Bibliography.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Bibliography.

 
Introduction.
1. I split the results of my literature search into five categories.
The primary and secondary accusatory literatures; the latter are based on the former.
The primary and secondary Moffatt literatures.
The Tyrrell literature.
2. A common feature of the accusatory literature is the failure to cite evidence, even so much as provide a Bibliography. And so some sleuthing was required to trace sources; I did what I could.
3. Some items are listed more than once.

The primary accusatory literature.

Anonymous.
Accusations by unidentified persons, quoted by George Luste [Grinnell book, pp 293-294, 1996].

The anonymous editor of the Sports Illustrated article.
Issues of 9 March 1959 Man against the barrens grounds (pp 68-76) and 16 March 1959 Danger and Sacrifice (pp 80-88). Reader responses were posted at
http://www.si.com/vault/1959/04/06/604104/19th-hole-the-readers-take-over
If the reader will excuse two comments.
1. The bulk of the article consists of material based on Moffatt’s journal, but severely edited in cases.
2. The second most influential item in the accusatory literature.

Grinnell, George J.
Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment.
Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.
A contribution to the accusatory literature but a lesser one.

Grinnell, George.
A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996).
The most influential item in the accusatory literature.
It contains also much personal, introspective material, plus extended comments by George Luste; it does not provide a Bibliography.
Listed in both the primary accusatory literature and the primary Moffatt literature.
My comments based on the 1996 edition; there exist also editions of 2005 and 2010 [Pessl, private correspondence].
Reviews.
Unwanted images pop up and so I don’t provide URLs for the reviews that I found, those at goodreads.com, northatlanticbooks.com, readingforsanity.ca, Amazon (1556438826), etc.

Inglis, Alex.
Northern Vagabond. The Life and Career of J B Tyrrell – the Man Who Conquered the Canadian North. McClelland and Stewart. (1978).
Primarily a biography of Joseph Burr Tyrrell; listed also here (in the accusatory literature) because of the material on page 54.

Kingsley, Jennifer.
1. Online source 1 (no Bibliography).
In a most dreadful sort of paradise. Up Here. May 2012; pp 88, 90 & 91.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/looking-back-May-2012-Moffatt-pdf-.pdf
2. Online source 2 (no Bibliography).
Back and Beyond. Lake. Issue 6 (2013); pp 12-14.
http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Lake_Back-and-Beyond_2011pdf.pdf
3. Book (which contains both Endnotes and Bibliography).
Paddle North. Adventure, Resilience and Renewal in the Arctic Wild. Greystone Books, Vancouver/Berkeley (2014).
Not to be confused with Paddle North: Canoeing the Boundary Waters-Quetico Wilderness, Greg Breining, publisher? (2010).
Reviews are provided at Amazon.ca, goodreads.com, canoekayak.com, timirvin.com, goodreads.com and likely elsewhere.
All three items made major contributions to the accusatory literature.

MacDonald, Andrew.
Ostensibly a review of Grinnell’s book [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11]
No source beyond the obvious is mentioned. Unlike Murphy’s review (referenced below) in the same article, it is apparently not available online.

Mahler, Charlie. Down a Dead Man’s River.
Comments. The two publications are identical at first glance. Sources are not provided. Quotes from Bob Thum and others are provided.
Publication 1.
Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
Publication 2.
Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
Publication of two articles (identical at first glance) by Charlie Mahler; contents include extensive comments of Bob Thum.
Article 1. Down a Dead Man’s River, Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
Article 2. Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
The formerly active URL.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm
Both Mahler and Thum made major contributions to the accusatory literature.

Murphy, James.
Ostensibly a review of Grinnell’s book [Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11].
http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html
A major contribution to the accusatory literature.

Osgood, Larry.
Letter to George Luste, 23 February 1996.

The secondary accusatory literature.

Introduction.
The accusations of the primary accusatory literature were widely accepted within the paddling community, and likely outside it.
The secondary accusatory literature is based on the primary accusatory literature, rather than on original sources. For the most part, it consists of publications in which the Moffatt trip is mentioned only incidentally.

