that arrival would not occur until considerably later.
Opinion. On 3 August, Pessl believed that the party had enough food, in the way of provisions alone, to reach the vicinity of Baker Lake in comfort.
3 August. Pessl, passage 2. On stay-over days …we have 1/2 ration oats + fish, fish chowder for lunch which needs only a package of dried soup and a little milk with boiled chunks of fish; and then fried fish and mashed potatoes for dinner. … During dinner today, Art brought up the condition of the supplies and distance to travel, and for the first time made everyone collectively conscious of the situation. [Pessl, p 65].
Comment 1. supplies refers to provisions, only.
Comment 2. The first caribou was seen the very next day, and so the food situation promised to improve; indeed, it did so, for the first caribou was shot on 5 August.
Interpretation of the passage Art brought up…conscious of the situation.
Moffatt thought that food (in the form of provisions alone) was sufficient to reach Baker Lake on schedule, but that the party would have to pick up the pace in order to do so.
That is, Moffatt was still counting on obtaining no food from the land for the remainder of the trip.
3 August. Franck. We are not yet halfway, but we have consumed more than half of supplies. [Franck, in Pessl, p 66].
Comments.
Again, supplies refers to provisions.
The party had yet to encounter the caribou, of which it shot five in total.
I believe that Franck’s halfway refers to distance, not time. As I mentioned previously, progress upstream on the Chipman River had necessarily been very slow. But, one fine day, I’ll measure the distance remaining and compare it with the time remaining (43 days to 15 September).
4 August. Franck …We went on down the river through a few small rapids when we saw our first caribou calmly grazing on top of a high bank. … We saw many caribou today, but all scattered along the banks in small groups. … I caught a few grayling for breakfast [for the next day]. [Franck, in Pessl, p 68].
Comment.
The party shot its first caribou the very next day.

Summary of the food supply in the period from the start to 5 August.
Some food from the land was obtained in the period; but the party was still often hungry, because provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip, lest the land not be fruitful. In this connection, perhaps it bears mention
first that the Moffatt party had only the evidence of the Tyrrell brothers to rely on for evidence regarding the caribou and other food from the land,
second that encounters with the caribou are far from guaranteed (as I know personally from six trips in the barrens, but 100 years later),
third that there was no guarantee that the party would arrive on schedule, namely on 15 September.
Items.
1. Lake trout, some large (two on 1 July, one on 10 July, two on 2 August, perhaps more on 3 August), and some grayling (13 on 26 July, 1 one on 31 July, a few on 4 August).
2. a spruce hen (female spruce grouse) on 11 July (a small meal for one man).
3. blueberry heaven on 31 July.
Comment 1. The shortage of food was far from life-threatening, but food from the land would be necessary in order to complete the trip in comfort.
Comment 2. Fat appears to have been in short supply, but it is unclear
(a) whether the shortage was serious, or
(a) whether the importance of fat was generally known by recreational paddlers at the time.
Comment 3. Concern regarding the food supply was much reduced on 4 August, when the first caribou were sighted.

Item 5. Introduction to the evidence of the participants regarding the supply of food in the period from 5 August to 14 September.

Two days after the party decided to continue downstream (rather than return to Black Lake), the food situation was much relieved with the shooting of the first caribou, this on 5 August.
This period, from the shooting of that caribou to Moffatt’s death (on 14 September), is the crucial one because Moffatt’s defamers asserted (that is, provided no evidence) that a shortage of food in it was in large part responsible for his death. Indeed, Murphy asserted that Moffatt died due to a lack of food.

Directory of the evidence for the period.
Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. The evidence of Moffatt.
Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. The evidence of Grinnell.
Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. The evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

Summary of the evidence for the period.
Food was occasionally short in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, but the party was well fed on the whole.
1. Food from the land.
Five caribou were shot (the first on 5 August, the last on 5 September).
Many ptarmigan were obtained by various means.
Many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught.
Blueberries and mushrooms were harvested, but these only earlier in the period.
2. Food from provisions.
On 7 September, a major resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache.
3. On three documented occasions, the paddlers were gorged with food.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
4. The supply of food on 13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour article, 1955]
5. The supply of food on 14 September.
At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party added to the above 20 lb of lake trout. [LeFavour article, 1955; Lanouette, private correspondence.]
Comment.
Perhaps the reader is already able to assess the assertions of Moffatt’s defamers regarding the food supply in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death.

Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. Food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Moffatt.

My sources for the following were
edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article, and
unedited excerpts from his journal (kindly supplied by participant Pessl).
Caution.
Given that the strong>SI editor redacted the key evidence Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, I trust no content of that article unless it is confirmed by evidence of a trustworthy participant.

Moffatt’s planning.
For the convenience of the reader, I quote one last time that passage from Moffatt’s letter to J B Tyrrell, of 14 January 1955.
I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.

4 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
To set the stage, I provide evidence from the last day of the previous period (start to 4 August).
We got up at 4:30, Skip made breakfast, while I took pix of sunrise. Our beautiful clear sky sailed – or was pushed – fast NE by heavy clouds, which brought light cold rain and NW wind. But we were under way by 6, and kept on till 10, having hard time following route through islands. I couldn’t tell where we were from map, but there was just enough current between islands, and bent weeds in the water, to show us we were right. Finally, at 10:30, we seemed to be definitely in the fast – moving river, and stopped to have cocoa – we were numbed with cold – soaked legs – hands raw from cold wind & rain – but fire and hot drink quickly brought us around.
Hills all bare here, only groves of spruce and tamarack here and there.
Then on, through many-channeled river, to fast little rapid, where we stopped to make cloudy day film – f4.5-5.6 – of Skip + Pete shooting rapid, and on again 2 or 3 miles, when Joe and I suddenly saw 2 caribou outlined against sky on ridge on left bank.
Stopped at once, jumped out with camera, got pix – ate lunch there, went on through more rapids, caribou now everywhere, till we saw big bull and cow swimming – got fine pix of Skip + Bruce chasing them in the water, of animals close by.
On to heavy rapid 1/2 way to Barlow Lake – 5:30 – good camp, island, sun, caribou everywhere – got great shots of herd on sky line, behind tents, of Bonaparte gull in tree top, and finally no pix but good view of long-tailed jaeger – now 2.
Also first Arctic ground squirrel, and white wolf – got shot of latter.

Source. Pages 82 and 83 of Moffatt’s journal, as kindly supplied by Pessl.

4 August.
Comment. The date, not provided by the editor, comes from the above.
…their first arctic ground squirrel, a white wolf, and then they met the caribou en masse. [SI article, lower left column, p 75].
Assessment: A bare-bones (less than a sentence) but nevertheless faithful condensation of the relevant portion of Moffatt’s journal for that day.

5 August.
Poor morning, and I didn’t get up at 5 as I had planned. Because Skip didn’t get called, he slept until 11 – which rather teed me, since he had originally said he would cook breakfasts because I was hard to get out of sack in a.m.
Instead of moving – it was 1 p.m. when breakfast over – we decided to kill a caribou. Bruce + Joe went out, got small female – forked horns, in velvet – fine shot behind shoulder, Bruce, second in back, Joe – they finished her in neck, cut throat. I got pix, but it was cloudy all the time, and at 4-2.8, had rotten sun.
Made sequence – hunt, kill, skinning, butchering, hanging meat, and finally stew. Meat sour-sweet, tastes a little like the guts and stomach contents smell.
But before dinner I finished one more shot of caribou also looked at rapids – going to be tricky to shoot, and had bowel movement – been partially constipated for three days – today blood in stool. Can it be poor food – macaroni, bully, oats and hardtack – or have I got the hernia I worried about earlier, which still feels odd down in left groin. Not good if I have, but nothing much to do about it here.
Getting very anxious to be home, but tonight we are still south of 62nd parallel – have to go almost to 65° – and should do it in less than a month – but can we?
Weather gets steadily worse – sun very little – only in patches – wind constant and cold
[illegible] rain squalls every day.
We are not yet beyond limit of all trees – valleys + low places still have plenty in groves, but hills + ridges and meadows bare, stony, greenish with grass – creeping
[illegible]-bearing plants, and dwarf birch. Tamarack numerous, largest trees, bed rock almost non-existent.
Berries, weather, stony hills and long undulating horizons seem characteristic of this area.

[pp 83-85 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].

5 August.
I have nothing to report, for the SI editor omitted the complete entry for 5 August.
That is, s/he skipped from the 4 August entry caribou en masse to the 6 August entry We made good time…, thereby omitting mention of the shooting of the first caribou (partially consumed that very day) on 5 August.
Comment 1. Some might consider the shooting and partial consumption of the first caribou on 5 August (an event ignored by the editor) to be a more important event than the sighting of the first caribou on 4 August (mentioned by the editor).
Comment 2.
The editor omitted mention also of the caribou shot on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September, all as documented in Moffatt’s journal. Of the five, the editor mentioned only the caribou shot on 11 August. Particularly important for our understanding of the food situation in the days shortly before Moffatt’s death (and so the assertions that Moffatt died due to a lack of food) is the editor’s failure to mention the caribou shot on 5 September, food from which was in such supply on 14 September that the party had no need to hunt for the remainder of the trip.
Given that the editor omitted mention of four of the five caribou shot, perhaps I may ask that the reader consider editor’s intentions for making the following assertions.
1. Food was becoming the question now [9? August; top of left column, p 76].
2. …game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [16-17 August, bottom of right column, p 76].

6 August.
Up at 7:30 – Skip had breakfast ready – we ate, I took films of Skip and Pete shooting the big rapid. This took quite a while, since high clouds covered the sun, but after they had passed, we had a clear, very windy day, with light windblown dew point clouds – a real rarity of a day in these latitudes. We made good time down the swift river – many boulders and easy rapids – and caribou in groups of 3 to 10 were grazing placidly in the meadows at the waters edge, or walking slowly along the stony yellowish ridges.
Those grazing would look up as we passed, and watch us curiously, and a few would put up their white tails and trot a few paces back from the river before turning again to stare.
We are already accustomed to their presence, and hardly look twice at them. It is surprising how easy they are to see. Sometimes if they are standing still, the light white winter hair on their backs still being shed, and the new dark hair underneath make them look like a boulder – or rather, the boulders can be mistaken for caribou. Their horns are still in velvet of course – the big bucks have huge racks, the cows and young bucks smaller sets – the cows without a central keel. Their white feet make them appear to be wearing gaiters.
Yesterday I could hear their ankles or hooves – I don’t know which as they trotted away from me.
It is not necessary to hunt them – all you have to do is sit downwind – be still – and they will walk up to you.
At lunch today got pix of Arctic Cotton, also good rapid – then into lake – Barlow – about 4 miles, and on into bay by 5 p.m. Wind strong beyond and I climbed hill at point.
[Moffatt describes a chipping site, with also scrapers and points.]
Cooked caribou steaks tonight – with mashed potatoes and tea. Then went on long walk with camera to hills back of camp, but saw nothing – a few caribou, one of which walked almost up to me.
Country very lovely – almost completely barren – blue and purple hills in distance, groves of birch in hollows, thin line of spruce here and there at edge of lakes and rivers.
Night absolutely calm – full moon one day old, loons crying in distance, distant roar of small rapid south of lake. Not a cloud in the sky.
Hills back of camp very stony, rough boulders in till, patches of yellow bare gravel, berries growing among boulders. Pothole lakes surrounded by muskeg which seems golden green and strongly in contrast with gray and buff hills. Trees stand out occasionally on side of ridge or skyline like sentinels.
Not a mosquito, not a black fly here as I write at 11:30 p.m. by moonlight and twilight. Very warm – first warm night in weeks. Three poles with
[I omitted the second “with”] caribou meat hanging from their apex at shore-Skip’s tent to left. Bank shallow and stoney.
A few weak northern lights earlier, nothing now – one star in north.
Saw five Canada geese today – big honkers. Makes 14 seen so far.
Joe doesn’t care for caribou – afraid of flies + parasites – rest of us think it’s fine. Not gamey at all – best fried.
All of us getting on each other’s nerves – as usual – six weeks out now – a long time. Have used about 3000 feet of film same amount to go. Plenty still of film to take yet.
Only 15 packs of cigarettes left and 1/2 can of roll-your-own. Sugar ration inadequate too.

[pp 85-87 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].
Comment. I discuss below Moffatt’s tobacco and sugar remarks.
Aside. Perhaps readers who have not visited the barrenlands will enjoy them, if only vicariously, from the above.

Interjection.
Except that for 13 September, I possess no more complete entries from Moffatt’s journal, only
edited excerpts from the SI article of 1959, and
excerpts provided by Pessl in private correspondence.

6 August.
We made good time down the river. … It is not necessary to hunt them [the caribou]. All you have to do is sit downwind, be still, and they will walk up to you. [SI article, top right column, p 75].

