Appendix 6. Food.

Appendix 6. Food.

Preliminaries.

I (perhaps most of all) regret the length of this Appendix. But I felt it necessary to provide all the food-related evidence, as I know it and am able to report it, so that readers may judge the food situation for themselves.
Thanks to Fred “Skip” Pessl, Ed “Joe” Lanouette and his daughter Elizabeth Emge, and Bruce LeFavour for assistance in compiling the following. But I am solely responsible for every error.
I distinguish between
provisions, aka staples and supplies (oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes, macaroni, sugar, salt, powdered milk, and cornmeal), and
food from the land (caribou, fish, ptarmigan, mushrooms and blueberries).
Not all accusers make the distinction, referring only to food. The distinction is significant, for provisions could of course not be replaced (except from the cache, as was done on 7 September). And, it seems necessary to state, food from the land was unpredictable.
With respect to the only previous non-native trip on the Dubawnt River, Moffatt possessed the food-related evidence of J B Tyrrell’s book, J B Tyrrell’s journal (aka his report), correspondence with J B Tyrrell, and J W Tyrrell’s book.
Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Given multiple assertions that a shortage of food (indeed a lack of food) was in large part responsible for Moffatt’s death, the important period is the seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (the day of the tragedy). The evidence of the participants for that period is provided in the various parts of Sub-Appendix 4.

Participant publications used in the food-related accusatory literature.
The Sports Illustrated article (1959), which contains edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal.
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Grinnell’s book (1996 edition; the two later editions appear not to have influenced that literature).

Participant publications not used in the food-related accusatory literature.
For various reasons, none of the following items was mentioned in that literature prior to my efforts.
1. LeFavour’s four articles (1955). None is easily available. The most important one of these (the third, which deals with the events of 13 and 14 September) became available to me only because LeFavour provided a copy of it.
2. Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012) is by no means a participant publication, but it contains some Pessl comments, plus the following Kesselheim comments: Food almost gone… Hunger and the closing season weighed heavily on the team… half-starved men…
As best I know, these items did not influence the food-related literature more generally, in particular the publications of Kingsley (who had accessed Kesselheim’s article).
3. Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) and Pessl’s book (2014, which contains also the evidence of participant Franck). Both appeared too late to influence that literature.

Summary.
The entire evidentiary basis of the food-related accusatory literature (indeed, of the entire accusatory literature) lies in only three items:
the edited excerpts of Moffatt’s journal (provided in the SI article),
Grinnell’s article and
Grinnell’s book.
If I may get ahead of the story, the material provided in all three items deserves thought before being accepted.

The assertions.
In the matter of the supply of food, the assertions are the following.
Food was becoming the question now. [Sports Illustrated editor].
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated editor].
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. [Murphy].
Slightly giddy from lack of food… [Murphy].
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal. [Kingsley].
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Kingsley].
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley]
Comment. I thought it worthy of explicit mention that Arthur Moffatt is unable to respond to these assertions made of him. By chance, that responsibility has fallen to me.

Directory.

Item 0. Introduction.
Item 1. My sources regarding the food supply.
Item 2. Sub-Appendix 1. Preparations.
Item 3. Sub-Appendix 2. Fat and other food with high caloric content.
Item 4. Sub-Appendix 3. Food in the period from the start to 5 August.
Item 5. Introduction to the evidence of the participants regarding the food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September.
Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. The evidence of Moffatt for that period.
Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. The evidence of Grinnell for the same period.
Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. Ditto for the evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.
Item 9. Sub-Appendix 5a. The food-related assertions of the SI editor.
Item 10. Sub-Appendix 5b. The food-related assertions of Murphy.
Item 11. Sub-Appendix 5c. The food-related assertions of Kingsley.
Item 12. Summary of the food-related evidence for the period from 5 August to 14 September.
Item 13. Sub-Appendix 6. Food in the period from 15 September to 24 September.

Item 0. Introduction.

Planning.
Moffatt had assumed that the party could live entirely off the initial supply of provisions, that it would be necessary to obtain no food from the land.
Start to 5 August.
Moffatt had seriously underestimated the appetites of his five young companions, and so food was uncomfortably short in the period from the start to 5 August (when the first caribou was shot). Even in this period though, no member of the party was anywhere close to starvation.
5 August to 14 September.
The land was one of plenty in those crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death.
Five caribou were shot (the first on 5 August, the last on 5 September), many ptarmigan were killed, many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (these two only earlier in the period).
As well, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache, this on 7 September.
Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
Most important of all is the evidence of participant LeFavour for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour, The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).]
And 20 lb of lake trout were caught at the lunch stop on 14 September. [LeFavour article; confirmed in private correspondence from Lanouette].
Perhaps the reader is ready to assess, in the light of these evidences alone, the assertions
Food was becoming the question now.
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance.
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food…
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past.

Item 1. My sources regarding the supply of food.

Source 1. Moffatt’s journal.
The item is not publicly available and my best efforts failed to obtain full access to it.
Passages alleged to excerpts from it were provided in the Sports Illustrated article. Some passages were substantially edited; the prime example is the editor’s redaction of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last entry, that for 13 September. And other passages appear to have been picked in order to make points detrimental to Moffatt.
Other excerpts were provided in Grinnell’s book (1996), none in his article (1988).
Too late to influence the accusatory literature, participant Pessl provided excerpts in his book (2014).
As well, Pessl provided me with excerpts in private correspondence.
Source 2. The article (1988) of participant Grinnell.
Known to have been accessed by Kingsley.
Source 3. Grinnell’s book (1996).
Aside. As best I know, the later editions (those of 2005 and 2010) did not influence the Moffatt literature.
(a) The book is the only source used by Murphy and MacDonald in their articles of 1996; it bears explicit mention that these articles were billed as reviews of the book.
(b) Kingsley’s primary source.
Source 4. Pessl’s remarks in Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012).
Only Kingsley is known to have accessed the article. The corresponding evidence: Pessl’s People revealed themselves as imperfect… [Canoe&Kayak, top of the left column on p 52]. Reference. Kingsley, Paddle North, top of p 202.
Source 5.
Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013).
Not known to have influenced the accusatory literature, one assumes because it appeared so late.
Source 6.
Pessl’s book (2014), which contains excerpts from both his journal and that of Franck, plus other material. Not known to have influenced the accusatory literature, because it appeared so late.
Source 7.
Private correspondence
with Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.
Opinion 1.
I have learned to place full confidence in the following.
1. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal, but only as provided by Pessl in private correspondence; again, I place no trust in the versions provided in the SI article.
3. The evidence of Pessl (his book and private correspondence).
4. The evidence of Franck (in Pessl’s book).
5. The evidence of Lanouette (the SI condensation of his journal for 14 September, and private correspondence).
6. The evidence of LeFavour (his article of 1955 and private correspondence).
Opinion 2.
I have learned to trust, in the first instance,
no content of the Sports Illustrated article,
no content of Grinnell’s article, and
no content of Grinnell’s book.
The consequence.
Given that these three sources were the only primary sources used in the food-related accusatory literature (indeed, in the entire accusatory literature), it follows that
I place no trust in any of the accusatory literature, in the first instance.

Item 2. Sub-Appendix 1. Preparations.

This Sub-Appendix describes both Moffatt’s planning and also events prior to hitting the water.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954 to J B Tyrrell.
Of great importance also is the fact that we must carry sufficient supplies for the entire trip—the administration of the Northwest Territories will allow us to carry a rifle, but it is only to be used if we are in danger of starvation—which we feel is rather late in the game to begin living off the country. Nevertheless, we are prepared to travel under these conditions.
We shall, of course, attempt to take as many fish as we can, and here again we should appreciate specific information about the kinds of fish we shall encounter, places they may be taken, and methods used in taking them.
[Pessl, private correspondence]
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
Note. The following was written in response to a letter (not available to me) from JBT.
Your suggestion that we will face starvation unless we have good rifles is certainly to the point, and I wish the Administration of the Northwest Territories realised that in forbidding us to use rifles until we are in imminent danger of death they are putting us in a very difficult position. However, if those are the terms on which we may enter the country, we will have to face them or stay home. I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived. [Pessl, private correspondence]
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s Prospectus.
…In our journey north we will pass into the hunting and trapping grounds of the Chipewyan Indians and out into the Barren Grounds, beyond the northern limit of the trees. This is the summer range of the vast herds of caribou. The lakes and streams are reported to be full of trout up to 25 pounds in weight. …
Two of the major problems we shall face are food and fire. The greater part of the route is through the treeless tundra, and what fuel there is often too green or wet to burn. We will not be able to pack enough gas to cook two meals a day.
Food may be even more acute. I have a letter from Dr. Tyrrell…He writes: “You will need to have a couple of high-powered rifles so that you can shoot game at long range, otherwise starvation is likely to threaten from early in the trip…”

Reference. Sports Illustrated, p 71 (1959).

Excerpt from the Sports Illustrated article (1959).
The article consists of selections from Moffatt’s journal, plus insertions made by the editor (who remained anonymous). Lacking full access to Moffatt’s journal, I am unable to comment
either on the editor’s reasons for making those selections,
or on whether those selections faithfully reflect the contents of Moffatt’s journal.
For a week the Moffatt party waited. Grinnell, the last man to join the party, arrived at Stony Rapids on June 27 on schedule, but food supplies, which were supposed to accompany him on the Hudson’s Bay Company boat, were left off the manifest. Moffatt canceled the order, took what supplies he could get from the Hudson’s Bay Company post at Stony Rapids and set off by truck over 15 miles of rugged road for the jumping-off place at Black Lake. [SI article, pp 72&73]
Comment 1. As well as food (1,000 lb, much of it in wooden boxes [Pessl]), the party carried Moffatt’s camera box of 86 lb [SI article, bottom of the right column on p 72].
Comment 2. Grinnell actually arrived by air. The requested supply of peanut butter in plastic jars arrived neither on his flight nor on the one two days later.