Jacobson, Cliff.
Expedition Canoeing. A Guide to Canoeing Wild Rivers in North America.
Chapter 4. Loose Threads; p 22, left column. Falcon / Globe-Pequot Press (2005).
Comment. Unfortunately, the source for some Jacobson comments was not the faithful condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article (1959) [pp 85-87]. His source was rather the redacted version of that condensation, as provided in Grinnell’s book (1996) [pp 201-204]; please note the ellipsis near the top of p 202. To be explicit, Grinnell redacted the exculpatory passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
That redacted passage leads me to conclude that Moffatt had been unintentionally misled by J B Tyrrell (certainly in the latter’s journal, perhaps also in private correspondence) regarding the severity of the fatal rapids.
I have not examined Jacobson’s Canoeing Wild Rivers, 2015 edition.
References.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Jennings, John; Bruce W Hodgins and Doreen Small (Editors).
The Canoe in Canadian Cultures. Natural Heritage Books (1999).
Comment. I did not record the relevant page number/s.

Johnson, Alissa.
Meet Bob O’Hara.
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/bobohara.htm

Kesselheim, Alan.
57 years Ago.
Canoe & Kayak, May 2012, starting on p 46.
Comments.
1. The article includes material based on the journal of participant Pessl, an interview with Pessl, and comments by Moffatt accusers.
2. Follow-up material will be found in Canoe & Kayak, July 2012 (p 14) and August 2012 (p 12).
3. Given its contents, I include the item in both the secondary accusatory literature and the primary Moffatt literature.

Luste, George.
In reference to accusations (not known to have been published) made prior to 1996, Luste wrote It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. [Grinnell book, p 294 (1996)].
Unfortunately, Luste was misled by Grinnell into making the comments in the last paragraph on page iii of the latter’s book.

MacGregor, Roy.
Canoe Country: The Making of Canada.
Random House Canada, first edition (2015). p 49.
For a relevant quote, Google “MacGregor Canoe Country Moffatt”.

Morse, Eric W.
Freshwater Saga. Memoirs of a Lifetime of Wilderness Canoeing in Canada. University of Toronto Press (1987). pp 84 & 104.

Peake, Michael.
Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000.
Two articles containing short items regarding the Moffatt tragedy.
1. 1955: A Tale of Two Trips. p 4.
http://www.canoe.ca/che-mun/99two.html
2. The Tragic Trips…1955 – The Moffat Dubawnt River trip. pp 5&6.

Google Images.
https://www.google.ca/search?q=arthur+moffatt+canoe&espv=2&biw=1360&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=P5wKVfDyBonBgwTLuoDQBw&ved=0CDAQsAQ&dpr=1

The primary Moffatt literature.

Grinnell, George J.
Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment.
Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56.

Grinnell, George.
A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996).

Jacobs, Allan.
1. The Second Annual Luste Lecture.
Nastawgan, Vol 41, Winter 2014, pp 16-19.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/winter_2014.pdf
Comments/corrections.
(a) The article is a review (requested by the editor of Nastawgan) of Pessl’s lecture, plus other material.
(b) I was unable to access the Sports Illustrated article by the deadline date, and so this first attempt of mine to understand the tragedy is seriously incomplete.
(c) Kesselheim’s Moffatt … a name that, in canoe-tripping circles became synonymous with incompetence is a statement of the perception; it is decidedly not an accusation of incompetence, as I unfortunately suggested on p 17 (left column, item 3a).
(d) Only one tent was destroyed by the storm. As well, I scrambled some references.
2. In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.
Public announcement of the opening of the blog.
The blog had actually been opened to public view a few days previously, so that I could provide advance notice to several persons whose names appear there.
Canadian Canoe Routes, 19 September 2016.
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=45362
3. In Defence of Arthur Moffatt.
A one-column announcement of the opening of the blog, accompanied by an incomplete list of not-so items from the accusatory literature, and a photograph of Arthur Moffatt.
Nastawgan, Vol 43, Summer/Fall 2016, p 9.
4.
A second announcement of the blog opening, plus a summary of the accusations made of Moffatt.

Lanouette, Ed (“Joe”).
1. Lanouette kindly and generously provided me with his full journal entry for 14 September. It is reproduced in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
A faithful condensation of his journal for that day of Moffatt’s death was published in Sports Illustrated [pp 85-87 (1959)]
2. Extensive private correspondence.

LeFavour, Bruce.
1. Material based on his journal was published in four articles (27 through 30 December, 1955), Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY.
I have access to only the third article, kindly and generously supplied by him; it provides an illuminating account of the tragedy, especially the advice provided by J B Tyrrell.
2. Private correspondence.

Luste, George.
1. Private correspondence and conversations.
2. Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died [Grinnell book, p 284]
3. It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. [Grinnell book, pp 293&294].
If the reader will excuse a comment. These two evidences (which appear exculpatory to me) of Luste went unmentioned in the entire Moffatt literature.