~8 August. An assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor.
On August 8 the Moffatt party reached Cairn Point, a turning point in the journey… Among other things, the expedition’s provisions were beginning to run low. There were only 15 packs of cigarettes left and a half can of roll-your-own. The sugar ration was proving woefully inadequate. [Sports Illustrated, p 75, right column]
Response 1. The supply of cigarettes.
The passage Only 15 packs…roll-your-own was lifted from Moffatt’s journal entry for 6 August, namely Only 15 packs of cigarettes left and 1/2 can of roll-your-own. [pp 85-87 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].
From the context, one sees that Moffatt refers to his personal supply, only. Indeed, each participant had his own supply of cigarettes, starting with the first day of the trip.
Conclusion. The editor represented Moffatt’s concern with his personal supply of cigarettes as a shortage of the party as a whole.
Further, a shortage of cigarettes is scarcely a life-threatening matter, scarcely one worthy of such special note; indeed, in retrospect, that shortage might be argued to be beneficial, albeit in the long term.
Response 2. The supply of sugar.
By this time, each participant had his own supply of sugar. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. [29 July. Pessl book, p 56].
Conclusion. Given that the sugar matter was resolved on 29 July, and that the editor’s assertion was dated 7 or 8 August, one sees that the editor represented Moffatt’s concern with his personal supply of sugar as a shortage of the party as a whole.
Opinion 1.
Given that neither was responsible in any way for the tragedy, I suggest that the accusatory literature (beginning with the SI article and continuing with Grinnell’s book) has made rather too much both of the shortage of sugar and of the distribution of its supply.
Opinion 2.
Some might consider the shooting of the first caribou (on 5 August, an event not mentioned by the editor) to be more worthy of publication than a false suggestion that the party as a whole was running short of cigarettes.

~8 August. A passage attributed to Moffatt.
…All is well–enough food–or almost enough. [SI article, top of the left column on p 76]. Caution. I lack confirmation from Moffatt’s journal.
As before, food refers to provisions only.
Analysis. Moffatt is satisfied, as best he could have been at this stage in the trip, with the supply of provisions for the remainder of the trip. After all, he was in charge of the procurement of provisions; that was a primary concern of his, and this is far from the only time that he comments on that supply during the trip, both before and after ~8 August.

8 or 9 August. An editorial interjection.
Food was becoming the question now. [p 76, top of the left column]
Response 1.
Given his remark …All is well—enough food—or almost enough of ~8 August, Moffatt was clearly satisfied with the food supply at the time. The reference here was, I believe, to the supply of provisions, a matter that Moffatt addressed many times in his journal.
Response 2.
The first caribou had been shot three days previously (an event that went unmentioned by the editor), and there were many more around, easy pickings.
A request.
Given this evidence regarding both the supply of provisions and the food from the land (especially the caribou) at that time, I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s motivation in asserting that Food was becoming the question now.

10 August.
Found could conserve sugar by pouring prunes on oats. Syrup sweet enough for one bowl. [SI article, p 76, left column].

11 August.
The second caribou was shot this day, as mentioned in the following.

12 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal (Sports Illustrated version).
Should have mentioned in yesterday’s log that Bruce [LeFavour] went hunting in the morning…and shot fork-horn cow caribou.
We cut up the loins for steaks. They were full of grubs and cysts of one kind or another, but who cares about tapeworm or worse when fresh meat as good as this is on hand and has not been for 30 days?
[SI article, p 76, left column].

12 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
… made blueberry johnny cake, cut up loins of caribou for steaks. They were full of grubs and cists of one kind or another, but who cares about tapeworm or worse when fresh meat as good as this is on hand and has not been for 30 days, and also when supplies are down to about 30 days with over 400 miles to go… [Pessl, private correspondence]
The first “30 days”.
A considerable exaggeration, given that the first caribou was shot seven days earlier.
The second “30 days”.
Given that 30 days after 12 August gets one to 11 September, and that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, I conclude that Moffatt believed the supply of provisions, it alone, to be close to adequate for the remainder of the trip. The difference of four days is then inconsequential, especially because of the about.
In particular, Moffatt counted on obtaining no more food from the land.
It turned out that three more caribou were shot after 11 August (these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September), and that the land provided much more food.
A request.
Given this evidence (possessed in full by the editor) of Moffatt, I ask that the reader reflect on the purpose of the editor’s assertion Food was becoming the question now.
Aside.
I measured the distance from Cairn Point on Carey Lake to Baker Lake to be ~400 miles, in good agreement with Moffatt’s value.
Reference. Ancillary 4. Distances.

13 August.
Went into a small bay, good wood, plenty blueberries. I steaked up most of one hind quarter of caribou, mashed potatoes, made chocolate pudding and tea… [Pessl, private correspondence].

14 August.
Most conversation revolves around food. Running low of staples, only 30 days’ supply left. [Sports Illustrated, p 76, left column].
Comment 0.
staples means what I call provisions.
Comment 1.
I lack full access to his journal, but Moffatt’s food must refer to provisions (rather than food from the land), given that the second caribou had been shot three days earlier, on 11 August.
Comment 2.
13 September is 30 days after 14 August. Given that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, one sees that Moffatt believed the supply of provisions, alone, to be adequate to reach Baker Lake within a few days of the scheduled arrival date.
Comment 3.
Three more caribou were shot after 14 August, these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September.

15 August.
…painful discussion –salt running low, milk running low. How to save it? [Sports Illustrated, p 76, right column].
Opinion. Moffatt continues his meticulous assessment of the supply of provisions, even regarding minor items like salt and milk.

17 August.
Rain kept on to midafternoon, then everybody got busy getting together complete meal off the country, mushrooms (a kind of brown, large one, porous underneath rather than ribbed like usual ones) for vegetable, six 5lb. lakers for meat, also 3 ptarmigan via Pete for extra meat, blueberries for dessert and tea. [Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Comment. The corresponding entry does not appear in the SI article.

20 August.
The third caribou was shot this day, an event that escaped mention by the SI editor.

21 August.
Only about 20 days’ food left. Lean caribou is temporarily filling but does not stay with you. We get five meals out of the caribou – four quarters and back meat, plus heart, tongue and liver. Neck and spareribs for lunch meat. Unfortunately, we do not have enough wood to make soup. No more onions, dried vegetables. …Ptarmigan plentiful here, … [Sports Illustrated, p 80, lower left and top right columns].
Comment 1.
Pessl gives the date as 22 August, as below.
Comment 2.
Since Moffatt says about, the difference from the previous estimate (that of 14 August) is negligible.
Comment 3.
Several more caribou had been shot since 5 August.
Comment 4.
Again, food means provisions. That supply (of about 20 days) would last until 10 September or so, if no more food were obtained from the land. But much food from the land was obtained later in the period; moreover, provisions were obtained from the cache, this on 7 September.
Opinion.
Moffatt continues his meticulous evaluation of the supply of provisions.

22 August.
Only about 20 days food left. Lean caribou temporarily filling, but does not stay with you. 5 meals on caribou: 4 quarters + back meat, plus heart, tongue and liver, and neck and spareribs for lunch meat. Not enough wood to make soup. [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Opinion.
A faithful condensation on the part of Pessl. But perhaps I copied the date incorrectly.

24 August.
Moffatt caught a 12-pound lake trout. [Sports Illustrated, p 80, right column].

26 August.
The fourth caribou was shot this day, an event not mentioned by the SI editor.

28 August.
On north side island stopped to cook lunch, fish chowder: 12 lbs. lake trout, 4 oxo cubes, 1 pack dry vegetable soup, salt, pepper and flour paste. Very filling. [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].

5 September.
Only about 15 days of oatmeal left, five days of cornmeal, 18 days of hardtack, 18 days of sugar and 11 two-pack mashed potatoes or 22 one-pack days. Four days of macaroni, meat supply good, canned meat, fish and caribou. Should make it, unless weather turns very bad. [SI article, p 81, centre of right column].
Comment 1.
The party was scheduled to arrive 10 days later, on 15 September, but with a week’s grace period.
Opinions.
1. Moffatt continues his conscientious evaluation of the supply of provisions. Yet again, he is optimistic regarding the supply.
2. As far as it goes, the above is a faithful condensation (as supplied by Pessl, in private correspondence) of Moffatt’s entry for the day.
Comment 2.
But the Sports Illustrated editor omitted Moffatt’s mention of the shooting of fifth (and last) caribou that very day, as evinced in his journal.
Bruce killed caribou – leg shot, chase into lake, then neck shot – George & Skip & Bruce skinned and brought in the meat… [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Opinion. The editor redacted evidence that reflects badly on her/his assertion that a lack/shortage of food contributed to Moffatt’s death.

7 September.
The supply of provisions was augmented by those from the cache.
We…saw red gas cans and something white…the white thing was…a small piece of muslin covering 24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy…We took the stuff, figuring it had been left for us by Ray Moore…we celebrated with a huge mess of vegetables and caribou glop, carrots and beans mixed. Supper was wonderful. [Moffatt journal, as reported in the SI article, p 82, lower left and top right columns.]
Grinnell confirmation.
…It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We raided the dump. [Grinnell book, pp 180&181]
Pessl confirmation.
…found a large quantity of dehydrated vegetables…took the whole shebang. [Pessl book, pp 125&126]

10 September.
The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
…Ten days’ sugar supply left, about the same amount of hardtack, 10 days’ oats, five days’ cornmeal. Joe broke two of three remaining peanut butter jars tonight on a portage. Even a little item of that sort is becoming vitally important to us. The food situation is poor, but we mean to get out of here as fast as possible now. About 200 miles to go. [SI article, p 82, centre of right column].
Comment 1.
This a faithful transcription of Moffatt’s journal for the day, as supplied by Pessl. Again, here food here refers to provisions, only.
Comment 2.
Arrival in Baker Lake by the scheduled date of 15 September would have required five days at an unreasonable average of 40 miles per day. I expect the weather-enforced, non-travel days of 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 September to be largely responsible for the delay. But arrival in Baker Lake by the end of the grace period (22 September) appears to have been achievable on 10 September.
Comment 3.
That distance of 200 miles, along the Dubawnt River to the junction with the Thelon River (between Beverly Lake and Aberdeen Lake) and thence to Baker Lake, agrees reasonably well with my measurement at Toporama.
My point here is that Moffatt had corrected the distance given in his Prospectus.
After the tragedy, rather than continue down the Dubawnt to its junction with the Thelon, the survivors portaged from Marjorie Lake to Aberdeen Lake on the Thelon.

13 September. The evidence of Moffatt.
Moffatt’s complete entry for the day is provided in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
I provide here only the evidence related to food.
…Skip caught 3 trout… lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack,… Others portaged while I cooked huge glop, fish and bully, pudding + tea. [Moffatt journal; via Pessl, private correspondence]

13 September. The version provided by the Sports Illustrated editor.
I cooked fish and bully, pudding and tea. [Sports Illustrated, bottom right of p 82]
Comment. One sees that the editor redacted the passage Skip caught 3 trout… lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack.
Opinion. The redacted passage bears on the supply of food and so on the SI editor’s assertions (game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now) regarding that supply.

14 September.
The assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor, and the evidence of participant LeFavour.
In what to me is a clear reference to Moffatt’s death that day, the editor asserted the following
…game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [16-17 August, bottom of right column, p 76].
Interpretation.
The editor suggests that food (in particular that from the land) was so short, and the party was in such desperate haste to reach Baker Lake before the onset of winter, that Moffatt took the ultimate chance by running the fatal rapids without a scout.
Response 1.
As documented in Moffatt’s journal (possessed in full by the editor) itself, three more caribou were shot after 16-17 August, these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September. If the reader will indulge me, I remind her/him that the editor omitted all mention of these major additions to the food supply.
Response 2.
Participant LeFavour (in Sub-Appendix 4c) provided the following for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death.
As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).]
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on the truth of the editor’s assertions game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now.

The cause of Moffatt’s death is documented in
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. Food supply from 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Grinnell.

Introduction.
1. For those seven weeks, I provide one evidence from Grinnell’s article (1988), then multiple evidences from his book (1996).
2. Despite my reservations regarding his writings on other matters, Grinnell’s book provides an accurate (though abbreviated) description of the food supply in those crucial seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (the day of the tragedy).
I accept his evidence because it is verified by the evidence of Moffatt himself (Sub-Appendix 4a) and by that of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl (Sub-Appendix 4c).
3. Summary. Grinnell’s book documents that food (both from the land and from provisions, the latter augmented by those obtained from the cache) was bountiful, on the whole, in the seven weeks preceding Moffatt’s death.