Excerpt from The New York Times article (1959).
…the explorers had provisions for 80 days. They have been gone 85 days… [Sports Illustrated article, top of p 71].
Comment. With regard to the 80 days, I refer reader to the evidence (provided below) of Grinnell’s book.

Excerpt from Grinnell’s article (1988).
… In addition to oatmeal, we had three pilot biscuits for lunch with a ration of cheese, of jam and of peanut butter. For dinner Moffatt threw two pounds of macaroni into a five gallon pot which he flavoured with a couple of cans of “Spam”, “spork”, corned beef and the like along with a package of dehydrated soup. As a matter of principle, Moffatt believed in boiling everything. After eating the solid stuff, we then got to drink the juices. … After the first month, no food had ever tasted as good as Moffatt’s boiled “glops”. [pp 18&20]

Excerpts from Grinnell’s book (1996).
1. My discharge from the Army was slow in coming…and I did not arrive at Stony Rapids…until the 27th of June, about two weeks later than Art had originally planned to embark. The others had been waiting for me about a week, but we had not headed into the wilderness immediately. …our food had been left off the manifest [of the barge], and Art had had to scrounge three months supply from the Hudson’s Bay Post and from a private trader. He was able to fill the canoes to the gunwales, but the makeshift supplies were heavy; and the only case of peanut butter available was in glass jars. Art preferred unbreakable plastic jars for obvious reasons. He had radioed out to civilization, but the case of peanut butter in plastic jars did not arrive on my flight, nor on the next plane, which arrived two days later; and so, after too many delays, we loaded our ton of food and equipment onto Stony Rapids’ one truck and headed … to Black Lake with our peanut butter in glass jars. [pp 8&9]
Note. Some jars of peanut butter were broken later in the trip.
2. On his previous trips, Moffatt … had discovered how much oatmeal is eaten each day: about three times as much as one would have believed possible. He had multiplied this figure by eighty, added a little extra for emergencies,… Grinnell made similar remarks for lunch and dinner. [p 54].
Response. And so Moffatt had planned a trip of eighty days on the water, I assume starting on 28 June. Well, 80 days after the morning on 28 June gets one to the morning of 16 September. It is then perhaps no accident that Moffatt had informed the RCMP detachment in Baker Lake to expect the party to arrive there on 15 September.

Private correspondence from Lanouette.
Message 1.
Food: Always a hot topic of conversation. Initial supplies were insufficient. Art figured our appetites would double; actually they tripled! Eventually, as my diary makes abundantly clear, food became obsessive with us and at times quite divisive. Our final lunch enroute to Baker Lake: a moldy hardtack slathered with curry paste. Yum!
Comments. The above is lightly edited from the original. I don’t know what to make of the difference between the comments of Grinnell and Lanouette; but perhaps that difference is unworthy of discussion, given the party could not have started out with much more than it did.
Message 2.
… The food we left Stony Rapids with was insufficient for our ballooning appetites. Portions had to be stretched or diluted long before the accident. For one thing our original supplies by barge were delayed, so we had to leave Stony Rapids with locally available supplies. The supplies we had were kept in well-used packsacks we had to scrounge. The sacks were not altogether waterproof, so some foods got wet and deteriorated or spoiled (from weather or waves washing into the heavily laden canoes). … Our heavily laden canoes had very little freeboard and could not take waves of any significance. … We relished all the food we had – even liver, tongue, or half-rotted haunches of caribou, swarming with bot and blackflies. …
Comments. The above is lightly edited. I assume that the group’s food had been shipped in their packsacks; that is why they had to scrounge packsacks (inferior ones) in Stony Rapids.
Message 3.
…even before the accident our initial store-bought supplies were not adequate because:
1. Our appetites exploded.
2. Our canoes initially could barely carry what food we did have.
3. Waves and rain occasionally got into our supplies, sometimes deteriorating them.
4. Weather and filming delays impeded our schedule.

Comments. The above was lightly edited. Please excuse the overlap with messages 2 and 3, but I was reluctant to edit further.
My thanks, and I hope also those of the paddling community as a whole, to Lanouette for this information.

Comments of Luste (1996).
Luste comment 1. The most I have ever carried in my canoes is seven weeks of food. … I don’t think one can carry food for three months. [Grinnell book, p 286].
Interpretation. three months refers to the Moffatt trip, which was planned for 80 days.
Comment. It is perhaps relevant
first that Luste often soloed,
second that the Moffatt party’s boats (18-footers at that) were so heavily loaded initially that they could scarcely stay afloat, especially in the waves on the upstream route to Selwyn Lake.
Luste comment 2. In reading George’s [Grinnell’s] account, it is evident that not enough food, or more specifically, food with high caloric content, such as fat, was purchased for the trip. [Grinnell book, p 286].
Luste comment 3. The Moffatt party was woefully short of provisions and caloric energy sustenance… [Grinnell book, p 288].
Response to Luste comments 2 and 3.
The initial supply of provisions certainly proved inadequate, but the Moffatt party could have carried little more and still have stayed afloat.
Again, Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men.
The evidence (especially that of Pessl, provided below) leads me to agree with Luste that the initial supply of food contained little of caloric energy substance. But later, especially in the crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, some fat was obtained from the five caribou and the many fish.

Pessl’s book (2014).
Five members of the party arrived in Stony Rapids on 22 June, Grinnell on 27 June. To replace those that had been ordered but had not arrived on the HBC barge, provisions were purchased at the local HBC store.
We are carrying almost 1000 lbs. of grub, much of which is stored in wooden boxes … [Pessl, p 17].
In the morning of 29 June, the party was driven to the end of the road, at Black Lake. Misadventures and misfortune delayed the start of the trip to the evening of 2 July [Pessl, p 26].
Pessl comments regarding the food supply.
1. Our standard daily meals were generally minimal, approximately 2,400 calories … But even with these additions [long list, including food from the land] we were probably well short of the recommended 4,000 calories per day. [p 162]
2. I don’t think our food supplies were significantly compromised by the failure of our original order to arrive on schedule at Stony Rapids. [p 162]
Responses. I believe that Pessl’s 2,400 calories refers to provisions on board. I don’t know the source for 4,000 calories per day. Moffatt had planned to obtain no food at all from the land; nevertheless, the party carried two rifles, a .22 and fishing gear.

Summary regarding Moffatt’s preparations.
Moffatt’s considerable experience in outfitting trips led him to believe that the party could live entirely off the initial supply of provisions. Nevertheless, he had provided the party with equipment (documented above) to obtain food from the land.
At the start the boats could not have carried much more of anything and still have stayed afloat.

A glance ahead.
It turned out that Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men, and so bellies were not full for much of the period before 5 August (when the first caribou, of five) was shot.
But, in the crucial seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (Moffatt’s death), the party enjoyed an abundance of food on the whole.
At times, appetites were not satisfied. On the other hand, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
On 7 September, the party acquired a major resupply of provisions from the cache. [SI article, lower part of the left column on p 82]. Grinnell book [p 180&181]. Pessl book [pp 125&126].
Food from the land in that period included five caribou, many fish (three species), many ptarmigan, and blueberries and mushrooms (the latter two only earlier in that period).
To me, the evidence of participant LeFavour is particularly important: As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [13 September, LeFavour article, 1955]
As well, the party caught 20 lb of lake trout at lunch on the very day that Moffatt died. [LeFavour, Lanouette]

Item 3. Sub-Appendix 2. Fat and other food with high caloric content.

0. Perhaps the matter of fat… is important enough to merit its own Sub-Appendix.
1. The relevant content of Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the Barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.
2. I repeat Luste’s comment …it is evident that not enough food, or more specifically, food with high caloric content, such as fat, was purchased for the trip. [Grinnell book, p 286].
3. A Pessl comment.
The lack of fat in our diet, on the other hand, probably contributed to a serious caloric deficiency that may have exacerbated our discomfort in the cold, wet late season and may have resulted in reduced energy and endurance. We made a curious mistake early in the trip in not taking advantage of the Canada goose as a ready source of fat…although perhaps the need for animal fat in our diet was not as apparent when the birds were readily available and wood for roasting fires on hand was also at hand. Cooking a sturdy goose on a smoldering heather/twig fire on a wet, windy day in the Barrens would probably have been a real challenge, no matter how much we craved the fat. [Pessl, pp 162&163]
Comment. Pessl appears to acknowledge the validity of Luste’s comment regarding fat. But neither he nor Luste suggests that such lack contributed in any way to the tragedy.
4. Does anyone know (I sure don’t) whether the importance of fat and other food with high caloric content on such a long trip (~12 weeks) was understood by the paddling community ca 1955? That is, should Moffatt have known to provide such food?
If then, could much fat have been carried, given that the canoes were already very heavily laden?
5. The fat-related evidence of the participants.
5 August. Spent the day in camp … . Bruce and Joe shot a young spike horn… This sudden presence of wildlife not only provides good protein and fat, it also makes the hope of adequate provisions more realistic. [Pessl, p 69].
10 August. Right now, my thoughts are constantly preoccupied with food to an alarming extent. What I miss is not fresh meat, because we have plenty of that. I crave fats, sugar and starch. I would like big slabs of cornbread with lots of butter, fat meat like bacon or pork, and chocolate. [Franck, in Pessl, p 79].
20 August. … we have had to cut almost our entire food consumption in 1/2. We still have plenty of meat, but the lack of fat and starches make dinner rather unsatisfying. [Pessl, p 100].
Interpretation. food consumption refers to the consumption of provisions, only.
27 August. This caribou had more fat on him than the others and we could peel enough off the neck and shoulders to fry the meat without bacon. I never seem to grow tired of caribou as I think I would of beef. [Franck, in Pessl, p 106].
3 September. …I made four casts and got three fine trout. They are in lovely shape with lots of fat under the skin. [Franck, in Pessl, p 119].
Summary.
I lack the background in nutrition science to assess
either how much in the way of fat was provided by the caribou, fish (lake trout, arctic char and grayling) and ptarmigan,
or how much the participants needed.
But I refer the reader again to Moffatt’s earlier tripping experience.
The main point is that a caloric deficiency (or a fat deficiency, or any other food deficiency), if indeed such existed, bore no responsibility for Moffatt’s death. The cause is identified in Item 4. Sub-Appendix 3. The supply of food in the period from the start to 5 August.