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Three Canoes.
1.46 Bold Journey. Prod. no. 474. ABC Broadcast of Monday 8 July, 1957. Hosted by John Stephenson.
Synopsis. Fred Pessl, Jr. narrates the films of a canoe trip from Athabaska Lake in southwest Saskatchewan to Hudson Bay. He and five other explorers spent three months working their way through a region rarely visited by white men. In the last rapids the leader of the expedition, Arthur Moffat was thrown from his canoe and died of exposure in the icy waters. [RF]

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Kesselheim’s article (referenced above) includes an interview with Pessl and also the latter’s comments regarding the tragedy and the resulting literature (in particular Grinnell’s contributions thereto).

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
The Fateful 1955 Dubawnt River Trip. Nastawgan. Summer 2013. Vol 70, No 2.
http://www.myccr.com/sites/default/files/storage/CCR%20pdf/Nastawgan/summer_13.pdf
Pessl provides a bibliography, in the form of Endnotes [p 11].

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Barren Grounds. The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip. Dartmouth College Press (2014).
Contents include excerpts from the journals of Pessl and Franck, photographs (many in colour), an account of events following the tragedy, an Epilogue, a timeline comparing the progress of the Tyrrell and Moffatt trips, and Endnotes [pp 178-180].
URLs of reviews.
http://www.upne.com/1611685336.html

http://www.dartmouth.org/classes/55/images/dart_news_oct_14.pdf
http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/18988880-barren-grounds
A Review of Barren Grounds: The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip by Fred “Skip” Pessl
The texts of reviews (provided on the back cover of Pessl’s book).
1. Skip Pessl delivers a vivid on-the-ground account of northern canoe adventure, from a time before GPS, composite boats, sat phones, and expedition blogs. His riveting day-by-day chronicle fires up the youthful exhilaration and fierce joy of traditional expedition life in the Far North. It also reveals, with refreshing honesty and humility, the fear and tragedy survived by the Moffatt party. Pessl brings a lifetime of contemplation to bear in his analysis of that awful, mortal moment on the cold river, far from help. Essential reading for those who warm to the flame of northern adventure. [Alan Kesselheim, author of Let Them Paddle.]
2. Skip Pessl’s book…is needed, welcome and superb. I’m saying this as someone who canoed the same arctic Dubawant River in 1969 and was involved in an earlier book about this trip. Skip’s account focuses on reality and evidence, not on personal opinion or mythology. To repeat, this new book is needed and sincerely welcome. [G. J. Luste, Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Toronto, and founder of the Wilderness & Canoeing Symposium.]
3. Skip Pessl’s candid and long-overdue account of the ’55 Dubawnt trip gives us a balanced view of this historic event. In “Barren Grounds”, Skip faces some of the toughest moments of his life with courage and tenacity. This book is welcome closure for anyone affected by Art Moffatt’s tragic story. [Aleks Gusev, editor of Nastawgan Journal.]
4. Skip Pessl provides a rich and nuanced account of the Moffatt expedition. Drawing on his extensive journals and those of expedition member Peter Franck, Pessl shares a mesmerizing tale of exploration and discovery, of friendship and loss, the stark beauty and utter indifference of the North. [Jeff Moag, editor of Canoe & Kayak magazine.
Emendations.
The headings Wharton Lake for the Pessl/Franck entries of 8 September [pp 127&128] are incorrect. Wharton Lake was reached on 11 September, as evinced by the following excerpts (kindly, immediately and generously provided by Pessl, from Moffatt’s journal.
10 September.
In spite of strong winds and snow squalls, made it with help of strong current down to the falls above Wharton Lake. Ice on paddles, hills still white.
11 September.
Shot last run of rapid below falls, rough at first, green water over boulders; then shallow, wide channel, hard to see in poor light, another rapid, and Wharton Lake.
Comments.
I emphasise that the contents are correct [Pessl, private correspondence]; it is only the headings that are not.
Correspondingly, in the table on p 129, the entry for Moffatt, 1955 should read September 11.

Pessl, Fred (“Skip”).
Copious private correspondence over three years.

Moffatt, Arthur Ray.
His journal, by far the most important of the presently unavailable items, is held at the Dartmouth College library.
Viewing of the journal is restricted, perhaps understandably in view of the treatment afforded Moffatt by the paddling community.
Perhaps the same library holds also Moffatt’s correspondence with J B Tyrrell.
Both the journal and the correspondence would provide a deeper understanding of Moffatt’s preparations, and perhaps also the tragedy.