The evidence of Grinnell’s article (1988).
…we had all discovered the caribou, the berries [blueberries], the mushrooms and the lake trout… [p 21, left column].
Comment. The unspecified date was after 5 August, when the first caribou was shot.

The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996).
Passage 1. My first awareness of Reality with a capital “R” came to me in the form of hunger, that everlasting hunger that must be satisfied or death will in time arrive; and my second awareness came in the form of freezing cold, which kills more quickly. [p 2; undated]
Comment. Food was short in the period from the start to the shooting of the first caribou on 5 August. Because Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men, provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip, and food from the land had been insufficient to make up the difference. But the hunger in that period was far from life-threatening, death was far from imminent. And so I suggest that Grinnell made here a general remark, though rather a hyperbolic one.
But hunger was all but nonexistent in the crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death. As I document elsewhere, in those weeks the party obtained
a plethora of food from the land, plus
a massive resupply of provisions (this on 7 September).
Passage 2. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Comment. This was the first caribou killed, of the five; as mentioned previously, the SI editor redacted mention of this event.
Passage 3. Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 4. …picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Comment. This caribou (the one shot on 11 August) was the only one (of the five) to be mentioned by the SI editor.
Passage 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Comment. The five caribou were shot on 5 August, 11 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September.
Passage 10. … I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Comment. This account regarding the easy killing of the ptarmigan is confirmed by Franck [Pessl, p 108].
Passage 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [p 158]
Passage 12. The acquisition of the supplies from the cache, this on 7 September.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [pp 180 & 181].
Comment. This acquisition of supplies from the cache is confirmed by the evidence of Moffatt [Sports Illustrated, p 82, lower left and upper right columns] and that also that of Pessl-Franck-Lanouette-LeFavour [Sub-Appendix 4c, below]

Summary of the evidence of Grinnell’s book.
In those crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, five caribou were shot, many fish (three species) were caught, many ptarmigan were killed, and a copious supply of mushrooms and blueberries was harvested (though only earlier in the period).
As well, a major resupply of provisions was obtained, this on 7 September.
Bellies were not full on occasion, but appetites were satisfied on the whole. Indeed, on three known occasions, appetites were far more than satisfied.

Opinion. This evidence of Grinnell’s book is particularly relevant
1. to the assertions of Murphy (made in what was alleged to be his review of Grinnell’s book):
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food…, and also
2. to the assertions of Kingsley (whose primary source was Grinnell’s book):
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past.

Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. The supply of food in the weeks between 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

My sources.
Franck. Pessl’s book (2014).
Lanouette. Private correspondence.
LeFavour. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955); private correspondence.
Pessl. His book of 2014 and private correspondence.
Summary of the evidence of these four participants.
Grinnell’s account of the bountiful supply of food from the land in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death is confirmed and considerably augmented.
Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three known occasions.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
As well, the participants confirm the massive resupply of provisions (this on 7 September), as documented also in the SI article (1959) and in Grinnell’s book (1996).

The evidence of Franck and Pessl.
Source. Pessl’s book (2014).