Background.
Again, Moffatt’s personal experience was that initial supply of provisions would suffice for the entire trip. That is, he believed that no food from the land would be needed for the entire trip of ~80 days. Reference. Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
Aside. I don’t know how to reconcile Moffatt’s experience with that of Luste: The most I have ever carried in my canoes is seven weeks of food. … I don’t think one can carry food for three months. [Grinnell book, p 286].

Summary of the evidence.
Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men (recall Lanouette’s tripled). It would be of some interest to understand the reason for the error (the metabolism of young males? I have distant memories of such), but such a venture is well beyond my capabilities.
Some food from the land (blueberries and fish, but no caribou) was obtained in that period, but there was no guarantee of more, and so provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip.
Although the participants were often hungry (even ravenous at times, they were never at each other’s throats, they were never starving, as evinced by Grinnell’s The hunger began to express itself at dinner with a friendly rivalry to be first in line… [book, p 23].
On 3 August, the party decided unanimously to continue to Baker Lake, rather than return to Black Lake.

Conclusion.
The evidence is unequivocal. At times before 5 August (when the first caribou was shot), food was uncomfortably short. And so the short-of-food claims are reasonable for the period before 5 August.
But the party was far from starvation at any time.

The evidence of the Sports Illustrated article (1959) for the period from the start to 5 August.
Introduction. The article consists of passages alleged to be selections from Moffatt’s journal, plus assertions/insertions made by the anonymous editor. Lacking full access to Moffatt’s journal, and having learned to trust nothing in the SI article unless it is confirmed by a reliable source, I am unable to confirm whether the following passages indeed come from Moffatt’s journal, and if so, whether they are representative of it.
8 July. The men tired of their diet of imported stores and wanted to hunt, but Moffatt, mindful of the dangers that lay in expending ammunition, clamped down on shooting. [lower part of the right column on p 73; source not identified].
Question. What would they be shooting? Certainly not caribou, for the first was seen on 4 August. Ptarmigan?
15 July. The sharp talk at supper made everyone edgy. Heretofore we have all been equals. Now I have assumed the sergeant’s position. But someone has to stop the foolishness before it goes too far [Suggested to be a Moffatt comment, likely regarding food; p 73, lower part of right column].
26 July. We celebrated that night with a tremendous dinner of two-pound grayling per man, mashed potatoes and pudding. [Suggested to be a Moffatt comment; p 75, middle of left column].

The evidence of Grinnell’s article (1988) for the period from the start to 5 August.
To avoid unnecessary repetition, I include here relevant material provided also in Grinnell’s book. If I may be explicit, material provided only in his book is documented below (in a separate paragraph).
Grinnell gives dates only occasionally; this and other evidence led me to conclude that he did not keep a journal.
Unless stated otherwise, none of the following is confirmed by the evidence of other participants. I make this point because I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by a source that I know to be reliable.

1. The supply of sugar.
…Pessl announced that we had consumed half our sugar supply while covering less than one-third the distance to Baker Lake. It was clear that we would run out of sugar before reaching our destination unless… [Grinnell article, p 20, right column].
Confirmation by Pessl.
Had a grumpy outbreak over the sugar situation. We are now 1/2 through the supply and only about 1/3 of the distance to Baker Lake. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. Hope it works. [Pessl, 29 July, p 56]
Comment.
The first reach of the trip, the ascent of the Chipman River from Black Lake to the height of land and so to the waters of the Dubawnt River, was difficult and consequently slow. And so a better comparison would have been to the time remaining. I now do that analysis.
The time remaining on 29 July.
The trip began on 29 June, and so the party was 31 days into it on 29 July. The trip was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 15 September, but with a grace period of seven days, for a maximum of 87 days.
Conclusion.
Pessl’s less than one-third is accurate with respect to both distance and time remaining.

2. Controlling the men.
Grinnell alleged the following to have been asserted by Moffatt.
He who controls the food controls the men. [Grinnell article, p 21, top of the left column; Grinnell book, top of p 7 and top of p 17].
Response. This allegation has no basis in any evidence known to me.
Reminder. I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by a source known to be reliable.

3. The supply of powdered milk.
The next fight was over how the powdered milk was mixed. The United Bowmen’s Association felt that it should be watered down more: Moffatt felt that the quality should be maintained but the quantity cut back. [article, p 21, top of the left column]
Response. I’m unsure that this matter merits the term fight.

4. Moffatt took more than his share of the food?
1. Moffatt always helped himself first before calling the rest of us to dinner… [Grinnell book, p 21, top of the left column]
2. …the possibility that none would be left by time the sixth man got his. [same source]
3. Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours..
Response. The evidence (especially that provided in Items 5 and 6 below) supports the suggestion that Moffatt was getting more than his share of the food, for at least early in the trip.

5. The oatmeal question,
conflated with the matter of the size of Moffatt’s bowl/dishes.
Then there was the oatmeal question. Lefavour took to counting the number of spoonfulls of oatmeal we each took every morning. This did not much from bowl to bowl for the rest of us because we all had the same size bowl and always filled it as full as we could get it, but Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours.
On August 22, Moffatt came to breakfast, and picked up one of the standard bowls, somewhat to our surprise, and helped himself to oatmeal.
[Grinnell article. p 21, middle of the left column]

6. The size of Moffatt’s bowls/dishes.
Skip…says my pankin…is causing grumbling among the men, since they think I’m getting more than they are. Could be. Will use bowl from now on. [21 August. SI article, top of right column on p 80]
Grinnell’s comment Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours is confirmed by Pessl’s photo and the corresponding comment …Art…filling his controversial pannikin. [Pessl journal entry for 14 August, p 85]
Indeed, Grinnell’s comment is extended by the following: …He uses a special aluminum pannikin instead of the common bowl, thus causing suspicion of larger portions. When frying meat, he always fries his separately, thus implying special pieces and extra preparation… [14 August. Pessl, p 86]
Conclusions.
It appears that Moffatt was getting more that his fair share of food in the first six weeks of trip.
The matter was resolved four weeks before his death.

Comment.
Given the accusations made of Moffatt, I thought it necessary to state that none of the items
the supply of sugar,
how the powdered milk was mixed,
the oatmeal question,
the size of Moffatt’s bowl/dishes,
and so on,
was life-threatening.
In particular, none played a role in Moffatt’s death.

The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996) for the period from the start to 5 August.
Comments.
Again, comments duplicated in his article are addressed above.
Again, I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell. I lack independent confirmation of some of the following passages from his book.
Grinnell and Moffatt’s journal.
As I document in particular in
Ancillary 1. Accusations, Grinnell must have possessed Moffatt’s journal.
Given
1. that the SI editor is known to have possessed Moffatt’s journal, and
2. that the participants were not provided with copies of Moffatt’s journal [Pessl, private correspondence], and
3. that the editor and Grinnell are known to have had been in written contact (at the very least; witness the Epilogue of the SI article),
I suggest that the editor had supplied Grinnell with a copy of Moffatt’s journal.
And so it appears that they had cooperated to some extent. This possibility disturbs me, especially given
(a) that Grinnell (in neither his article nor his book) objected to any assertion made by the SI editor, and
(b) that both Grinnell and the SI editor redacted passages of significance regarding the running of the fatal rapids.