The secondary Moffatt literature.

These items are provided largely for completeness.

Anonymous.
Comment. Report of an interview with Peter Franck.
Soph Describes Fatal Canoe Mishap. Canadian Accident.
The Harvard Crimson. September 29, 1955. “NO WRITER ATTRIBUTED.”
http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1955/9/29/soph-describes-fatal-canoe-mishap-ppeter/

Harp, Elmer (Jr).
The Moffatt Archeological Collection from the Dubawnt Country, Canada.
Item 1.
Only the first page (412) is available for viewing by the general public.
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/276602?sid=21106167779013&uid=4&uid=3737720&uid=3739448&uid=2
Item 2.
Harp’s interest in the Moffatt expedition is mentioned on page 128 of Pessl’s book.
Before we left the States, Art had arranged that Elmer Harp, Dartmouth College Archaeology Faculty, would have a look at whatever we could collect…
Item 3.
Professor Elmer Harp of Dartmouth College made an archaeological collection at Grant Lake on the Dubawnt. [Lentz, North, 1970] [Hodgins and Hoyle, p 107]

Hodgins, Bruce W; and Gwyneth Hoyle.
Canoeing North into the Unknown: A Record of River Travel, 1874 to 1974.
A party of Americans led by Arthur Moffatt…canoed from Black Lake to Selwyn Lake and down the Dubawnt River and across Dubawnt Lake. Following an accident in the rapids entering Marjorie Lake, Moffatt died of exposure and is buried in Baker Lake. The rest of the group completed the trip down the Dubawnt and Thelon in late September. [p 107] Sources were the Sports Illustrated article, a personal communication from Grinnell, and Grinnell’s Canoe article.

The Tyrrell literature.

Inglis, Alex.
Northern Vagabond. The Life and Career of J B Tyrrell – the Man Who Conquered the Canadian North. McClelland and Stewart. (1978).
The same source is cited also above, under Primary accusatory literature.

Robertson, Heather.
Measuring Mother Earth. How Joe the Kid Became Tyrrell of the North. McClelland and Stewart, Toronto (2007).
A biography of Joseph Burr Tyrrell. The Tyrrell-Tyrrell expedition of 1893 is described, starting with Chapter 8 (p 136).
Excerpt 1. …in 1955, an American, Arthur Moffatt, died running a rapid on the Dubawnt River… [p 315].
Excerpt 2. A Death on the Barrens, by George James Grinnell, Northern Books, Toronto, 1996, tells the haunting story of Arthur Moffatt’s death in the context of Grinnell’s own existential crisis as one of the six men on Moffatt’s expedition. [p 333].

Tyrrell, James Williams.
Item 1. Through the Barren Lands: An Exploration Line of 3,200 Miles. Geological Survey of Canada (1896). Not accessed; believed identical to the following.
Item 2. Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada (Toronto, 1908).
Thanks to the kind, helpful and patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library of the University of Toronto, I have a copy of all pages for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
If the reader will excuse a comment. The material (largely ethnography) provided by JWT is fascinating in its own right but it sheds no light on the conditions that led to Moffatt’s death.

Tyrrell, Joseph Burr.
Item 1. Geographical Journal, v 4, no 5, Nov 1894. Not accessed.
Item 2. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897).
Thanks to the kind, helpful and patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library of the University of Toronto, I have a copy of all pages for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt provides the excerpt for the reach (above Marjorie Lake) where Moffatt died.
If the reader will excuse a comment. Tyrrell makes no mention of rapids below the portage just below the small lake; it was in these rapids that Moffatt died.
Item 3. Tyrrell’s maps for the reach from Black Lake to the mouth of the Churchill River.
Black Lake to south of Selwyn Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-1-1893
Continuation to past Wholdiah/Daly Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-2-1893
Continuation to past Boyd Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-3-1893
Continuation to the middle of Nicholson Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-4-1893
Continuation to the middle of Grant Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-5-1893
Continuation to past Aberdeen Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893
Continuation to Baker Lake.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-7-1893
Continuations to the mouth of the Churchill River.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-8-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-9-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-10-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-11-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-12-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-13-1893
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-14-1893
Item 4. A thorough search (in May-June 2017, in the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library) for the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence, so important for a deeper understanding of Moffatt’s preparations, failed.
Missing items are
Tyrrell’s response to Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954,
and any later correspondence, should there be any.
Thanks again to the staff at the U of T library.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

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