4 August. The party met the caribou.
Actually, everywhere we looked groups of caribou could be seen. The horizon was a constant panorama of moving bodies and antlers. [Pessl, p 67].
5 August.
Spent the day in camp and although the weather was poor for filming, the caribou offered plenty of opportunity for excitement. After breakfast, Bruce and Joe climbed a nearby ridge, picked out a young, spike horn and shot it. …The prospect of firm, chewable meat for the next few days is very welcome. …This sudden presence of wildlife not only provides good protein and fat, it also makes the hope of adequate provisions more realistic. [Pessl, p 69].
Interpretation of the passage “… the hope of adequate provisions more realistic”. The availability of food from the land requires less reliance on the provisions remaining from the initial supply.
Caution. The reader need not attempt to compare the above summary for 5 August with the account of the Sports Illustrated editor for that same day.
5 August.
We had all the grayling we could eat for breakfast. …The water below is full of grayling, all good sized and eager for the fly. … Everyone sits up at night broiling it (the caribou shot after breakfast) and eating ‘til they can hold no more. The best pieces are the long roasts from the back. [Franck, in Pessl, p 69].
5 August.
… the day was gray, cold, and quite a wind was blowing over the plain from the southwest … It had been decided a few days before that we would need some caribou meat in order to stretch our supplies of food a little longer, and because the day was a bad one for traveling, we figured that this was as good a time as any to shoot some fresh meat. [Lanouette, private correspondence].
6 August.
Pan-fried steaks replaced yesterday’s delicious stew and for the second evening in a row, we enjoy fresh meat.
The abundance of caribou has already ceased to be cause for comment as we pass herd after herd on the river. … hundreds of caribou peacefully grazing … often during the night, we can hear the eerie echo of these rattling hooves as the caribou wander by our tents. …
Peter and Bruce have stirred up a few caribou just north of me and in their haste the animals run within 15 ft of the rock on which I am sitting…
[Pessl, p 71].
6 August.
We had caribou steaks…and they were as tender as the finest filet mignon. [Franck, in Pessl, p 72].
7 August.
At dinner tonight, Art … insisted … that the dinner cook should be entitled to extra sugar rations. He seems to be suffering more than the rest of us from the short rations due mainly to large amounts of tea and coffee that he relishes… [Pessl, p 72]
Comments. short rations refers to sugar, rather than food in general.
The matter of the sugar supply had apparently been resolved on 29 July [Pessl, p 56]. But it resurfaced again on 9 August. Sugar again became an issue this morning, with Art “borrowing” from the cooking ration. Later he apologized…and all seems smooth again. [Pessl, p 76] And again on 5 September. Sugar ration has been cut again, while Art continues to snitch. [Pessl, p 121]
… Caribou meat continues to dominate our meals; tongue and heart are top delicacies. [Pessl, p 72]
7 August.
…still eating on our caribou. We tried smoking some and eating it for lunch and it turned out delicious. I think the meat gets better as it ages a little. Caribou have been getting scarcer… [Franck, in Pessl, p73]
8 August.
Latest fad finds us all preparing half-smoked, half-cooked meat…to supplement the lunch ration… First animal is running out; will be looking for a new kill soon… Saw first ptarmigan today…the prospects of early arrival in Baker Lake seem good. [Pessl, pp 74&75].
8 August.
We had our last meal from the caribou tonight, but the chuck is still left and good, except… [Franck, in Pessl, p 76].
9 August.
Sugar again became an issue this morning, with Art “borrowing” from the cooking ration. Later he apologized…and all seems smooth again. …Berry picking led me within a few feet of a caribou this afternoon. [Pessl, p 76]
9 August.
…I flushed five ptarmigan. …Caribou are getting quite scarce with only an occasional one showing up. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 76&77].
10 August.
…there are lots of caribou here today. [Pessl, p 78].
10 August.
We saw more caribou today, but still only singles and pairs. …Right now, my thoughts are constantly preoccupied with food to an alarming extent. What I miss is not fresh meat, because we have plenty of that. I crave fats, sugar and starch. I would like big slabs of cornbread with lots of butter, fat meat like bacon or pork, and chocolate. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 78&79].
11 August.
Bruce bagged a caribou … . Once again we are well stocked with meat. … Blueberries are super and with the meat and fish provide a substantial part of our diet. This is my first experience of “living off the land”, substantially backed up by a can or two as needed. [Pessl, p 79].
11 August.
…Bruce came in…finally got a young cow about noon. …There was hardly any of that caribou left when we walked off. [Franck, in Pessl, p 81].
12 August.
…energies were spent preparing a beautiful blueberry johnny cake which was combined with two enormous slabs of “roast beef” to produce a fine banquet. The quantities of meat that we consume at one sitting are enormous…a boiling pot of soup stock made of caribou backbone chopped in chunks, reinforced by the usual pot of tea… [Pessl, 82]
12 August.
Around 4…Art set about making a johnny cake. I almost went mad with hunger sitting around watching him, so I went off to pick blueberries. We picked quite a pot full to put in the johnny cake and they really improved the flavor, but the cake itself sits so heavy once you eat two big slabs of it that I almost wished I was hungry again. [Franck, in Pessl, p 83]
13 August.
The usual morning oats…were supplemented with vast quantities of fried caribou liver… After the initial “halfway” scare of time-distance regarding food supplies…we are slowly drifting back into our previous lethargy. …In this land of fish, caribou and berries all seems well and so we mosey along. …enjoyed caribou soup for lunch…are camped again with the sizzle of cooking steaks. …today we once again saw the animals (caribou) grazing along the shore…[Pessl, p 84]
13 August.
We had a tremendous lunch of the usual hardtack and a soup made by boiling the backbone of the caribou. Delicious soup, and I had had a lot of caribou liver for breakfast, so I was quite full. This liver is excellent, but too rich and filling to eat for breakfast. … I am beginning to get a little tired of caribou and long for a glop dinner for a change. These blueberries that grow everywhere are delicious, especially with milk and sugar. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 85&86].
Comment. Franck records that both Moffatt and he were helping themselves to extra food.
14 August.
Comment. Pessl again expresses his discontent with Moffatt’s use …of community sugar for personal use at times…. He expresses also discontent with Moffatt’s handling of the general plan of the day’s travel. [Pessl, pp 86&87]
14 August.
Caribou are getting more abundant for some reason. We have been seeing lots of them since we entered Markham [Lake]… I have an alarming tendency to look forward to lunch and especially a peanut butter and cheese hardtack as the high point of the day. I am beginning to think that…I am nothing but a big belly. I look forward to Baker Lake most because it means all I can eat. [Franck, in Pessl, p 87].
15 August.
… I picked blueberries; very ripe now. …This caribou seems to be going bad much faster than the other. It already smells high and some pieces are full of maggots. Caribou seem to be increasing. We see them all the time now… [Franck, in Pessl, p 89].
16 August.
1. We spent the entire morning scouting this very difficult rapid… The protection of our supplies dictates our caution …our awareness of the approaching winter is a huge burden on days like this.. [Pessl, p 90]
Eventually, the party decided to stay put.
2. Milk became an issue yesterday; and again it seemed to be the four guys against Art; problem of rationing given to Skip. … After a touchy trial and error mushroom test in which I gulped down one raw specimen with some misgiving, but with no immediate after effects, mushrooms have become part of our “natural” diet. They are very plentiful in this area and when fried in bacon grease are a fine supplement with the caribou steaks. Food from the land has become so important that everyone walks with head down and a sharp eye for berries, mushrooms and other edible plants. An unfortunate result of this is that thoughts of food seem to dominate almost all other mental activity. Conversation, spare time and imagination concentrate on food. This is a sad state of affairs, considering generally how well we eat. [Pessl, pp 90 & 91]
16 August. Franck.
Bruce and I got out and caught some fish. The rapid is full of grayling and lake trout; fine big fish, the fattest I have ever seen. We had a caribou stew and threw the rest away as it was too high to stand any longer. …We still have 300 mi. to Baker Lake, after we get to Dubawnt Lake and only about thirty days of food left. [Franck, in Pessl, p 91].
Comment 1. 15 September (the intended arrival date in Baker Lake) is thirty days after 16 August. That is, on 16 August, Franck believed that the party had enough food to reach Baker Lake on schedule and in comfort.
Comment 2. I believe that food refers to provisions; it is unclear though to what extent, if any, Franck was counting on food from the land.
17 August.
Breakfast of oats, lake trout, bacon, blueberries and tea…storms continued to threaten so we remained at camp and spent most of the day getting food so as not to use much of our rapidly diminishing store-bought supply. Lunch consisted of a fish chowder utilizing 5 grayling, 1 C rice and I pkg. dried soup; also 1 hardtack with jam. Dinner was really a woodsman’s triumph, although it took all afternoon to gather. Five medium lake trout which we catch at will are served as the main course. A large bucket of mushrooms was fried for our vegetable and blueberries furnished dessert along with the customary tea. Later in the evening Pete came in with 3 ptarmigan which are hanging on a tent pole now and will serve as the beginning of another meal soon. … It is marvelous and quite fortunate how abundant food in the Barrens is at this season and how six quite inexperienced men are able to supply a substantial part of their diet with such ease. The recent hot weather has ruined a lot of our meat so that even boiling the worst parts is no longer too effective. However, a change to fish for a while is welcome. [Pessl, p 92].
17 August.
For lunch, we had a fish chowder made with five grayling; an excellent dish! …Joe gathered blueberries and mushrooms…They are quite good fried and took the place of starch at dinner. Bruce caught a lot of lake trout, and I shot three ptarmigan… Caribou are all over the place…A party of two could live off the country without caribou, but by shooting caribou as you went, you could supply almost any number. [Franck, in Pessl, p 93]
18 August.
… we spent the rest of a cold, disappointing day…speaking in cautious terms of food vs. time… a store-bought meal of glop and cocao… Grilled a ptarmigan…and was delighted with the taste, wild, almost salty. [Pessl, p 94]
19 August.
Nicholson Rapids were finally run, without incident. As we sped along, the caribou ranged the cliffs and ridges at the river’s bank… [Pessl, p 94]
20 August.
Wind and a serious need for meat dictate a day in camp. …Butchering and hanging the meat took most of the afternoon… [Pessl, p 96]
20 August.
Very cold and windy this morning, so Art decided to declare a day of rest and kill a caribou. …I took a long walk to pick blueberries. …Joe picked mushrooms and got a good pot full for dinner. …After hunting all morning, Skip came back with only one ptarmigan. …I went out and hunted all afternoon, and only killed one. …When I got back to camp, I found the caribou already butchered.
…We shall have to be living more and more off the country in the future. We have only eight meals of macaroni left and about twenty-five half-pound packages of potatoes. This is our entire supply of starch.
[Franck, in Pessl, p 96]
20 August.
We got up this morning with all the intentions of making an early start so as to reach Dubawnt Lake before noon, except that during the night the wind had shifted once again to the northwest and by the time we got up it was blowing a small scale gale. …In the distance we could see whitecaps dotting the lake, so it was decided that we would remain in camp for the day. Bruce was to bring down another caribou and it was Art’s intention to follow him and get pictures of the hunter and the hunted. …the sky became solidly and dismally overcast—the wind increased. … I went out and picked a tobacco-tin of berries for my breakfast tomorrow. I also brought in about 10 mushrooms, which, when boiled in with our bully-beef glop, proved to be the taste treat of the century. [Lanouette].
21 August.
Not a single stick of wood in sight from the top of a hill. There is still grass and caribou everywhere though. …Somehow, the caribou are a great blessing and a softening of the land. It is its one source of plenty. [Franck, in Pessl, p 98].
22 August.
Used the primus stove for the first time today… With no fire to warm us and that magnetic pot of tea, we retire to our tents soon after eating. [Pessl, p 99]
22 August.
We are still flushing lots of ptarmigan but they are almost impossible to get a shot at. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday… [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
23 August.
We left camp at 4:30 PM in the face of this very cold N wind and after sneaking from one lee to another for a few miles we were again forced to make camp… Our feet and hands are continually cold and to get either wet has become a serious accident. …Our total mileage for the last few days amounts to about six miles. …With about 25 days left, we have had to cut almost our entire food consumption in 1/2. We still have plenty of meat, but the lack of fat and starches make dinner rather unsatisfying. …A good size caribou lasts about 4 days. [At] dinner this evening…only hot item is the tea. … I am confident we will arrive at Baker in good time with plenty of meat on our bones. [Pessl, pp 99&100].
Comment 1. 17 September is 25 days after 23 August; I note that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September.
Comment 2. I believe that by food consumption Pessl refers to the consumption of provisions, only.
24 August.
Heavy frost and a frozen milk pail greeted us as we shivered out of the sack at 4 AM; hurriedly gulped down hardtack and jam, and set off in a frosted canoe. …the day remained absolutely calm and we were able to continue paddling the entire day [with breaks for breakfast and lunch]. …Art… soon hauled in a 12-lb. lake trout which is boiling now for a chowder dinner. Lake trout have been quite easy to catch ever since we hit the river… we have enjoyed fish for breakfast most every day and every 3 days or so a fish dinner. Meat is certainly no problem. …supplies at present consumption should see us through. [Pessl, p 101].
Comment. supplies must refer to provisions, but I don’t whether at full ration or 1/2.
24 August.
We bolted down a hardtack and loaded up in a hurry… . Oats (at breakfast) sure tasted good after a 6 mi. paddle in the cold. …Art caught a 12 lb. lake trout. …[Franck] caught an 8-lb. lake trout before dinner…[Franck, in Pessl, p 102].
25 August.
After dinner, another flare up; this time Art boyishly insisting that we have hot tea and finally, a complete breakfast before starting off at 4:30 AM mornings. [Pessl, p 103]
26 August.
Midmorning brunch break was rather exciting; covey of four ptarmigan killed with a hunting knife. …Made camp…bagged a caribou and enjoyed ptarmigan stew for dinner. [Pessl, p 104]
26 August.
While we were coasting…we spotted a caribou…Joe…missed with his 30/30. Decided to camp here anyway, as the wind was too strong to travel. Bruce went out after lunch and killed a caribou…[Franck, in Pessl, p 104]
27 August.
Questionable winds…another beautiful day in camp… Game was abundant. Everywhere I looked caribou were moving about… Mankind seems to find its proper place again as merely one member of the kingdom, and the false values of a blinded, hurried society easily fall away. The furious race for wealth and position seem ridiculous here and the contentment of simplicity certainly worth the sacrifice of an extra station wagon. [Pessl, pp 104&105]
Opinion. Bravo, Skip!
27 August.
…I want to get enough food as soon as I can. But the country is so beautiful now, and it would be a shame to hurry through it… We saw a lot of caribou. … After a bit [of a rest], I looked up and saw a small calf not ten feet from me. Peeking over the rocks, I saw two does and a fine buck join it. I could have killed any one of them with a .22 or even a spear. …When we got back to camp, we found Bruce with two big fish, 6 and 8 lb.
This caribou had more fat on him than the others and we could peel enough off the neck and shoulders to fry the meat without bacon. I never seem to grow tired of caribou as I think I would of beef. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 106&107].
28 August.
A fine breakfast of oats, caribou liver, lake trout roe and tea… [At lunch] As the water for fish chowder heats on the beach…the .22 cracks frequently as George does his best to provide us with another ptarmigan dinner. [Pessl, pp 107&108]
28 August.
While I was walking up the hill, I saw a few sitting ptarmigan, easy shots. When I walked closer, a flock of nine got up. By the time that I got to the bottom of the hill, George had killed seven. Apparently, the whole island is full of them.
We had a fish chowder for lunch using 15lb. of fish Bruce had caught the day before and were so full we could hardly move. We have been living like kings off the land here. There is surely no danger of starvation as long as we can fish and hunt.
[At dinner]…We tried the ptarmigan in the glop, just boiled, and they were delicious; better than broiled. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108].
29 August.
…leisurely breakfast of another “day off”… Caught a few “lakers” for tomorrow’s breakfast and enjoyed a good portion of fried roe for lunch. We are able to cook small portions of food… The process is troublesome, but certainly worth a hot noonday meal.. [Pessl, p 109]
29 August.
Windy this morning so we stayed put. … the panic is off for a few days. …I got back to camp about 4:00 and was so hungry I succumbed to temptation to eat my entire supply of extra food I had saved up. They were only a drop in the bucket. …Bruce and I cut up the caribou meat and cooked dinner… . [Franck, in Pessl, p 109&110].
30 August.
Heavy winds and rain squalls chased us back into the tents this morning just as we were finishing our second cup of coffee, and a good thing it was, for I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much farther from the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we had been loading.
…After lunch, skies cleared and we enjoyed one more rare “shirts off” day as we paddled … to the outlet of the lake.
(Dubawnt Lake) [Pessl, pp 110&111]
30 August.
Raining when I woke up, but we had breakfast just the same, a heavy one with lots of fish and roe. We are getting low on gas now. Skip thinks that we have enough for less than a week at our present rate of consumption.
By lunch, things had begun to clear up some and we finally got off about 4:00 in sunlight, heading for the mouth of the river … catching fish on the way.
[Franck, in Pessl, pp 111&112].
31 August.
Scouting and running of rapids, then a lengthy scout of the gorge. Try as I may, I couldn’t impress upon the others the necessity to hurry [that is, to get on the river early in the morning]. …We were lucky to find some dry birch twigs…with five stoking and one cooking, were able to cook a meal without the use of our precious fuel supply.
It seems that we are continually faced with some shortage problem. Now that we have rationed food supply sufficiently for the remainder of the trip, we are running out of gas. Estimate about 3 days supply left. Woe is me…raw meat is not too bad, but raw oats and macaroni may be too much!
[Pessl, pp 112&113]
Interpretation. Pessl believed that the provisions, although rationed, would suffice for the remainder of the trip. His concern was now with the gas supply.
31 August.
Franck [in Pessl, pp 113-115] devotes most of his entry to the scouting and the running of rapids.
1 September.
It was a cold and miserable cook who crawled back into the tent after gulping a few spoonfuls of oats and quantities of hot tea. … bowl of soup for lunch … I caught enough fish for a late dinner of chowder and tea. [Pessl, p 115].
2 September.
Another bitch of a day, worse than yesterday by a long shot. …about noon, I crawled out and began preparing our first meal of the day. Hot oats seemed appropriate. Building the tiny birch fire in a high wind with wet twigs… At the very height of the storm, the pot somehow came to a boil…we all ate cold oats in the rain. … fish soup for dinner and then it [rain] came down again…”piss pot”! [Pessl, pp 115&116]
2 September.
After lunch … still too much wind to move. … I did a little fishing and caught a nice trout, perhaps an arctic char. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 116&117].
3 September.
Another day of the same hellish weather, and after suffering through another breakfast, I crawled back into the tent and slept until 3 PM when soup was served for lunch. …bundled up, took an empty packsack and went on a long wood hunt. …Was quite successful with the twigs… [Pessl, pp 117&118]
3 September.
After lunch Skip and I got empty pack sacks and walked down river to gather driftwood. It is quite abundant in some spots and we had no trouble filling our bags. …The fishing is fantastic when you hit a good spot. Just before dinner, I made four casts and got three fine trout. They are in lovely shape with lots of fat under the skin. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 118&119].
4 September.
Snow greeted me this morning as I crawled out of the tent into a harsh flurry. …Water bucket was frozen solid…working [preparing breakfast] in the face of flurries. …By lunch the skies had cleared and the sun warmed things considerably. …Canoes were carried along the rim of the gorge in dazzling sunshine… [Pessl, p 119].
4 September.
The most beautiful portage [that to Grant Lake] I have ever made and the most beautiful spot on the river so far. …After the cold stormy weather we have been having, this break was delightful and everyone was in high spirits and full of good predictions about the weather for the rest of the trip. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 119&120]
5 September.
Breaking ice in the water bucket and melting milk from the night before has become regular morning chore. The first one-half hour before the fire is really perking and the oats cooking is pretty grim business. …We spent the better part of the day completing the portage and the late afternoon killing and butchering what will probably be our last caribou. [Comment. It was the last]. The animals have very considerately kept right with us in spite of the cold weather. The berries and mushrooms have long since shriveled and disappeared, but the caribou remain for the pot. We are now cooking all our meals on the green dwarf birch twigs and have pretty well worked into the laborious collecting and stoking routine. Sugar ration has been cut again, while Art continues to snitch… We have plenty of meat but very little else and after an extended period even great quantities of meat are not very satisfying. [Pessl, pp 120&121]
5 September.
After lunch. Still Art was taking so long that we decided not to travel this afternoon, but to camp here at the end of the portage and kill another caribou. …I had caught only three tiny trout and grayling in an hour and was about to give up, but tried one more pool and hooked an enormous arctic char on my first cast …he went a shade under 15 lb. We had this fish for dinner and he was enough for all of us. Bruce came in about the same time…saying he had shot a caribou and he went back to butcher it. [Frank, in Pessl, pp 121&122]
6 September.
Got a late start this morning due to our unconscious reluctance to head out amid cold, driving snow. But after an hour or so of vigorous paddling, we were warm enough to really enjoy a cold, brisk and remarkable refreshing day. …A heavy wind out of the North kept us from making any real progress and after a lunch of hardtack, etc., and tea, we were pushed against the shore.
Pessl then describes the encounter with the grizzly.
Made camp at the mouth of the Chamberlin River and were happily surprised to find large quantities of driftwood. Have plenty for morning in addition to two full packsacks which we will carry with us and hoard as long as possible. [Pessl, pp 122&123].
6 September.
Franck too described the encounter with the grizzly.
… Then Art settled down close to a ptarmigan to wait for the sun, while George shot two others. …One my way back [from retrieving the forgotten knife], I picked up a good bundle of firewood. …Working together, Bruce and I filled three pack sacks with good wood, in addition to what we needed for dinner and breakfast; enough for three days if we are careful. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 124&125]
7 September.
A sudden squall delayed the start for a few hours.
…we spotted a cache of oil drums… Along with the gasoline, also found a large quantity of dehydrated vegetables. The party helped itself. …only the self-centered joy of finding more food. [Pessl, p 125 (Grant Lake)].
7 September.
…we saw some red gas drums on the beach and pulled over. Behind them, we found a cache of dried vegetables …We tried the gas cans…we filled our five-gallon can and put the remaining white gas in jam cans. …From the cache, we had gotten twenty-four enormous cans of dried vegetables, more than we could possibly eat. We tried cooking one can for dinner and it filled two pots by the time we got all the meat and a handful of Catelli in. We started eating with relish, but the vegetables soon palled and only Joe could finish what was left. Even he nearly got sick that night. I don’t care if I don’t see another vegetable, except onions; I still crave them. [Franck, in Pessl, p 126]
8 September.
Rainy breakfast and the prospect of clearing skies in the near future send us to the tents for a lazy, relatively calm wait. …Intermittent showers kept us in camp until 4 PM. …We are camped above a rocky rapid on a very exposed boulder plain and as I write, the wind and driving snow-rain intensifies. The tent shudders and the nearby “tarp-cook house” flaps violently. Sleep tonight will be restless at best. [Pessl, pp 127&128]
8 September.
Cold and cloudy this morning. As did Pessl, Franck describes the archaeological site. [Franck, in Pessl, p 128]

Comment.
And so end the daily journals of Pessl and Franck (the latter as reported by Pessl). On the next day (9 September), a storm (reported to be of hurricane force in Churchill [SI article, top of the right column, p 82]. I caution that I consider the article to be an unreliable source).
From here until 9/17 our daily, chronological entries end. The days after 9/8 were filled with such horror and suffering that it was impossible to write anything at all. In one moment, this grand adventure had become a nightmare beyond my comprehension. The narrative that follows was written after we had arrived at Baker Lake, after the others had departed and I was alone with my recollections and my demons. [Pessl, in Pessl, p 129]
The sole Pessl/Franck entry regarding food in the period 9 to 14 September.
Up at daylight; four men breaking camp, the other two preparing breakfast of oatmeal with a carefully rationed teaspoon of sugar and a cup of tea, then into the canoes. [Pessl, in Pessl, p 130].