Passage 1.
As the days passed into weeks, we burned off the fatty lining from our oesophagi so that we felt hungry before, after, and during meals. The hunger began to express itself at dinner with a friendly rivalry to be first in line… [p 23].
Opinions.
1. The passage we felt hungry…first in line fairly represents the food supply from the start to 5 August (when the first caribou was shot).
2. That same passage represents not at all the food supply in the crucial period from 5 August to 14 September (when Moffatt died).
Passage 2.
The food was not elegant, but we loved Art’s glops. … On the portages, we were burning up about twice as many calories as we were getting from our rations. The more calories we burned, the more we craved food, especially fatty foods. … For the first time in my life, I had experienced the reality of hunger, the long-term, gnawing reality of hunger that reminded me of things beyond our control. …When the last item was eaten out of the bottom of our canoes, what then, Art? [pp 24&25].
Comment.
Given that Grinnell did not keep a journal, the passage When the last item…, what then, Art? was written after Moffatt’s death. I ask that the reader reflect on Grinnell’s motivation in providing the passage.
Passage 3.
In reference to the waters of the Dubawnt River. Every imaginable migratory bird nests there. The lakes are teeming with fish. The wolves follow the migrating caribou herds… [p 49].
Passage 4.
…which we felt was reasonable enough until we had spent forty days hungry in the wilderness; and then we went into revolt. [p 55].
Comment. The revolt remark is almost certainly a reference to the formation of the alleged United Bowmen’s Association.
The corresponding evidence of LeFavour: The UBA was simply a way for the three of us to bitch among ourselves and thereby relieve some tensions, not in any way a revolt. [LeFavour, private communication to Pessl; bottom of the right column on p 8 of Pessl’s Nastawgan article, Vol 40, No.2 (2013). Also Pessl book, p 168].
Passage 5.
…after nearly forty days in the wilderness on short rations, I was bored. [book, p 57].
Comment. Rations were indeed short in the almost 7 weeks before 5 August.
Passage 6.
…decided to make camp early so that we would have time to catch some fish before dinner. Bruce, Pete and Skip brought in fifteen fish thought to be grayling. [book, p 84].
Comment. The date for the last item is likely 26 July, as evidenced by Pessl’s journal (below).
Passage 7.
Art caught a lake trout that was almost as large as he was. [top of p 90].
Passage 8.
He (Moffatt) elaborated on what we already knew: at our current rate of travel we no longer carried enough food in our canoes to reach the outpost at Baker Lake. Our progress across the Barrens had been slower than he had anticipated, so that we were in danger of being trapped by freeze-up as well as by hunger.
Our only hope of survival lay in living off the land. If we were lucky enough to run across a herd of migrating caribou, we would probably survive: if not, we should expect the same fate as Hornby, Adlard and Christian, death by starvation.
[book, pp 90&91].
Comment 0.
The date was 3 August, when the party decided unanimously to continue downstream to Baker Lake, rather than return to Black Lake.
Comment 1.
The provisions on board from the beginning had turned out to be insufficient to reach Baker Lake at a comfortable level of consumption, and so the party would have to acquire food from the land, to some unknown extent.
Comment 2.
Grinnell’s Our progress across the Barrens had been slower than anticipated… is supported by the following excerpt from Pessl’s book.
During dinner today, Art brought up the condition of the supplies and distance to travel, and for the first time made everyone collectively conscious of the situation. We discussed the possibility of returning to Stony Rapids before it was too late, but agreed to a man to continue, with the definite intention of longer, more strenuous travel days. The attitude of the party finally is changing from that of a summer vacation to the serious determination faced with an urgent objective, and serious consequences if it fails. [Pessl, 3 August, pp 65&66].
Comment 3.
To me, Grinnell’s Our only hope of survival … death by starvation is at best sophomoric hyperbole. Perhaps it bears repeating that the party had already obtained considerable food from the land, certainly fish (Passages 4 and 7 above) and perhaps ptarmigan.
Comment 4.
We (the Moffatt party) had spent forty days fasting in the wilderness together… [p 95]. The allusion is clear, but artistic licence. Lest the assertion be taken literally, no member of the party fasted for even one day in the period before 5 August. I refer the reader to the evidence (provided above) in Grinnell’s book, and also to the evidence of Pessl and Franck (provided immediately below) for that same period (start to 5 August).
Comment 5.
The sighting of the first caribou occurred on 4 August, the shooting of the first the next day yet. Unfortunately for Moffatt’s reputation, Grinnell made no mention of either event, in either his article or his book.
Comment 6.
There was no possibility of freeze-up until well into October (well past the outer limit of 22 September for arrival in Baker Lake, after which date an aircraft search would have begun, indeed did begin). Reference. Appendix 5. Pace and weather.

Summary of the evidence of Grinnell’s book for the period from the start to 5 August.
Appetites far exceeded Moffatt’s expectations. Food from the land was plentiful at times, but short overall until the first caribou was shot. And so portions were insufficient.

The evidence of Pessl and Franck for the period from the start to 5 August.
1 July. The glop is getting very tasteless without the tomato paste and with macaroni every God damn night. … good spot for lake trout and Bruce caught two around 4½ lb. [Franck, in Pessl, p 25].
Comment. The party had yet to hit the water.
2 July. Some of the food got wet and we had to spread it out to dry. … we got water in and soaked a little oatmeal. … We spread the wet food out on a big rock shelf to dry… [Franck, in Pessl, p 27].
3 July. We had a roast beef with all the trimmings. [Franck, in Pessl, p 28].
4 July. … after the usual pause of hardtack, etc … . [Pessl, p 28].
7 July. Art broke out one of the cans of ham and we feasted. [Franck, in Pessl, p 31].
8 July. Two pounds of macaroni in the glop and it all disappeared in short order. [Franck, in Pessl, p 33].
9 July. … the smell of boiling glop pervaded the hungry dreams of 6 tired, “not so iron men.” [Pessl, p 33].
10 July. … after dinner, Bruce came back to camp with a 7-lb. lake trout … a morning supplement to the usual oats and coffee. [Pessl, p 34].
11 July. Taking the lake trout supplement as the keynote for an outstanding breakfast… [Pessl, p 34].
11 July. Skip fried the fish for breakfast. … We all ate so much that everyone laid around for an hour or two. Later, at camp I took George’s .22 and walked around … to see if I could find a spruce hen … I took a long shot and got her in the neck … a small meal for one man. [Franck, in Pessl, p 35].
14 July. We all have ravenous appetites and are still hungry after even the largest meal. [Franck, in Pessl, p 39].
15 July. … unsuccessful fishing … already the lack of food, or perhaps the psychological need for a little extra left in the pot is beginning to affect the party. … as the joke begins to wear off, the rush for an extra portion becomes tense. [Pessl, pp 39&40].
16 July. The usual meal of glop fixed things up pretty well… [Pessl (in reference to feeling woozy) p 41].
22 July. Made a detailed inventory of our food stock and we seem to be in good shape for about 50 more days. This brings us into the first part of September when we should likely reach Baker Lake. Sugar and other sweets pose somewhat of a problem in as much as the longer we are away the more intense the sweet tooth becomes. However, minor rationing should take care of this. [Pessl, p 48].
Interjections.
1. By food stock, Pessl means provisions.
2. 50 more days after 22 July gives 10 September, five days before the scheduled date for arrival in Baker Lake. That is, Pessl believed the provisions on hand to be pretty well sufficient to complete the trip. I emphasise that Pessl was counting on obtaining no food from the land in making that estimate.
3. The party encountered the caribou two weeks after 22 July, namely on 4 August.
4. Given the accusations made of Moffatt, it seems necessary to state that a shortage of sugar and other sweets is not life-threatening.
Also not life-threatening is Moffatt’s personal supply of cigarettes (falsely represented by the SI editor as the expedition’s supply of the same). [SI article, middle of the right column on p 75]
23 July. Cold, wet and the pot refusing to boil! At last the tell-tale bubbles and a hot meal of glop, pudding and tea. [Pessl, p 49].
23 July. The party was windbound. George [went] to hunt grouse; the result was not documented. [Franck, in Pessl, p 49].
25 July. The realization that prolonged periods of immobility eat into our supplies with no increase in mileage to balance the scale eats into the minds of everyone. [Pessl, p 51]
26 July. We…have enjoyed excellent fishing … 13 grayling within 1/2 hr! [Pessl, p 52].
26 July.We camped on the left bank, and Bruce and I got out fishing. The Arctic grayling were very abundant here and we had a tremendous meal. They must be scaled but they make excellent eating. [Franck, in Pessl, p 53].
27 July. The end of firewood has not really touched us yet and we enjoy the fuel of the bush in the form of driftwood… [Pessl, p 54].
28 July. Art seems somewhat overly cautious, probably due to the risk of the camera equipment…Art had swamped… very little damage… 1/2 bag oatmeal, some wet hardtack and considerable quantities of dampened pride. [Pessl, p 55].
29 July. We continued drying our wet supplies…Had a grumpy outbreak over the sugar situation. We are now 1/2 through the supply and only about 1/3 of the distance to Baker Lake. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. [Pessl, p 56].
Interjections.
1. The earlier part of the trip had been slow, in part because of the difficult upstream travel on the Chipman River.
2. Again, I suggest that a shortage of sugar is not life-threatening.
30 July. Doled out the sugar ration into six small cans…great concern whether it should go over the oatmeal or into the tea. Not sure how Art feels about all this. … the gradually narrowing circle of men standing close to the campfire, holding steaming red bowls in both hands. [Pessl, p 58].
31 July. The problem of catching fish and then cleaning them and cooking them became a major issue today … an argument developed into a battle … On the brighter side, I caught my first grayling today: fine jumpy, fighty fish but a great big lake trout is still my favorite; calories prevail! We are camped in the midst of blueberry heaven. …Tonight, we had a big meal of glop and blueberry bannock …. [Pessl, pp 59-60].
1 August. Trees have disappeared for most practical purposes . . . firewood becomes the object of very passionate scavenger hunts; twisted stumps and watersoaked driftwood are treasures. [Pessl, p 61].
1 August. … we found two jars [of peanut butter] out of twelve broken. [Franck, in Pessl, p 62].
2 August. … the usual wind-bound day, highlighted by Art’s catching a tremendous 15# lake trout … a bountiful dinner of fish, mashed pots, bacon and tea. [Pessl, p 63].
2 August. I am really beginning to get worried that we will run out of food before we get to Baker Lake. … After lunch, Art caught a huge lake trout…39”long, 15.5 lb. Then he caught one half that size and we had enough for a fish dinner. [Franck, in Pessl, p 64].
Comment. Franck’s run out of food refers to the supply of provisions, only.
Interpretation. Despite the catching of the trout, Franck was counting on obtaining no more food from the land for the remainder of the trip. And so it bears mention that five caribou were shot in the weeks before 14 September, and that much more food (many ptarmigan, three species of fish, blueberries and mushrooms) was obtained from the land in those weeks.
3 August. Pessl, passage 1. Oats, fried fish and tea for breakfast … this lake is full of large lake trout … This is a big help to our supply inventory in as much as we have about 45 days of food left and we estimate that it will take us at least that long to reach Baker Lake. [Pessl, p 64]
Comment 1. supply inventory and food refer to provisions, only.
Comment 2. about 45 days of provisions would feed the party until about 17 September. The scheduled date for arrival in Baker Lake was 15 September, with a week’s grace before the air search was begun. But, from his at least that long, Pessl was concerned that arrival would not occur until considerably later.
Opinion. On 3 August, Pessl believed that the party had enough food, in the way of provisions alone, to reach the vicinity of Baker Lake in comfort.
3 August. Pessl, passage 2. On stay-over days …we have 1/2 ration oats + fish, fish chowder for lunch which needs only a package of dried soup and a little milk with boiled chunks of fish; and then fried fish and mashed potatoes for dinner. … During dinner today, Art brought up the condition of the supplies and distance to travel, and for the first time made everyone collectively conscious of the situation. [Pessl, p 65].
Comment 1. supplies refers to provisions, only.
Comment 2. The first caribou was seen the very next day, and so the food situation promised to improve; indeed, it did so, for the first caribou was shot on 5 August.
Interpretation of the passage Art brought up…conscious of the situation.
Moffatt thought that food (in the form of provisions alone) was sufficient to reach Baker Lake on schedule, but that the party would have to pick up the pace in order to do so.
That is, Moffatt was still counting on obtaining no food from the land for the remainder of the trip.
3 August. Franck. We are not yet halfway, but we have consumed more than half of supplies. [Franck, in Pessl, p 66].
Comments.
Again, supplies refers to provisions.
The party had yet to encounter the caribou, of which it shot five in total.
I believe that Franck’s halfway refers to distance, not time. As I mentioned previously, progress upstream on the Chipman River had necessarily been very slow. But, one fine day, I’ll measure the distance remaining and compare it with the time remaining (43 days to 15 September).
4 August. Franck …We went on down the river through a few small rapids when we saw our first caribou calmly grazing on top of a high bank. … We saw many caribou today, but all scattered along the banks in small groups. … I caught a few grayling for breakfast [for the next day]. [Franck, in Pessl, p 68].
Comment.
The party shot its first caribou the very next day.