Summary of the evidence of Pessl and Franck.
The party was occasionally short of food in the period from 5 August to 14 September, but it was well fed on the whole. Indeed, as documented in Pessl’s book (I lack access to the corresponding evidence of Moffatt), on three occasions the paddlers were gorged with food. I refer the reader to the entries (provided above) for 22 August, 28 August and 30 August.

The evidence of LeFavour and Lanouette.
Lefavour source. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).
13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting.
14 September.
20 pounds of trout were caught at the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death.
Lanouette source. Private correspondence.
Lanouette confirms the catching of the lake trout; I recall that he gave the weight as 17 ½ lb.

Summary of the food-related evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

Food from provisions.
In the period before 7 September, provisions had to be conserved, for there was no guarantee that more caribou and other food from the land would be obtained.
On 7 September, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache.
References. Moffatt’s journal for 7 September. Sports Illustrated article [bottom of the left column on p 82]. Grinnell’s book [pp 180&181]. Pessl’s book [pp 125&126].
I am unable to assess how much food was obtained from provisions in the period. Given that bellies were not full at times, I assume that a decision had been made to conserve provisions for the remainder of the trip, lest no significant additions to the supply be made from the land.
I possess no evidence regarding what in the way of provisions was on board in the afternoon of 14 September, but, given the above, I expect that much of the supply acquired on 7 September was still available a week later.

Food from the land.
Contrary to the assertions of Kingsley in particular, Moffatt had expected to obtain no food at all from the land.
Nevertheless, the land was one of plenty for the most part. Hunting (five caribou and many ptarmigan) was excellent, as was fishing (lake trout, grayling and arctic char); blueberries and mushrooms were harvested, but these only early in the period.

Summary.
In those seven weeks, bellies were not full at times. On the other hand, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
At lunch on 14 September, the party had so much food on board that it had no more need to hunt.

Interjection.
Having documented the evidence of the participants, I expose the accusations made of Moffatt to the light of that evidence.

Sub-Appendix 5a. The food-related assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Reminders.
The editor’s sole source was Moffatt’s journal, to which s/he had full access.
Sub-Appendix 4a (above) provides the excerpts from Moffatt’s journal that were available to me.

Food from the land.. A comparison of the evidence provided in Moffatt’s journal compared with that provided by the Sports Illustrated

The caribou.
Moffatt’s journal documents that five caribou were shot (these on 5 August, 10 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September).
The SI editor mentioned only one of these, that shot on 11 August.
Comments.
I suggest that the SI editor’s failure to mention the caribou shot on 5 September is particularly relevant to the supply of food available on 14 September, and so to the editor’s assertions game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now.
In this connection, I repeat the evidence of participant LeFavour (dated 13 September): As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).

The fish.
Of the many caught in the period, the SI editor mentioned only the following.
(a) two-pound grayling per man [SI article, middle of the left column on p 75, 26 July]
(b) Moffatt caught a 12-lb lake trout. [SI article, bottom of right column on p 80, 24 August]
Evidence not available to the SI editor. At the lunch break on 14 September, the party caught 20 lb of trout [LeFavour article (1955); Lanouette (private correspondence)].

The ptarmigan.
The SI editor’s sole references to the many ptarmigan obtained.
1. Ptarmigan plentiful here… [SI article, top of the right column on p 80, 21 August]
2. the grizzly flushed three ptarmigan as he ran [SI article, bottom of the left column on p 82, 6 September].
Question. In view of the editor’s assertion game grows scarce, was not the documented acquisition and consumption of many ptarmigan more worthy of mention than the grizzly’s flushing of three such?

The blueberries.
The SI editor made no mention of the many picked.

The mushrooms.
The SI editor’s sole mention of the many mushrooms picked.
George, who had been feeling poorly after trying a yellow mushroom [SI article, middle of the left column on p 80, 20 August.]

Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Statement of the assertion.
Food was becoming the question now. [SI article, 8 August, p 76, top of the left column, p 76]

Response 1.
The editor’s Food was becoming the question now was preceded immediately by the Moffatt passage All is well–enough food—or almost enough. [same source as the above]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 2.
As documented by Moffatt, the first caribou was shot three days earlier, this on 5 August.
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of this event.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 3.
The second caribou was shot on 11 August, as indeed acknowledged by the editor.
Should have mentioned in yesterday’s log that Bruce [LeFavour] went hunting in the morning…shot fork-horn cow caribou. [12 August, SI article, middle of the left column, p 76]

Response 4.
Moffatt’s journal provides the following
…meat supply good, canned meat, fish and caribou. Should make it, unless weather turns very bad. [5 September. SI article, p 82, top of left column].
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 5.
The third, fourth and fifth caribou were shot on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September respectively, all as documented on Moffatt’s journal.
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of these events.
As noted also above, the SI editor omitted mention of the caribou shot on 5 August, also documented in Moffatt’s journal.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 6.
Moffatt’s journal documents that a plethora of other food was obtained from the land: many ptarmigan, many fish (three species), blueberries and mushrooms (the latter two only earlier in the period).
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of this abundance.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

A general question.
Was the Sports Illustrated editor in such unseemly haste to vilify Moffatt that s/he failed to read
either Moffatt’s journal
or her/his own article?

Assertion 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor.
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, 16-17 August, bottom of the right column, p 76.]

Response to “provisions dwindle”.
Yes, provisions dwindle as they are consumed.
But, as documented later in the Sports Illustrated article itself, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache, on 7 September.
…saw red gas cans…24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Moffatt journal excerpt; Sports Illustrated, 7 September, bottom of the left column on p 82]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 1 to “game grows scarce”.
As noted also above, the SI editor mentioned the shooting of the second caribou on 11 August, but omitted mention of the other four caribou shootings (those of 5 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September), all documented in Moffatt’s journal.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 2 to “game grows scarce”.
The SI editor’s sole mentions of the many ptarmigan consumed in the period:
1. Ptarmigan plentiful here… [SI article, top of the right column on p 80, 21 August]
2. the grizzly flushed three ptarmigan as he ran [SI article, bottom of the left column on p 82, 6 September].
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 3 to “game grows scarce”.
I don’t know whether fish qualify as game, but surely they count as food.
As documented above, Moffatt’s journal documents the catching of many fish in the period.
The SI editor’s only mentions of that bounty.
1. a two-pound grayling per man [SI article, middle of the left column on p 75, 26 July].
2. Moffatt caught a 12-lb lake trout. [SI article, bottom of right column on p 80, 24 August]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response to “In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance”.
The fatal rapids were run without a scout because J B Tyrrell had advised Moffatt that they were not dangerous. And JBT’s advice had proved reliable for the previous 11 weeks of the trip; in particular, the only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in those where Moffatt died.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Concluding remarks regarding the Sports Illustrated article.
1. Given that the SI editor omitted mention of so much evidence favourable to Moffatt, perhaps I am justified in asking the following.
What other evidence does Moffatt’s journal (not fully available to me) contain that is favourable to Moffatt but escaped mention by the SI editor, who had full access to that journal?
2. Opinion.
The SI article is notable both
for its assertions that a shortage of food was in large part responsible for Moffatt’s death, and
for its omissions of evidence that no such shortage existed.

Item 10. Appendix 5b. The food-related assertions of Murphy.

Again, the following assertions were made in what was alleged to be a review of Grinnell’s book.

Murphy assertion 1.
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Murphy assertion 2.
Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit.
Source for both assertions.
Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11.
http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html

Response.
I point out to Murphy the following passages from Grinnell’s book (the very subject of his review), starting from 5 August.
Passage 1.
Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Passage 2.
Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 3.
…picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Passage 4.
…we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 5.
Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 6.
One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 7.
I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 8.
Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Passage 9.
… I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Passage 10.
…we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [p 158]
Passage 11.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [pp 180 & 181].

Summary.
I remind Murphy
first that all these passages appear in Grinnell’s book, and
second that Murphy’s assertions
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit.
were made in what was asserted by him to be a review of Grinnell’s book.

The question.
Did Murphy read Grinnell’s book, the very subject of his review?

Item 11. The food-related assertions of Kingsley.

Kingsley’s food-related sources, in order of importance.
Grinnell’s book (1996).
The Sports Illustrated article (1959).
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (May 2012).

Reminder of some evidence of Grinnell’s book (Kingsley’s primary source).
Passage 1.
Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Passage 2.
Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 3.
…picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Passage 4.
…we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 5.
Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 6.
One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 7.
I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 8. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Passage 9.
… I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Passage 10.
…we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries. [p 158]
Passage 11.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [7 September; pp 180 & 181].

The related evidence (not available to Kingsley) of participant LeFavour.
13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. LeFavour article, 1955]
14 September.
At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party added to the above 20 lb of lake trout. [LeFavour article; confirmed by participant Lanouette in private correspondence]

Kingsley assertion 1.
Version 1. After the first two weeks, the crew grew hungry before, during and after every meal. [Up Here, upper right column on p 90].
Version 2. As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during and after every meal. Hunting kept the party fed through August as supplies ran down. [Lake, p 13].
Response.
An admission on my part regarding the second version:
Given that hunting kept the party fed, I don’t understand how it was possible for the the men to grow hungry before, during and after each meal.

Kingsley assertion 2.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Up Here heading, left column on p 88].
Response 1.
As evinced by his correspondence with J B Tyrrell, Moffatt had believed that the party could live off the initial supply of provisions for the entire 11 weeks or so. That is, Moffatt did the very opposite of envisioning a land of plenty.
Response 2.
Nevertheless, the Moffatt party found the land to be one of plenty in the crucial seven weeks before his death.
Summary. Had Moffatt indeed envisioned a land of plenty, he would have been plenty right.
Opinion regarding the assertion.
A nice turn of phrase, but plenty wrong with respect to the evidence.

Kingsley assertion 3.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley book, middle of p 188; also Up Here, lower right column on p 90].
Response 1.
Let me quote but one item from Grinnell’s book, Kingsley’s primary source:
Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Response 2.
Begging the reader’s patience, I quote again the evidence of LeFavour for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death. …we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting.

The question.
Did Kingsley read Grinnell’s book?

A request.
I ask that the reader assess these three assertions of Kingsley in the light of the evidence available to Kingsley.

Item 12. Summary of the food-related evidence for the period from 5 August to 14 September.

Reminder. This period covers the crucial seven weeks between the shooting of the first caribou and Moffatt’s death.
1. Food from the land. Five caribou were shot (the last on 5 September), many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, many ptarmigan were killed, and many mushrooms and blueberries were harvested (these last two only early in the period).
2. Provisions. On 7 September, a major resupply was obtained from the cache.
3. On three documented occasions in that period, the participants were grossly overfed.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
4. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party already had so much food on board that it had no more need to hunt. And, for good measure, it caught 20 lb of lake trout before proceeding downstream.
5. Nevertheless, the Sports Illustrated editor, Murphy and Kingsley asserted
first that food was very short in those seven weeks, and
second that such shortage was a major contributing factor to Moffatt’s death.
Conclusions.
Not one food-related assertion made over those 55 years (1959 to 2014) is encumbered by a basis in evidence. That is, the actual food supply in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death bears no resemblance to that represented by the Sports Illustrated editor, Murphy and Kingsley.
The cause of Moffatt’s death is identified in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Item 13. Sub-Appendix 6. Food in the period from 15 September to arrival in Baker Lake on 24 September.

Reminder.
Before the fatal rapids were run on 14 September, the party had enough food on board to see it through to Baker Lake. To be explicit, there was no more need to hunt, or to fish or to forage.
Summary.
Most food (most provisions, the remains of the caribous, and the 20-lb lake trout caught at lunch that day) was lost in the rapids. Also lost were both rifles and the .22 (these were the main means to acquire food from the land, but perhaps the survivors would have lacked time to hunt), and the stove, and all dishes, pots and pans.
The party had to make do with the little that remained; fortunately, that included fishing gear (one rod and one lure).

The evidence of Pessl.
14-16 September.
We had lost our leader, our mentor; both rifles, all our cooking equipment and most of our food, but we had a plan. [Pessl, p 133]
17 September.
Our food consists of some cans of meat which were salvaged, a quantity of wet oats and cornmeal, some dehydrated veggies, and, of course, fish (we were lucky to have saved one casting rod). Breakfast then generally involves a mixture of wet oats, fish and some milk powder cooked in a sort of pasty stew. The rest of the meals are much the same, although lunches are the usual fare of hardtack, etc, (these items having survived in Pete’s canoe). Dinner is usually a repeat of breakfast, with perhaps a chunk of bacon boiled in the stew. We are using large veggie cans to cook in and are eating out of tobacco tins and using knives and sticks as utensils. We are extremely lucky to have been able to improvise in this way, … . The food is all paste, horrible looking, and probably the most welcome dishes these five have ever had. [Pessl, pp 133&134].
18 and 19 September.
For these days, which were spent portaging eight miles from the NE arm of Marjorie Lake (on the Dubawnt River) to the south shore of Aberdeen Lake (on the Thelon River), Pessl records nothing worth mentioning regarding food.
20 September.
The party encountered an Inuit family. Pessl records little regarding food, except …traded knives for tobacco; gave them chocolate bars and dehydrated vegetables… [Pessl, p 138]
21 September.
We just finished our bad-weather breakfast of one hardtack with a spoonful of jam … . Just as we were finishing a cold dinner of a chunk of so-called canned ham and a few apricots in our tents, we were hailed from outside by our Eskimo friend [Alec] of yesterday. “Come, my canoe, tea.” …Soon, Alec came back with a huge kettle of caribou chunks. Meat and wonderful stewing broth after all these days of lean meals! It was marvelous. We stood around chewing on the chunks, drinking teas and talking with smiles and gestures. [Pessl, p 139].
23 September.
Dispatch of our carefully hoarded food supply was the highlight of the day. Breakfast began with two tins full of cornmeal instead of just one, one can of fish/roast beef/mashed potato glop and a large pot of tea. Even with our scanty larder we seem to have come up with a surplus. Lunch saw two extra hardtacks and a few extra hardtacks and a few extra spoonfuls of jam . . . great stuff. Dinner continued with spinach, canned beef glop and a batch of sweet cocoa. For the second time since the 14th, we go to bed with full bellies. [Pessl, pp 141&142].
24 September (arrival in Baler Lake).
Our final lunch enroute to Baker Lake: a moldy hardtack slathered with curry paste. Yum! [Lanouette, private correspondence].
Comments.
1. I was struck by the party’s decision not to ask the Inuit party for food.
2. In addition to the above, Pessl [pp 162&163] provides a most frank and informative discussion of both food and equipment.

Conclusion.
The survivors were hungry most of the time until the chance encounter with an Inuit family shortly before arrival in Baker Lake.
But, even before that encounter, the food deficiency was never life-threatening, the party was never close to starvation.
Even in those dire circumstances, there was never a lack of food as alleged by Murphy.

Summary.

In those crucial seven weeks between 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) and 14 September (Moffatt’s death), five caribou were shot, many ptarmigan were obtained, many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (the latter two only earlier).
As well, a major resupply of provisions was acquired from the cache (this on 7 September).
Bellies were not full on occasion, but food was never uncomfortably short. Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.

One last time, I provide the assertions of Moffatt’s defamers.
Food was becoming the question now. [Sports Illustrated editor].
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated editor].
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. [Murphy].
Slightly giddy from lack of food… [Murphy].
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal. [Kingsley].
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Kingsley].
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley]

Conclusions.

Given that food (both from the land and from provisions) was abundant on the whole in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, not one of these seven assertions survives confrontation with the evidence available to his accusers even at the time: Moffatt’s journal (in the case of the Sports Illustrated editor) and Grinnell’s book (in the case of Murphy and Kingsley).
The evidence provided later by the other four participants (Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl) confirms and extends the evidence of Moffatt and Grinnell.
Arthur Moffatt died not from a lack/shortage of food, but rather because he had been misled by the advice of J B Tyrrell, advice that had proved reliable for the previous 11 weeks of the trip (otherwise he would not have followed it on 14 September), but which failed him that day.
Reference. Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
Copyright to excerpts from the journal of Arthur Moffatt remains with the Moffatt family.
Copyright to the remainder of the Appendix belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Edition of 16 January 2018.

Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

Foreword.
Some overlap of material presented here (Rapids in general) is unavoidable with that presented in Preliminaries.
1. Moffatt was fully aware of the difficulty of the rapids that lay ahead, as witnessed by his comment
Dr. J. B. Tyrrell left on July 2. Almost two and a half months later, after running scores of dangerous rapids, the party reached the coast. [Art Moffatt’s Prospectus, Sports Illustrated, p 71].
This remark went unmentioned in all the accusatory literature.
2. The Sports Illustrated editor was in full possession of Moffatt’s journal, which describes in particular Dubawnt rapids and how the party dealt with them. In this context, I refer the reader to my discussion (below) of Assertions 1 and 2 of the SI editor.
3. Moffatt’s last journal entry (that for 13 September) contains the passage Following Tyrrell’s route.
We shall soon see what the Sports Illustrated editor did with that passage.
4. The remark If the rapids were too rough, Art simply portaged around them of participant Grinnell [book, middle of p 75, 1996] went unmentioned in all the accusatory literature.
5. Lanouette’s journal for the day of Moffatt’s death contains the passage In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
We shall soon see what Grinnell did with that passage.

The redactions.
1. The SI editor redacted the passage Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for 13 September. [SI article, p 82, lower right column].
A full discussion of this passage is provided below, but what conclusion is possible but that Moffatt had obtained route advice from Tyrrell (J B Tyrrell) and that he was following it?
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s reason for redacting this passage.
2. Participant Grinnell redacted the passage In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from his version [p 202] of the SI condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September 1955. I note that Lanouette was Moffatt’s bowperson.
Begin aside. The full item (not the condensation) is provided
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt. My opinion is that the condensation is a faithful one.
End aside.
Why were Moffatt and Lanouette were surprised?
Because J B Tyrrell had informed Moffatt, implicitly, that there were no rapids of significance in that reach. That is, Grinnell redacted evidence that Moffatt had been misled by Tyrrell’s advice.
A request.
I ask the reader to reflect on Grinnell’s purpose in redacting that passage,
3. Opinion. Given that both the SI editor and Grinnell redacted evidence that I believe to be exculpatory, it concerns me that the two had at least corresponded before the publication of the SI article, as evinced by the Epilogue on p 88 there.
4. Discussion of the passage Following Tyrrell’s route
redacted by the SI editor from her/his version of Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September
Does the passage evince that Moffatt had followed the Tyrrell party in taking the eastmost of the two exits from Wharton Lake?
Or does it evince that Moffatt was only following Tyrrell’s advice when he ran the fatal rapids without a scout?
I confess that I don’t know.
The matter of the interpretation aside, again I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s purpose in redacting the passage.

Information from the Tyrrell-Tyrrell trip of 1893.
1. Thanks to the kind, helpful and excessively patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library of the University of Toronto, I have a copy of the book (known to have been accessed by Moffatt)
Tyrrell, James Williams. Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada (Toronto, 1908)
for the entire reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
The material (largely ethnography) provided by JWT is fascinating in its own right but it sheds no light on the conditions that led to Moffatt’s death. Little mention is made of Dubawnt rapids in general, none of the fatal rapids in particular.
2. Thanks to the same staff, I have a copy of the book (known to have been accessed by Moffatt)
Tyrrell, Joseph Burr. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897) for the same reach (Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet).
Where appropriate, for example for the rapids immediately below Dubawnt Lake, I provide the relevant excerpts. Especially noteworthy is the excerpt regarding the reach just above Marjorie Lake, for it was in this reach that Moffatt died; as I document in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt, Tyrrell makes no mention of rapids in that reach.
3. But Moffatt had obtained rapids (and likely other) information from J B Tyrrell by other means. In particular, Tyrrell had advised Moffatt not to be concerned with the fatal rapids, as evinced by the following statements of trip participants.
(a) As mentioned above, Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy contains the passage
In a few minutes … real beginning of the first rapids. [condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September; Sports Illustrated, p 85]. I remind the reader that Grinnell redacted this passage, which I suggest to be exculpatory. [Grinnell book, p 202]
(b) Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake following the last portage. [Pessl, private correspondence].
(c) His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely lunch time on 14 September, immediately prior to the running of the fatal rapids. [LeFavour, private correspondence].
4. J W Tyrrell’s book and J B Tyrrell’s book not being the sources for the rapids information documented in point 3, the remaining possibilities are J B Tyrrell’s journal and private correspondence between Moffatt and J B Tyrrell. Unfortunately for a full understanding of the tragedy, neither source is available, as I document in
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.

The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
Assertion 1.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top of right column, p 82, between the Moffatt journal entries for 7 and 9 September].
Assertion 2.
Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of page 76, appearing between the Moffatt entries for 15 and 16 August].
Comment.
I call these assertions because the editor provided no evidence in support of either.

Guide to the discussion of the two assertions.
With respect to the rapids parts of the assertions (the entirety of number 1, plus parts of number 2), this Appendix addresses primarily rapids upstream from those where Moffatt died, whereas Appendix 9 is devoted primarily to the fatal rapids. Given the content of the assertions, some overlap is unavoidable.
I address here also, only briefly because I devote Appendices 6 (Food) and 7 (Schedule) to these matters, the passages provisions dwindle, game grows scarce and nine days behind schedule.
Summary.
As documented here and in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids, the editor’s assertions related to rapids (including the fatal ones) have no basis in any evidence known to me.
As documented in Appendix 6. Food, the editor’s assertions related to the food supply have no basis in any evidence known to me.
As documented in Appendix 7. Schedule the editor’s assertions related to the schedule have no basis in any evidence known to me.
Conclusion.
Given that no part of either assertion has a basis in any evidence known to me,
and that the editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry,
I have significant concerns regarding the objectivity of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Restatement of Assertion 1.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top of right column, p 82, between the Moffatt journal entries for 7 and 9 September].
Comment. Given that the assertion appears between the Moffatt journal entries of 7 September and 9 September, perhaps I should have provided evidence for only the reach below Grant Lake (reached on 5 September [Pessl, p 120].
Well, I omit all mention of the evidence for the evidence for the reach above Nicholson Lake (reached on 14 August [Pessl, p 86]), but I decided to provide (for background) the evidence for the entire reach from the downstream end of Nicholson Lake to the downstream end of Wharton Lake (reached on 8 September [Pessl, p 127]).
The evidence for the reach (between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake) where Moffatt died is provided in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Note.
Assertion 1 is a general remark regarding Dubawnt rapids below Grant Lake, but the suggestion is clear that Moffatt died because he had taken a chance in the rapids above Marjorie Lake.
Pessl’s opinion of Assertion 1.
unsubstantiated nonsense [private correspondence].
Reminder.
The editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September, the day before Moffatt died.
Comments.
It bears repeating that Moffatt’s journal was the only published source for the SI article.
The SI editor identified the locations of none of the churning chutes of white water. Given that the remark appears between selections from Moffatt’s journal for 7 and 9 September, and that no significant rapids were encountered on any of those three days, the SI editor must have been making a general assertion.
I surmise that this one is intended to provide background for the editor’s later assertions taking chances and desperate haste regarding the fatal rapids.
For completeness, I began a general search for churning chutes.
5 August (when the first caribou was shot) is about a month earlier than 7 September, and so I restricted my search (for candidates in Pessl’s book) for the churning chutes) accordingly.
6 August. The wind caused some difficulty, but there was no other problem. [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 70&71].
7 August. Some water was shipped. [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, p 71].
8 August. The party portaged the rapids met that day. [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, p 76].
10 August. Four rapids (one big one) were run. Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 77&78].
13 August. One rapid was run.[Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 84&85].
15 August. As described in the next paragraph, the next rapids were met this day.
I quit.
Out of impatience with the editor’s failure to identify locations of the churning chutes of white water, at this point, I gave up the day-by-day search of Pessl’s book and used other means.