Summary of the food supply in the period from the start to 5 August.
Some food from the land was obtained in the period; but the party was still often hungry, because provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip, lest the land not be fruitful. In this connection, perhaps it bears mention
first that the Moffatt party had only the evidence of the Tyrrell brothers to rely on for evidence regarding the caribou and other food from the land,
second that encounters with the caribou are far from guaranteed (as I know personally from six trips in the barrens, but 100 years later),
third that there was no guarantee that the party would arrive on schedule, namely on 15 September.
Items.
1. Lake trout, some large (two on 1 July, one on 10 July, two on 2 August, perhaps more on 3 August), and some grayling (13 on 26 July, 1 one on 31 July, a few on 4 August).
2. a spruce hen (female spruce grouse) on 11 July (a small meal for one man).
3. blueberry heaven on 31 July.
Comment 1. The shortage of food was far from life-threatening, but food from the land would be necessary in order to complete the trip in comfort.
Comment 2. Fat appears to have been in short supply, but it is unclear
(a) whether the shortage was serious, or
(a) whether the importance of fat was generally known by recreational paddlers at the time.
Comment 3. Concern regarding the food supply was much reduced on 4 August, when the first caribou were sighted.

Item 5. Introduction to the evidence of the participants regarding the supply of food in the period from 5 August to 14 September.

Two days after the party decided to continue downstream (rather than return to Black Lake), the food situation was much relieved with the shooting of the first caribou, this on 5 August.
This period, from the shooting of that caribou to Moffatt’s death (on 14 September), is the crucial one because Moffatt’s defamers asserted (that is, provided no evidence) that a shortage of food in it was in large part responsible for his death. Indeed, Murphy asserted that Moffatt died due to a lack of food.

Directory of the evidence for the period.
Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. The evidence of Moffatt.
Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. The evidence of Grinnell.
Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. The evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

Summary of the evidence for the period.
Food was occasionally short in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, but the party was well fed on the whole.
1. Food from the land.
Five caribou were shot (the first on 5 August, the last on 5 September).
Many ptarmigan were obtained by various means.
Many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught.
Blueberries and mushrooms were harvested, but these only earlier in the period.
2. Food from provisions.
On 7 September, a major resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache.
3. On three documented occasions, the paddlers were gorged with food.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
4. The supply of food on 13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour article, 1955]
5. The supply of food on 14 September.
At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party added to the above 20 lb of lake trout. [LeFavour article, 1955; Lanouette, private correspondence.]
Comment.
Perhaps the reader is already able to assess the assertions of Moffatt’s defamers regarding the food supply in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death.

Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. Food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Moffatt.

My sources for the following were
edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article, and
unedited excerpts from his journal (kindly supplied by participant Pessl).
Caution.
Given that the strong>SI editor redacted the key evidence Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, I trust no content of that article unless it is confirmed by evidence of a trustworthy participant.

Moffatt’s planning.
For the convenience of the reader, I quote one last time that passage from Moffatt’s letter to J B Tyrrell, of 14 January 1955.
I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.

4 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
To set the stage, I provide evidence from the last day of the previous period (start to 4 August).
We got up at 4:30, Skip made breakfast, while I took pix of sunrise. Our beautiful clear sky sailed – or was pushed – fast NE by heavy clouds, which brought light cold rain and NW wind. But we were under way by 6, and kept on till 10, having hard time following route through islands. I couldn’t tell where we were from map, but there was just enough current between islands, and bent weeds in the water, to show us we were right. Finally, at 10:30, we seemed to be definitely in the fast – moving river, and stopped to have cocoa – we were numbed with cold – soaked legs – hands raw from cold wind & rain – but fire and hot drink quickly brought us around.
Hills all bare here, only groves of spruce and tamarack here and there.
Then on, through many-channeled river, to fast little rapid, where we stopped to make cloudy day film – f4.5-5.6 – of Skip + Pete shooting rapid, and on again 2 or 3 miles, when Joe and I suddenly saw 2 caribou outlined against sky on ridge on left bank.
Stopped at once, jumped out with camera, got pix – ate lunch there, went on through more rapids, caribou now everywhere, till we saw big bull and cow swimming – got fine pix of Skip + Bruce chasing them in the water, of animals close by.
On to heavy rapid 1/2 way to Barlow Lake – 5:30 – good camp, island, sun, caribou everywhere – got great shots of herd on sky line, behind tents, of Bonaparte gull in tree top, and finally no pix but good view of long-tailed jaeger – now 2.
Also first Arctic ground squirrel, and white wolf – got shot of latter.

Source. Pages 82 and 83 of Moffatt’s journal, as kindly supplied by Pessl.

4 August.
Comment. The date, not provided by the editor, comes from the above.
…their first arctic ground squirrel, a white wolf, and then they met the caribou en masse. [SI article, lower left column, p 75].
Assessment: A bare-bones (less than a sentence) but nevertheless faithful condensation of the relevant portion of Moffatt’s journal for that day.

5 August.
Poor morning, and I didn’t get up at 5 as I had planned. Because Skip didn’t get called, he slept until 11 – which rather teed me, since he had originally said he would cook breakfasts because I was hard to get out of sack in a.m.
Instead of moving – it was 1 p.m. when breakfast over – we decided to kill a caribou. Bruce + Joe went out, got small female – forked horns, in velvet – fine shot behind shoulder, Bruce, second in back, Joe – they finished her in neck, cut throat. I got pix, but it was cloudy all the time, and at 4-2.8, had rotten sun.
Made sequence – hunt, kill, skinning, butchering, hanging meat, and finally stew. Meat sour-sweet, tastes a little like the guts and stomach contents smell.
But before dinner I finished one more shot of caribou also looked at rapids – going to be tricky to shoot, and had bowel movement – been partially constipated for three days – today blood in stool. Can it be poor food – macaroni, bully, oats and hardtack – or have I got the hernia I worried about earlier, which still feels odd down in left groin. Not good if I have, but nothing much to do about it here.
Getting very anxious to be home, but tonight we are still south of 62nd parallel – have to go almost to 65° – and should do it in less than a month – but can we?
Weather gets steadily worse – sun very little – only in patches – wind constant and cold
[illegible] rain squalls every day.
We are not yet beyond limit of all trees – valleys + low places still have plenty in groves, but hills + ridges and meadows bare, stony, greenish with grass – creeping
[illegible]-bearing plants, and dwarf birch. Tamarack numerous, largest trees, bed rock almost non-existent.
Berries, weather, stony hills and long undulating horizons seem characteristic of this area.

[pp 83-85 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].

5 August.
I have nothing to report, for the SI editor omitted the complete entry for 5 August.
That is, s/he skipped from the 4 August entry caribou en masse to the 6 August entry We made good time…, thereby omitting mention of the shooting of the first caribou (partially consumed that very day) on 5 August.
Comment 1. Some might consider the shooting and partial consumption of the first caribou on 5 August (an event ignored by the editor) to be a more important event than the sighting of the first caribou on 4 August (mentioned by the editor).
Comment 2.
The editor omitted mention also of the caribou shot on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September, all as documented in Moffatt’s journal. Of the five, the editor mentioned only the caribou shot on 11 August. Particularly important for our understanding of the food situation in the days shortly before Moffatt’s death (and so the assertions that Moffatt died due to a lack of food) is the editor’s failure to mention the caribou shot on 5 September, food from which was in such supply on 14 September that the party had no need to hunt for the remainder of the trip.
Given that the editor omitted mention of four of the five caribou shot, perhaps I may ask that the reader consider editor’s intentions for making the following assertions.
1. Food was becoming the question now [9? August; top of left column, p 76].
2. …game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [16-17 August, bottom of right column, p 76].

6 August.
Up at 7:30 – Skip had breakfast ready – we ate, I took films of Skip and Pete shooting the big rapid. This took quite a while, since high clouds covered the sun, but after they had passed, we had a clear, very windy day, with light windblown dew point clouds – a real rarity of a day in these latitudes. We made good time down the swift river – many boulders and easy rapids – and caribou in groups of 3 to 10 were grazing placidly in the meadows at the waters edge, or walking slowly along the stony yellowish ridges.
Those grazing would look up as we passed, and watch us curiously, and a few would put up their white tails and trot a few paces back from the river before turning again to stare.
We are already accustomed to their presence, and hardly look twice at them. It is surprising how easy they are to see. Sometimes if they are standing still, the light white winter hair on their backs still being shed, and the new dark hair underneath make them look like a boulder – or rather, the boulders can be mistaken for caribou. Their horns are still in velvet of course – the big bucks have huge racks, the cows and young bucks smaller sets – the cows without a central keel. Their white feet make them appear to be wearing gaiters.
Yesterday I could hear their ankles or hooves – I don’t know which as they trotted away from me.
It is not necessary to hunt them – all you have to do is sit downwind – be still – and they will walk up to you.
At lunch today got pix of Arctic Cotton, also good rapid – then into lake – Barlow – about 4 miles, and on into bay by 5 p.m. Wind strong beyond and I climbed hill at point.
[Moffatt describes a chipping site, with also scrapers and points.]
Cooked caribou steaks tonight – with mashed potatoes and tea. Then went on long walk with camera to hills back of camp, but saw nothing – a few caribou, one of which walked almost up to me.
Country very lovely – almost completely barren – blue and purple hills in distance, groves of birch in hollows, thin line of spruce here and there at edge of lakes and rivers.
Night absolutely calm – full moon one day old, loons crying in distance, distant roar of small rapid south of lake. Not a cloud in the sky.
Hills back of camp very stony, rough boulders in till, patches of yellow bare gravel, berries growing among boulders. Pothole lakes surrounded by muskeg which seems golden green and strongly in contrast with gray and buff hills. Trees stand out occasionally on side of ridge or skyline like sentinels.
Not a mosquito, not a black fly here as I write at 11:30 p.m. by moonlight and twilight. Very warm – first warm night in weeks. Three poles with
[I omitted the second “with”] caribou meat hanging from their apex at shore-Skip’s tent to left. Bank shallow and stoney.
A few weak northern lights earlier, nothing now – one star in north.
Saw five Canada geese today – big honkers. Makes 14 seen so far.
Joe doesn’t care for caribou – afraid of flies + parasites – rest of us think it’s fine. Not gamey at all – best fried.
All of us getting on each other’s nerves – as usual – six weeks out now – a long time. Have used about 3000 feet of film same amount to go. Plenty still of film to take yet.
Only 15 packs of cigarettes left and 1/2 can of roll-your-own. Sugar ration inadequate too.

[pp 85-87 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].
Comment. I discuss below Moffatt’s tobacco and sugar remarks.
Aside. Perhaps readers who have not visited the barrenlands will enjoy them, if only vicariously, from the above.

Interjection.
Except that for 13 September, I possess no more complete entries from Moffatt’s journal, only
edited excerpts from the SI article of 1959, and
excerpts provided by Pessl in private correspondence.

6 August.
We made good time down the river. … It is not necessary to hunt them [the caribou]. All you have to do is sit downwind, be still, and they will walk up to you. [SI article, top right column, p 75].

~8 August. An assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor.
On August 8 the Moffatt party reached Cairn Point, a turning point in the journey… Among other things, the expedition’s provisions were beginning to run low. There were only 15 packs of cigarettes left and a half can of roll-your-own. The sugar ration was proving woefully inadequate. [Sports Illustrated, p 75, right column]
Response 1. The supply of cigarettes.
The passage Only 15 packs…roll-your-own was lifted from Moffatt’s journal entry for 6 August, namely Only 15 packs of cigarettes left and 1/2 can of roll-your-own. [pp 85-87 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].
From the context, one sees that Moffatt refers to his personal supply, only. Indeed, each participant had his own supply of cigarettes, starting with the first day of the trip.
Conclusion. The editor represented Moffatt’s concern with his personal supply of cigarettes as a shortage of the party as a whole.
Further, a shortage of cigarettes is scarcely a life-threatening matter, scarcely one worthy of such special note; indeed, in retrospect, that shortage might be argued to be beneficial, albeit in the long term.
Response 2. The supply of sugar.
By this time, each participant had his own supply of sugar. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. [29 July. Pessl book, p 56].
Conclusion. Given that the sugar matter was resolved on 29 July, and that the editor’s assertion was dated 7 or 8 August, one sees that the editor represented Moffatt’s concern with his personal supply of sugar as a shortage of the party as a whole.
Opinion 1.
Given that neither was responsible in any way for the tragedy, I suggest that the accusatory literature (beginning with the SI article and continuing with Grinnell’s book) has made rather too much both of the shortage of sugar and of the distribution of its supply.
Opinion 2.
Some might consider the shooting of the first caribou (on 5 August, an event not mentioned by the editor) to be more worthy of publication than a false suggestion that the party as a whole was running short of cigarettes.

~8 August. A passage attributed to Moffatt.
…All is well–enough food–or almost enough. [SI article, top of the left column on p 76]. Caution. I lack confirmation from Moffatt’s journal.
As before, food refers to provisions only.
Analysis. Moffatt is satisfied, as best he could have been at this stage in the trip, with the supply of provisions for the remainder of the trip. After all, he was in charge of the procurement of provisions; that was a primary concern of his, and this is far from the only time that he comments on that supply during the trip, both before and after ~8 August.

8 or 9 August. An editorial interjection.
Food was becoming the question now. [p 76, top of the left column]
Response 1.
Given his remark …All is well—enough food—or almost enough of ~8 August, Moffatt was clearly satisfied with the food supply at the time. The reference here was, I believe, to the supply of provisions, a matter that Moffatt addressed many times in his journal.
Response 2.
The first caribou had been shot three days previously (an event that went unmentioned by the editor), and there were many more around, easy pickings.
A request.
Given this evidence regarding both the supply of provisions and the food from the land (especially the caribou) at that time, I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s motivation in asserting that Food was becoming the question now.

10 August.
Found could conserve sugar by pouring prunes on oats. Syrup sweet enough for one bowl. [SI article, p 76, left column].

11 August.
The second caribou was shot this day, as mentioned in the following.

12 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal (Sports Illustrated version).
Should have mentioned in yesterday’s log that Bruce [LeFavour] went hunting in the morning…and shot fork-horn cow caribou.
We cut up the loins for steaks. They were full of grubs and cysts of one kind or another, but who cares about tapeworm or worse when fresh meat as good as this is on hand and has not been for 30 days?
[SI article, p 76, left column].

12 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
… made blueberry johnny cake, cut up loins of caribou for steaks. They were full of grubs and cists of one kind or another, but who cares about tapeworm or worse when fresh meat as good as this is on hand and has not been for 30 days, and also when supplies are down to about 30 days with over 400 miles to go… [Pessl, private correspondence]
The first “30 days”.
A considerable exaggeration, given that the first caribou was shot seven days earlier.
The second “30 days”.
Given that 30 days after 12 August gets one to 11 September, and that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, I conclude that Moffatt believed the supply of provisions, it alone, to be close to adequate for the remainder of the trip. The difference of four days is then inconsequential, especially because of the about.
In particular, Moffatt counted on obtaining no more food from the land.
It turned out that three more caribou were shot after 11 August (these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September), and that the land provided much more food.
A request.
Given this evidence (possessed in full by the editor) of Moffatt, I ask that the reader reflect on the purpose of the editor’s assertion Food was becoming the question now.
Aside.
I measured the distance from Cairn Point on Carey Lake to Baker Lake to be ~400 miles, in good agreement with Moffatt’s value.
Reference. Ancillary 4. Distances.

13 August.
Went into a small bay, good wood, plenty blueberries. I steaked up most of one hind quarter of caribou, mashed potatoes, made chocolate pudding and tea… [Pessl, private correspondence].

14 August.
Most conversation revolves around food. Running low of staples, only 30 days’ supply left. [Sports Illustrated, p 76, left column].
Comment 0.
staples means what I call provisions.
Comment 1.
I lack full access to his journal, but Moffatt’s food must refer to provisions (rather than food from the land), given that the second caribou had been shot three days earlier, on 11 August.
Comment 2.
13 September is 30 days after 14 August. Given that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, one sees that Moffatt believed the supply of provisions, alone, to be adequate to reach Baker Lake within a few days of the scheduled arrival date.
Comment 3.
Three more caribou were shot after 14 August, these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September.

15 August.
…painful discussion –salt running low, milk running low. How to save it? [Sports Illustrated, p 76, right column].
Opinion. Moffatt continues his meticulous assessment of the supply of provisions, even regarding minor items like salt and milk.

17 August.
Rain kept on to midafternoon, then everybody got busy getting together complete meal off the country, mushrooms (a kind of brown, large one, porous underneath rather than ribbed like usual ones) for vegetable, six 5lb. lakers for meat, also 3 ptarmigan via Pete for extra meat, blueberries for dessert and tea. [Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Comment. The corresponding entry does not appear in the SI article.