Candidates for the editor’s Assertion 1.
For the entire reach from the downstream end of Nicholson Lake to the downstream end of Wharton Lake, I identified only three candidates for the editor’s churning chutes. The reach immediately below Wharton Lake (the reach where Moffatt died) is discussed in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Candidate 1
is the rapids between Nicholson Lake (lake exited on 15 August 1955, rapids exited on 19 August) and Dubawnt Lake (entered on 21 August).
Candidate 2
is the rapids between Dubawnt Lake (exited on 30 August) and Grant Lake (entered on 6 September).
Candidate 3
is the falls above Wharton Lake (entered on 11 September).
Summary of the evidence for candidates 1 through 3.
The assertion Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye has no basis in evidence for any of the rapids between the downstream end of Nicholson Lake and the upstream end of Wharton Lake.
Moreover, as documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids, the assertion has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to the rapids where Moffatt died, those from the downstream end of Wharton Lake to the upstream end of Marjorie Lake.
Conclusion.
No part of the assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has a basis in any evidence known to me.

Candidate 1. The Dubawnt River between Nicholson Lake and Dubawnt Lake.

I note that Nicholson Lake is the last major lake upstream from Dubawnt Lake.
For the corresponding rapids, I provide excerpts from J B Tyrrell’s book, Moffatt’s journal, the Sports Illustrated article, Grinnell’s book and Pessl’s book (which contains also the evidence of Franck).
1. The excerpt from J B Tyrrell’s book.
From the north end of Nicholson Lake, the river flows northward for two miles and a half down a heavy rapid, with a descent of about forty feet… Near the foot of the rapid the stream turns eastward, and for about six miles flows in the bottom of a valley from 150 to 200 feet deep. [p 55F]
2. The excerpt from Moffatt’s journal.
All along it was it was very heavy current and big waves. I was tired + hungry – it was now 5 pm. – and knew it was no time to make decisions -… [Pessl, private correspondence]
3. The Sports Illustrated version of Moffatt’s journal.
All along we could see it was a very heavy current and big waves. We were hungry. It was late now and I was tired. I knew this was no time to make a decision. [SI article, right column of p 76]
One sees that the SI version is a faithful version of Moffatt’s, but a gratuitous one.
4. The evidence of Grinnell’s book.
Passage 1.
The date was August 15th. We had been held up by a dangerous rapids that ran through a gorge ahead. There was a high cliff on our side of the river, which made scouting the rapids difficult. After spending an afternoon scouting, Art had been unable to decide whether to portage around the gorge or to shoot it. By the end of the day, he had decided to make camp and to take a second look in the morning.
The next morning, rain squalls were lashing our tents. Art decided to wait out the storm. He thought that if the weather would cooperate, the gorge could be shot; but the weather was not co-operating. The squalls blowing up the gorge created high waves in the rapids.
We set up the kitchen tarpaulin to wait out the weather. Wild storm clouds continued to blow this way and that… ; and thus we waited for four days for Art to make a decision about the gorge.
[p 122].
Passage 2.
The following is identical to the SI version apart from the addition of the date. August 15th: … All along we could see it was a very heavy current and big waves. We were hungry. It was late now and I was tired. I knew this was no time to make a decision. [p 132]
Passage 3.
Three days later, Art had still not made a decision…; but on the following day, Art loaded his canoe and took Skip down the rapids as his bowman. … As it turned out, the portaging had been an unnecessary precaution: the rapids in the gorge were no worse than many others we had shot. But perhaps Art had been right to be cautious, even though we had wasted the better part of four days. In the wilderness, it is both easy and fatal to get careless; and after the gorge, Art did get careless. [p 133].
As I remark also below, I caution that Grinnell’s Art did get careless refers only to the rapids of 20 August. In particular, it does not refer to the fatal rapids of 14 September.
Comment.
According to Grinnell, Moffatt’s caution regarding these rapids had resulted in the loss of the better part of four days. I agree that Moffatt had exercised great caution, but quibble that the storm cost one of those days.
5. The evidence of Pessl’s book.
15 August.
…We soon stopped to look over two rapids, both of which we decided to run. As I entered the first rapid it became evident that things were not entirely as they had looked from the shore. … By the time we reached the lower eddy, we crouched in a waterlogged, sluggish canoe and slowly made our way to shore. … Bruce and I helped the other two canoes portage. … We stopped for the night at the head of a heavy rapid… [Pessl, pp 88&89].
… we pulled over to look at the first rapid. There was about a quarter of a mile of swift water above it, but the main rapid is short, steep and narrow; no rocks, but full of bad waves. Skip ran it first, but almost swamped, … the river narrowed down and got very swift heading into a deep gorge. Here we pulled aside on the right and walked down half a mile or so to scout. This one is very bad. [Franck, in Pessl, p 89]
16 August.
We spent the entire morning scouting this very difficult rapids…large breaking waves and sharp curves…pulsating current…Returned to camp with two plans…The protection of our supplies dictates our caution. [Pessl, p 90]
For that day, Franck records plans for the rapids. [Pessl, p 91]
17 August.
The day was spent in camp, due to bad, then threatening weather.
The big rapid still remains a problem. Hope we can tackle it tomorrow. [Pessl, p 92]
No new decision has been reached on the rapid question… [Franck, in Pessl, p 93]
18 August.
Art and I spent the morning scouting the w shore after a tricky crossing and returned with the dilemma still unresolved. … We spent the rest of a cold, disappointing day huddled in the tent… [Pessl, p 94]
19 August.
…Well, we finally shot the rapid and the beauty and the pride and the confidence of overcoming a difficult obstacle pervades us all. …The rest of the afternoon was spent in an exhilarating ride down the swift, sharply defined river as it flowed thru beautiful bedrock canyons in long sweeping S turns. [Pessl, p 94]
Comment. Franck provides more details regarding the running of these rapids. [Pessl, p 95]
Summary regarding Candidate 1.
Please note Moffatt’s extreme caution regarding the rapids below Nicholson Lake, caution that Grinnell suggests to have been largely unnecessary. I’m not sure though that I agree with Grinnell’s assessment.
The important point is that the Moffatt party ran these rapids only after considerable scouting.
With regard to these rapids, the party was certainly not taking chances; it certainly did not shoot down churning chutes of white water.
Conclusion.
The Sports Illustrated editor’s
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to the rapids between Nicholson Lake and Dubawnt Lake.

The rapids of 20 August.

Although these rapids, which lie several days’ travel below Nicholson Lake, are not candidates for the churning chutes, I discuss them because I found disturbing the editor’s representation of the evidence regarding them.
1. The relevant passage from Moffatt’s journal.
Off at 11 in am. Up little lake against head wind, into river, and down with swift current to couple of heavy but short rapids, of which I looked over the 2nd only. Shot both. [Pessl, private correspondence]
2. The corresponding excerpt from the Sports Illustrated article; the editor alleges this to be an excerpt from Moffatt’s journal.
Today we shot a couple of heavy but short rapids, only the second of which I looked over. Not very smart of me. I probably should have been more careful. [SI article, middle of the left column on p 80]
One sees that the fragment only the second of which I looked over. Not very smart of me. I probably should have been more careful is a fabrication of the editor.
3. On his page 133, Grinnell quoted verbatim the above passage from the SI article. I have no quarrel with that action.
But, in his introduction to that passage, Grinnell remarked …after the gorge, Art did get careless. I assume that Grinnell was deceived by the fabrication of the editor, with whom he had corresponded.
4. I caution that Grinnell’s Art did get careless refers only to the rapids of 20 August. In particular, it does not refer to the fatal rapids of 14 September.
Conclusion.
The passage Today we shot…more careful. is a fabrication on the part of the editor, yet another reason to believe nothing in the Sports Illustrated article unless it has independent confirmation.
That matter aside, the passage was written with reference to the rapids of 20 August, only.

Candidate 2. The Dubawnt River between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake.

Introduction.
The Moffatt party exited Dubawnt Lake on 30 August [Pessl, p 111] and entered Grant Lake on 6 September [Pessl, p 122]. Between the two lakes lies a gorge impassable by tripping parties.
I provide first the evidence of J B Tyrrell for the entire reach between the two lakes.
I provide then the evidence of the participants
for the reach above the gorge, followed by that
for the gorge itself, and finally that
for the reach below the gorge.

The evidence of J B Tyrrell for the reach between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake.
The river, where it leaves the lake, is about 200 yards wide. It almost immediately flows down two slight rapids, after which it has a current of four miles an hour… The channel rapidly deepens…and the stream rushes along in long swift rapids which required all the dexterity of our good canoemen to run. …
Seven miles below Doobaunt Lake, the river flows…and then suddenly contracts, and for two miles rushes as a foaming torrent down a narrow gorge about twenty-five yards wide, descending in the distance one hundred feet…
Past this heavy rapid, which is the most serious obstruction on the whole river, a portage two miles and a half was made on the south bank. …
At the foot of this heavy rapid the river discharges into Grant Lake. …
[p 63 F]

The evidence of Pessl and Franck for the reach between Dubawnt Lake and the gorge.
I provide the day-by-day evidence of both Pessl and Franck, as reported in Pessl’s book.
30 August. Pessl.
After lunch, skies cleared and we enjoyed one more rare “shirts off” day as we paddled the remaining 15 miles across the bay [Outlet Bay] to the, …as we approached the narrowing we gradually became conscious of the increasing current while in the distance the almost forgotten river sounds of rushing water and rumbling rapids gradually became audible.
We are back on the river now, floating on a current strengthened by the entire drainage of the huge lake and driving toward the long treacherous 2½-mile outlet rapid flowing through a steep canyon and finally settling in Grant Lake.
[Pessl, p 111]
31 August. Pessl.
Beautiful morning of sun and successful rapid shooting gave us high hopes that we would be camped this evening at the beginning of the long portage to Grant Lake.
Two long rapids before lunch and a long difficult one after were negotiated with little trouble and we then pulled up in a bay to scout the approach to the gorge.
I spent about 3 hours walking along the river, sketching routes through the remaining rapids and finally reached a high bluff where the portage follows the rim of the gorge. …Over my right shoulder the turquoise water of Grant Lake stretches as an enticing reward for the coming strenuous portage. …
The first rapid was run under very difficult conditions due to the wind and its effect on the waves and we were forced to make camp…
[Pessl, pp 112&113].
31 August. Franck
provides a more complete description of the approach to the gorge.
Still warm and sunny today. We got going down the river fairly early. I looked over the first rapid and then went ahead. …I just got through the first rapid… Then I stopped to look over one that went around a bend to the right. It looked easy to shoot on the right side, so I kept on going through the next two. Then I stopped to look one over that went around a bend to the right. It looked easy to shoot on the right side, so I walked down to look at the next. I didn’t really take a careful look, but what I did see looked easy, so I walked back to where I had left the canoe. By this time, Art and Skip had caught up. They got out to look at the first one, but took my word that the next one was easy, so I jumped in the canoe and shot down first. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 113 &114]
From this point (the top of p 114) to the middle of p 115, Franck recounts the group’s adventures in running rapids above the gorge.
1, 2 and 3 September.
The party was weatherbound for the entirety of the three days. [Pessl, pp 115-119].
4 September. Pessl.
After breakfast, we loaded in the snow, shot one rapid in the midst of a heavy flurry and then unloaded for the long portage. [Pessl, p 119]
4 September. Franck.
… we pulled over to the other side and stopped to look over the last rapid before the portage started. We ran it close to the right side, but by the time that we got through and over to the head of the portage, it was…time for lunch. … The most beautiful portage I have ever made and the most beautiful spot on the river so far. … [Pessl, pp 119&120]
5 September. Pessl.
We spent the better part of the day completing the portage and the late afternoon killing and butchering what will probably be our last caribou. [Pessl, p 121]
Comment. It was indeed the last.
5 September. Franck.
After lunch, it started to cloud over from the north but it was still quite calm. Still, Art was taking so long that we decided not to travel, but to camp here at the end of the portage and kill a caribou; … [Pessl, p 122]
Summary of the evidence regarding the reach above the gorge.
All rapids were scouted thoroughly before being run.
All serious rapids were portaged.
There were no dumps in the entire reach.
No member of the party took chances with regard to these rapids.
No member of the party shot down churning chutes of white water.
Conclusion.
The Sports Illustrated editor’s
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to the rapids between Dubawnt Lake and the gorge.