20 August.
The third caribou was shot this day, an event that escaped mention by the SI editor.

21 August.
Only about 20 days’ food left. Lean caribou is temporarily filling but does not stay with you. We get five meals out of the caribou – four quarters and back meat, plus heart, tongue and liver. Neck and spareribs for lunch meat. Unfortunately, we do not have enough wood to make soup. No more onions, dried vegetables. …Ptarmigan plentiful here, … [Sports Illustrated, p 80, lower left and top right columns].
Comment 1.
Pessl gives the date as 22 August, as below.
Comment 2.
Since Moffatt says about, the difference from the previous estimate (that of 14 August) is negligible.
Comment 3.
Several more caribou had been shot since 5 August.
Comment 4.
Again, food means provisions. That supply (of about 20 days) would last until 10 September or so, if no more food were obtained from the land. But much food from the land was obtained later in the period; moreover, provisions were obtained from the cache, this on 7 September.
Opinion.
Moffatt continues his meticulous evaluation of the supply of provisions.

22 August.
Only about 20 days food left. Lean caribou temporarily filling, but does not stay with you. 5 meals on caribou: 4 quarters + back meat, plus heart, tongue and liver, and neck and spareribs for lunch meat. Not enough wood to make soup. [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Opinion.
A faithful condensation on the part of Pessl. But perhaps I copied the date incorrectly.

24 August.
Moffatt caught a 12-pound lake trout. [Sports Illustrated, p 80, right column].

26 August.
The fourth caribou was shot this day, an event not mentioned by the SI editor.

28 August.
On north side island stopped to cook lunch, fish chowder: 12 lbs. lake trout, 4 oxo cubes, 1 pack dry vegetable soup, salt, pepper and flour paste. Very filling. [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].

5 September.
Only about 15 days of oatmeal left, five days of cornmeal, 18 days of hardtack, 18 days of sugar and 11 two-pack mashed potatoes or 22 one-pack days. Four days of macaroni, meat supply good, canned meat, fish and caribou. Should make it, unless weather turns very bad. [SI article, p 81, centre of right column].
Comment 1.
The party was scheduled to arrive 10 days later, on 15 September, but with a week’s grace period.
Opinions.
1. Moffatt continues his conscientious evaluation of the supply of provisions. Yet again, he is optimistic regarding the supply.
2. As far as it goes, the above is a faithful condensation (as supplied by Pessl, in private correspondence) of Moffatt’s entry for the day.
Comment 2.
But the Sports Illustrated editor omitted Moffatt’s mention of the shooting of fifth (and last) caribou that very day, as evinced in his journal.
Bruce killed caribou – leg shot, chase into lake, then neck shot – George & Skip & Bruce skinned and brought in the meat… [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Opinion. The editor redacted evidence that reflects badly on her/his assertion that a lack/shortage of food contributed to Moffatt’s death.

7 September.
The supply of provisions was augmented by those from the cache.
We…saw red gas cans and something white…the white thing was…a small piece of muslin covering 24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy…We took the stuff, figuring it had been left for us by Ray Moore…we celebrated with a huge mess of vegetables and caribou glop, carrots and beans mixed. Supper was wonderful. [Moffatt journal, as reported in the SI article, p 82, lower left and top right columns.]
Grinnell confirmation.
…It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We raided the dump. [Grinnell book, pp 180&181]
Pessl confirmation.
…found a large quantity of dehydrated vegetables…took the whole shebang. [Pessl book, pp 125&126]

10 September.
The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
…Ten days’ sugar supply left, about the same amount of hardtack, 10 days’ oats, five days’ cornmeal. Joe broke two of three remaining peanut butter jars tonight on a portage. Even a little item of that sort is becoming vitally important to us. The food situation is poor, but we mean to get out of here as fast as possible now. About 200 miles to go. [SI article, p 82, centre of right column].
Comment 1.
This a faithful transcription of Moffatt’s journal for the day, as supplied by Pessl. Again, here food here refers to provisions, only.
Comment 2.
Arrival in Baker Lake by the scheduled date of 15 September would have required five days at an unreasonable average of 40 miles per day. I expect the weather-enforced, non-travel days of 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 September to be largely responsible for the delay. But arrival in Baker Lake by the end of the grace period (22 September) appears to have been achievable on 10 September.
Comment 3.
That distance of 200 miles, along the Dubawnt River to the junction with the Thelon River (between Beverly Lake and Aberdeen Lake) and thence to Baker Lake, agrees reasonably well with my measurement at Toporama.
My point here is that Moffatt had corrected the distance given in his Prospectus.
After the tragedy, rather than continue down the Dubawnt to its junction with the Thelon, the survivors portaged from Marjorie Lake to Aberdeen Lake on the Thelon.

13 September. The evidence of Moffatt.
Moffatt’s complete entry for the day is provided in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
I provide here only the evidence related to food.
…Skip caught 3 trout… lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack,… Others portaged while I cooked huge glop, fish and bully, pudding + tea. [Moffatt journal; via Pessl, private correspondence]

13 September. The version provided by the Sports Illustrated editor.
I cooked fish and bully, pudding and tea. [Sports Illustrated, bottom right of p 82]
Comment. One sees that the editor redacted the passage Skip caught 3 trout… lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack.
Opinion. The redacted passage bears on the supply of food and so on the SI editor’s assertions (game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now) regarding that supply.

14 September.
The assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor, and the evidence of participant LeFavour.
In what to me is a clear reference to Moffatt’s death that day, the editor asserted the following
…game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [16-17 August, bottom of right column, p 76].
Interpretation.
The editor suggests that food (in particular that from the land) was so short, and the party was in such desperate haste to reach Baker Lake before the onset of winter, that Moffatt took the ultimate chance by running the fatal rapids without a scout.
Response 1.
As documented in Moffatt’s journal (possessed in full by the editor) itself, three more caribou were shot after 16-17 August, these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September. If the reader will indulge me, I remind her/him that the editor omitted all mention of these major additions to the food supply.
Response 2.
Participant LeFavour (in Sub-Appendix 4c) provided the following for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death.
As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).]
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on the truth of the editor’s assertions game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now.

The cause of Moffatt’s death is documented in
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. Food supply from 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Grinnell.

Introduction.
1. For those seven weeks, I provide one evidence from Grinnell’s article (1988), then multiple evidences from his book (1996).
2. Despite my reservations regarding his writings on other matters, Grinnell’s book provides an accurate (though abbreviated) description of the food supply in those crucial seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (the day of the tragedy).
I accept his evidence because it is verified by the evidence of Moffatt himself (Sub-Appendix 4a) and by that of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl (Sub-Appendix 4c).
3. Summary. Grinnell’s book documents that food (both from the land and from provisions, the latter augmented by those obtained from the cache) was bountiful, on the whole, in the seven weeks preceding Moffatt’s death.

The evidence of Grinnell’s article (1988).
…we had all discovered the caribou, the berries [blueberries], the mushrooms and the lake trout… [p 21, left column].
Comment. The unspecified date was after 5 August, when the first caribou was shot.

The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996).
Passage 1. My first awareness of Reality with a capital “R” came to me in the form of hunger, that everlasting hunger that must be satisfied or death will in time arrive; and my second awareness came in the form of freezing cold, which kills more quickly. [p 2; undated]
Comment. Food was short in the period from the start to the shooting of the first caribou on 5 August. Because Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men, provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip, and food from the land had been insufficient to make up the difference. But the hunger in that period was far from life-threatening, death was far from imminent. And so I suggest that Grinnell made here a general remark, though rather a hyperbolic one.
But hunger was all but nonexistent in the crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death. As I document elsewhere, in those weeks the party obtained
a plethora of food from the land, plus
a massive resupply of provisions (this on 7 September).
Passage 2. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Comment. This was the first caribou killed, of the five; as mentioned previously, the SI editor redacted mention of this event.
Passage 3. Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 4. …picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Comment. This caribou (the one shot on 11 August) was the only one (of the five) to be mentioned by the SI editor.
Passage 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Comment. The five caribou were shot on 5 August, 11 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September.
Passage 10. … I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Comment. This account regarding the easy killing of the ptarmigan is confirmed by Franck [Pessl, p 108].
Passage 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [p 158]
Passage 12. The acquisition of the supplies from the cache, this on 7 September.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [pp 180 & 181].
Comment. This acquisition of supplies from the cache is confirmed by the evidence of Moffatt [Sports Illustrated, p 82, lower left and upper right columns] and that also that of Pessl-Franck-Lanouette-LeFavour [Sub-Appendix 4c, below]

Summary of the evidence of Grinnell’s book.
In those crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, five caribou were shot, many fish (three species) were caught, many ptarmigan were killed, and a copious supply of mushrooms and blueberries was harvested (though only earlier in the period).
As well, a major resupply of provisions was obtained, this on 7 September.
Bellies were not full on occasion, but appetites were satisfied on the whole. Indeed, on three known occasions, appetites were far more than satisfied.

Opinion. This evidence of Grinnell’s book is particularly relevant
1. to the assertions of Murphy (made in what was alleged to be his review of Grinnell’s book):
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food…, and also
2. to the assertions of Kingsley (whose primary source was Grinnell’s book):
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past.

Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. The supply of food in the weeks between 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

My sources.
Franck. Pessl’s book (2014).
Lanouette. Private correspondence.
LeFavour. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955); private correspondence.
Pessl. His book of 2014 and private correspondence.
Summary of the evidence of these four participants.
Grinnell’s account of the bountiful supply of food from the land in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death is confirmed and considerably augmented.
Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three known occasions.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
As well, the participants confirm the massive resupply of provisions (this on 7 September), as documented also in the SI article (1959) and in Grinnell’s book (1996).