The gorge itself.
Summary.
The entire reach of the gorge was portaged by every member of the party, beginning on 4 September and finishing on 5 September [Pessl, pp 119-122],
Conclusion.
The Sports Illustrated editor’s assertion Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to with respect to the rapids in the gorge.
Extraneous comments regarding the gorge.
impassable heavy rapids…enormous waves…never experienced such an expression of power and unalterable force…the infinite power of the river… [Pessl, pp 117-118].
…wonderful green and white waves, some ten feet high in the gorge itself. The green, white and cobalt-blue water was a beautiful sight… [Moffatt, Sports Illustrated, right side of p 81].

The Dubawnt River between the gorge and Grant Lake.

The evidence of Moffatt’s journal for 6 September for that reach.
The following excerpt was kindly provided by Pessl in private correspondence.
Breakfast at 8- cloudy, cold and snow flurries- but decided to move, very strong NW wind. Also decided to portage last 100 yds. of rapid, partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or hurting film & cameras…Also portage took some time…very shallow and swift stretch, but not really bad. …
Skip and Pete both shot it, both hitting rocks…Skip cracking rib, Pete cracking planking. Anyway, got past worst part, shot through last few riffles, turned north across mouth of river where north wind was working up heavy seas as it blew over strong current…

Comment. One sees that Moffatt took extra precautions to protect the film and cameras; that concern continued to his death. In fairness, though, Moffatt portaged in part to get warm.

The evidence of Moffatt’s journal for 6 September, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article.
Breakfast at 8. Cloudy, cold, snow flurries and very strong northwest wind, but decided to move anyway, despite the dangers. We haven’t much time left. Also decided to portage the last 100 yards of rapid, partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or of hurting film and cameras.
… Also portage took some time. Skip and Pete both shot it, both hitting rocks, Skip cracking a rib, Pete cracking planking.
[SI article, p 82, top of left column].
Comment. I don’t understand why the SI editor omitted the passage …very shallow and swift stretch, but not really bad from Moffatt’s journal for 6 September; that matter aside, the passage evinces that no major rapids existed below the gorge.

The evidence of Pessl’s book regarding that reach.
5 September. The portage around the gorge was completed [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 120-122], but there lay yet ahead rapids above Grant Lake.
6 September. First off, Bruce and I shot a rocky rapid flowing into the lake [Grant Lake]. We struck a rock just after leaving shore and were able to stop in an eddy to check for damage [none was found at that time]…we started out again, this time making it with no trouble. Art and Pete watched from shore. Art chose to portage. Pete shot the rapid, hit a rock in the shoals below and splintered a plank. …When we unloaded the canoe, I found that the morning rock had splintered the planking and cracked a rib pretty badly… [Pessl, pp 122&123]
6 September. Skip and I decided to shoot down through what is left of the rapid into Grant, while Art made a portage to warm up. Skip went first, but struck a rock at the head of the rapid. …I shoved off and got further out in the middle, but I struck head on and bounced off a rock about half way down. It sounded awful, but when we looked later, we found that there was a little piece of the planking knocked in and the canvas wasn’t cut; no serious damage. The rest of the rapid was all dangerously shoal, but we got though all right. Skip and I waited for Art… [Franck, in Pessl, p 124]
Comment. And so Moffatt chose to portage part of the lower reach; occupants of the other two canoes ran that reach in its entirety.

The evidence of Pessl’s first email message regarding the reach below the gorge.
For the reader’s convenience, I repeat the assertion of the Sports illustrated editor.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
Pessl responds. This is a rather large editorial leap from the reality of our situation, probably inspired by the fact that Peter and I shot the rapids at the entrance to Grant Lake on Sept. 6. We both hit rocks in that rapids and sustained minor damage to our canoes, while Art portaged the bottom part of the same rapids. But that was a considered strategy; Art choosing to portage “…partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or of hurting film and cameras.” [p 140 of Moffatt’s journal, reported faithfully in the Sports Illustrated article, top left of p 82].
Both Art and Peter watched from shore as I shot the rapids. Peter followed, then Art near the bottom of the rapids. This was all a pretty normal and shared situation: rapids examined, options discussed and decisions made. Not a risky departure from our standard procedure as suggested by the SI writer.

The evidence of Pessl’s second email message regarding the reach below the gorge.
Comment. The following is lightly edited from Pessl’s email message (of 26 November 2016), kindly and generously supplied, as always.
… I have spent considerable time reviewing the various pertinent journals and following the maps with the journal descriptions …
The rapid entering the southern end of Grant Lake which we encountered on 6 September is described as a “…very shallow and swift stretch, but not really bad.”
[Moffatt journal, pp 140-141].
I described that rapid as “…a rocky rapid flowing into the lake.” [Pessl, p 122].
Peter noted after bouncing off a rock and crunching a plank, “the rest of the rapid was all dangerously shoal with barely enough water for the canoe.” [Pessl, p 124].
My recollection is of a wide, shallow stretch of the river entering Grant with swift flow and many boulders. But nothing of the high energy flows and narrow channels that might be described as “churning chutes”.
Pessl’s summary.
From 6 September (when we entered the upper reaches of Grant Lake) until 11 September (when we entered Wharton Lake), the challenges to our travel were strong winds, snow and freezing temperatures, not difficult fast water, certainly not “churning chutes”.
Well, I hope this clarifies the circumstances of the early-mid Sept. Moffatt journey to the best of my knowledge and reference to the available journals. It was the weather, not the river channel/flow that challenged us while below the Dubawnt Lake outlet gorge into Grant Lake and then on to Wharton Lake.

Summary of the evidence for Candidate 2 (the reach between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake).
1. Waters above the gorge were run in their entirety by all members of the party, without difficulty.
2. Only the waters of the gorge are truthfully described as churning chutes of white water. But the entire gorge was portaged by all members of the party.
3. Four members of the party ran all waters below the gorge.
Moffatt (and so his bowperson Lanouette) portaged that reach …partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or of hurting film and cameras. [p 140 of Moffatt’s journal, reported faithfully in the Sports Illustrated article, top left of p 82].
Conclusions regarding that reach.
The Sports Illustrated editor provided no evidence in support of his/her assertion
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye.
The evidence of the participants with respect to the rapids between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake begs leave to differ with the assertion of the SI editor.

Candidate 3. The falls above Wharton Lake.

These falls (the Uksurlajuaq Rapids at Toporama) are located two unnamed lakes below Grant Lake.
As I now document, they were portaged in their entirety, by all members of the party, on 10 September (given incorrectly as 8 September in Pessl’s book).

The evidence of Pessl’s email message.
Comment. The following is lightly edited from Pessl’s email message (of 26 November 2016) supplied by him kindly and generously, as always.
… I have spent considerable time reviewing the various pertinent journals and following the maps with the journal descriptions …

We portaged around the falls above Wharton Lake on 10 September. On 11 September, we “shot last run of the rapid below falls, rough at first, green waters over boulders, then shallow, wide channel, hard to see in poor light, another rapid and Wharton Lake.” [Moffatt journal, p 150].
Pessl’s summary.
From 6 September (when we entered the upper reaches of Grant Lake) until 11 September (when we entered Wharton Lake), the challenges to our travel were strong winds, snow and freezing temperatures, not difficult fast water, certainly not “churning chutes”.
Well, I hope this clarifies the circumstances of the early-mid Sept. Moffatt journey to the best of my knowledge and reference to the available journals. It was the weather, not the river channel/flow that challenged us while below the Dubawnt Lake outlet gorge into Grant Lake and then on to Wharton Lake.

Summary of the evidence regarding Assertion 1, with respect to Candidate 3 (the falls above Wharton Lake).
In the reach between Grant Lake and Wharton Lake, the only waters that are truthfully described as churning chutes are those of the falls above Wharton Lake.
Every member of the party portaged those falls.

Summary regarding Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.
0. Restatement of Assertion 1, provided for the reader’s convenience.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye.
1. Review of the evidence presented above.
(a) Assertion 1 has no basis in any evidence known to me regarding any waters from the downstream end of Nicholson Lake to the downstream end of Wharton Lake.
(b) More importantly, the evidence presented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids evinces that Assertion 1 has no basis in evidence regarding the rapids between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake; it was in these rapids that Moffatt died on 14 September 1955.
I mention in particular that he only dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died.
Summary.
The Sports Illustrated editor provided no evidence, and I found none in all my research, that the Moffatt party took chances
in the reach above Nicholson Lake, or
in the reach between Nicholson Lake and Wharton Lake, and
in particular in the reach where Moffatt died (that between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake).
Conclusion.
The party took no chances at any time from the day that it exited Nicholson Lake to the day that it entered Marjorie Lake. In particular, it took no chances including 14 September 1955.
Neither exists there evidence that the party took chances in the reaches upstream from Nicholson Lake and downstream from Marjorie Lake.

Assertion 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

The statement of Assertion 2.
Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of page 76, appearing between the Moffatt entries for 15 and 16 August].

1. The nine days behind schedule part of Assertion 2.
In late August, the Moffatt party of 1955 was indeed behind the schedule of the Tyrrell party of 1893.
But the Moffatt party was not following the Tyrrell schedule! The Tyrrell party arrived in Baker Lake on 2 September, whereas the Moffatt party had scheduled arrival there on 15 September (with a grace period of seven days)!
The evidence suggests that, in late August, the Moffatt party was on track to reach Baker Lake within the allowed margin of seven days, that is by 22 September. Indeed, despite the tragedy and the unprecedented storm, the party reached Baker Lake on 24 September (two days after the expiry of the grace period).
A request.
I ask the reader to assess the nine days behind schedule part of Assertion 2 in the light of the evidence presented above.
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.

2. The …Barren Grounds. The days grow colder… part of Assertion 2.
I acknowledge
that the Moffatt party was indeed travelling in the Barren Grounds, and
that the days were indeed growing colder, on average.

3. The provisions dwindle part of Assertion 2.
I acknowledge that the provisions on board from the beginning dwindled as they were consumed.
But the SI editor omitted mention here of the discovery and harvesting of the cache on 7 September, as documented on page 82 of her/his own article.
Given that I have learned to trust nothing in the strong>SI
article, I note that the liberation of provisions from the cache was documented also by Grinnell [pp 180&181] and Pessl [p 125].
Summary.
Provisions were bountiful from 7 September until most were lost on 14 September.
A request.
I ask the reader to assess the provisions dwindle part of Assertion 2 in the light of the evidence presented above and in Appendix 6.
Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

4. The game grows scarce part of Asssertion 2.
Moffatt’s journal, to which the editor had full access, documents that five caribou were shot in the period from 5 August to 14 September; the dates were 5 August, 11 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September. Moffatt’s evidence is confirmed by that of LeFavour’s article, Grinnell’s book and Pessl’s book.
Indeed, at lunchtime on 14 September (the day of the tragedy), the party had on board so much caribou meat that it had no need to hunt again; as well, it caught a 20 lb lake trout over lunch. [LeFavour].
And the party obtained many ptarmigan and fish.
A request.
I ask the reader to assess the game grows scarce part of Assertion 2 in the light of the evidence presented above and in Appendix 6.
Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

5. The races against winter…desperate haste…ultimate chance… part of Asssertion 2.
Analysis.
The editor all but states that Moffatt died because he was in such haste to reach Baker Lake that he could not afford time to scout the rapids where he died; the editor provided no supporting evidence. As I document in Appendix 5. Pace and weather freeze-up was not a possibility at any time until well into October.
Reminder.
As I documented above, the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September, the day before Moffatt died. Why was that redaction made if to conceal the fact that Moffatt had route advice from J B Tyrrell and was following it?
A request.
I ask that the reader consider the light that this editorial action sheds on the editor’s triple-header assertion races against winter…desperate haste…ultimate chance.
Moffatt died rather because he had been misled by the advice of J B Tyrrell, advice that had proved trustworthy for the previous 11 weeks of the trip.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids

Evidence relevant to both Assertions 1 and 2.
Please note
Moffatt’s cautious approach (described in Grinnell’s book) regarding the rapids below Nicholson Rapids,
and his portaging of rapids (run by others) immediately above Grant Lake,
and the party’s portaging of rapids/falls above Wharton Lake, and
and the party’s portaging of a set of rapids above the fatal ones, this on the very day that he died.
Are we to believe that Moffatt, at most a few hours later, panicked and in desperate haste to reach Baker Lake, took the ultimate chance and decided to risk everything, lives included, by running the fatal rapids without a scout?

Summary.
No part of Assertions 1 and 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor has a basis in evidence, save
that the party was travelling in the barrenlands, and
that the days were growing colder, on average.

After the tragedy.
Rather than attempt the dangerous rapids (Tyrrell’s London Rapids) below Marjorie Lake, and almost certainly also to save time, the survivors portaged from the northeast end of Marjorie to the east side of the peninsula in Aberdeen Lake on the Thelon River.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=6
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=125&t=46351

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.