The evidence of Franck and Pessl.
Source. Pessl’s book (2014).

4 August. The party met the caribou.
Actually, everywhere we looked groups of caribou could be seen. The horizon was a constant panorama of moving bodies and antlers. [Pessl, p 67].
5 August.
Spent the day in camp and although the weather was poor for filming, the caribou offered plenty of opportunity for excitement. After breakfast, Bruce and Joe climbed a nearby ridge, picked out a young, spike horn and shot it. …The prospect of firm, chewable meat for the next few days is very welcome. …This sudden presence of wildlife not only provides good protein and fat, it also makes the hope of adequate provisions more realistic. [Pessl, p 69].
Interpretation of the passage “… the hope of adequate provisions more realistic”. The availability of food from the land requires less reliance on the provisions remaining from the initial supply.
Caution. The reader need not attempt to compare the above summary for 5 August with the account of the Sports Illustrated editor for that same day.
5 August.
We had all the grayling we could eat for breakfast. …The water below is full of grayling, all good sized and eager for the fly. … Everyone sits up at night broiling it (the caribou shot after breakfast) and eating ‘til they can hold no more. The best pieces are the long roasts from the back. [Franck, in Pessl, p 69].
5 August.
… the day was gray, cold, and quite a wind was blowing over the plain from the southwest … It had been decided a few days before that we would need some caribou meat in order to stretch our supplies of food a little longer, and because the day was a bad one for traveling, we figured that this was as good a time as any to shoot some fresh meat. [Lanouette, private correspondence].
6 August.
Pan-fried steaks replaced yesterday’s delicious stew and for the second evening in a row, we enjoy fresh meat.
The abundance of caribou has already ceased to be cause for comment as we pass herd after herd on the river. … hundreds of caribou peacefully grazing … often during the night, we can hear the eerie echo of these rattling hooves as the caribou wander by our tents. …
Peter and Bruce have stirred up a few caribou just north of me and in their haste the animals run within 15 ft of the rock on which I am sitting…
[Pessl, p 71].
6 August.
We had caribou steaks…and they were as tender as the finest filet mignon. [Franck, in Pessl, p 72].
7 August.
At dinner tonight, Art … insisted … that the dinner cook should be entitled to extra sugar rations. He seems to be suffering more than the rest of us from the short rations due mainly to large amounts of tea and coffee that he relishes… [Pessl, p 72]
Comments. short rations refers to sugar, rather than food in general.
The matter of the sugar supply had apparently been resolved on 29 July [Pessl, p 56]. But it resurfaced again on 9 August. Sugar again became an issue this morning, with Art “borrowing” from the cooking ration. Later he apologized…and all seems smooth again. [Pessl, p 76] And again on 5 September. Sugar ration has been cut again, while Art continues to snitch. [Pessl, p 121]
… Caribou meat continues to dominate our meals; tongue and heart are top delicacies. [Pessl, p 72]
7 August.
…still eating on our caribou. We tried smoking some and eating it for lunch and it turned out delicious. I think the meat gets better as it ages a little. Caribou have been getting scarcer… [Franck, in Pessl, p73]
8 August.
Latest fad finds us all preparing half-smoked, half-cooked meat…to supplement the lunch ration… First animal is running out; will be looking for a new kill soon… Saw first ptarmigan today…the prospects of early arrival in Baker Lake seem good. [Pessl, pp 74&75].
8 August.
We had our last meal from the caribou tonight, but the chuck is still left and good, except… [Franck, in Pessl, p 76].
9 August.
Sugar again became an issue this morning, with Art “borrowing” from the cooking ration. Later he apologized…and all seems smooth again. …Berry picking led me within a few feet of a caribou this afternoon. [Pessl, p 76]
9 August.
…I flushed five ptarmigan. …Caribou are getting quite scarce with only an occasional one showing up. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 76&77].
10 August.
…there are lots of caribou here today. [Pessl, p 78].
10 August.
We saw more caribou today, but still only singles and pairs. …Right now, my thoughts are constantly preoccupied with food to an alarming extent. What I miss is not fresh meat, because we have plenty of that. I crave fats, sugar and starch. I would like big slabs of cornbread with lots of butter, fat meat like bacon or pork, and chocolate. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 78&79].
11 August.
Bruce bagged a caribou … . Once again we are well stocked with meat. … Blueberries are super and with the meat and fish provide a substantial part of our diet. This is my first experience of “living off the land”, substantially backed up by a can or two as needed. [Pessl, p 79].
11 August.
…Bruce came in…finally got a young cow about noon. …There was hardly any of that caribou left when we walked off. [Franck, in Pessl, p 81].
12 August.
…energies were spent preparing a beautiful blueberry johnny cake which was combined with two enormous slabs of “roast beef” to produce a fine banquet. The quantities of meat that we consume at one sitting are enormous…a boiling pot of soup stock made of caribou backbone chopped in chunks, reinforced by the usual pot of tea… [Pessl, 82]
12 August.
Around 4…Art set about making a johnny cake. I almost went mad with hunger sitting around watching him, so I went off to pick blueberries. We picked quite a pot full to put in the johnny cake and they really improved the flavor, but the cake itself sits so heavy once you eat two big slabs of it that I almost wished I was hungry again. [Franck, in Pessl, p 83]
13 August.
The usual morning oats…were supplemented with vast quantities of fried caribou liver… After the initial “halfway” scare of time-distance regarding food supplies…we are slowly drifting back into our previous lethargy. …In this land of fish, caribou and berries all seems well and so we mosey along. …enjoyed caribou soup for lunch…are camped again with the sizzle of cooking steaks. …today we once again saw the animals (caribou) grazing along the shore…[Pessl, p 84]
13 August.
We had a tremendous lunch of the usual hardtack and a soup made by boiling the backbone of the caribou. Delicious soup, and I had had a lot of caribou liver for breakfast, so I was quite full. This liver is excellent, but too rich and filling to eat for breakfast. … I am beginning to get a little tired of caribou and long for a glop dinner for a change. These blueberries that grow everywhere are delicious, especially with milk and sugar. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 85&86].
Comment. Franck records that both Moffatt and he were helping themselves to extra food.
14 August.
Comment. Pessl again expresses his discontent with Moffatt’s use …of community sugar for personal use at times…. He expresses also discontent with Moffatt’s handling of the general plan of the day’s travel. [Pessl, pp 86&87]
14 August.
Caribou are getting more abundant for some reason. We have been seeing lots of them since we entered Markham [Lake]… I have an alarming tendency to look forward to lunch and especially a peanut butter and cheese hardtack as the high point of the day. I am beginning to think that…I am nothing but a big belly. I look forward to Baker Lake most because it means all I can eat. [Franck, in Pessl, p 87].
15 August.
… I picked blueberries; very ripe now. …This caribou seems to be going bad much faster than the other. It already smells high and some pieces are full of maggots. Caribou seem to be increasing. We see them all the time now… [Franck, in Pessl, p 89].
16 August.
1. We spent the entire morning scouting this very difficult rapid… The protection of our supplies dictates our caution …our awareness of the approaching winter is a huge burden on days like this.. [Pessl, p 90]
Eventually, the party decided to stay put.
2. Milk became an issue yesterday; and again it seemed to be the four guys against Art; problem of rationing given to Skip. … After a touchy trial and error mushroom test in which I gulped down one raw specimen with some misgiving, but with no immediate after effects, mushrooms have become part of our “natural” diet. They are very plentiful in this area and when fried in bacon grease are a fine supplement with the caribou steaks. Food from the land has become so important that everyone walks with head down and a sharp eye for berries, mushrooms and other edible plants. An unfortunate result of this is that thoughts of food seem to dominate almost all other mental activity. Conversation, spare time and imagination concentrate on food. This is a sad state of affairs, considering generally how well we eat. [Pessl, pp 90 & 91]
16 August. Franck.
Bruce and I got out and caught some fish. The rapid is full of grayling and lake trout; fine big fish, the fattest I have ever seen. We had a caribou stew and threw the rest away as it was too high to stand any longer. …We still have 300 mi. to Baker Lake, after we get to Dubawnt Lake and only about thirty days of food left. [Franck, in Pessl, p 91].
Comment 1. 15 September (the intended arrival date in Baker Lake) is thirty days after 16 August. That is, on 16 August, Franck believed that the party had enough food to reach Baker Lake on schedule and in comfort.
Comment 2. I believe that food refers to provisions; it is unclear though to what extent, if any, Franck was counting on food from the land.
17 August.
Breakfast of oats, lake trout, bacon, blueberries and tea…storms continued to threaten so we remained at camp and spent most of the day getting food so as not to use much of our rapidly diminishing store-bought supply. Lunch consisted of a fish chowder utilizing 5 grayling, 1 C rice and I pkg. dried soup; also 1 hardtack with jam. Dinner was really a woodsman’s triumph, although it took all afternoon to gather. Five medium lake trout which we catch at will are served as the main course. A large bucket of mushrooms was fried for our vegetable and blueberries furnished dessert along with the customary tea. Later in the evening Pete came in with 3 ptarmigan which are hanging on a tent pole now and will serve as the beginning of another meal soon. … It is marvelous and quite fortunate how abundant food in the Barrens is at this season and how six quite inexperienced men are able to supply a substantial part of their diet with such ease. The recent hot weather has ruined a lot of our meat so that even boiling the worst parts is no longer too effective. However, a change to fish for a while is welcome. [Pessl, p 92].
17 August.
For lunch, we had a fish chowder made with five grayling; an excellent dish! …Joe gathered blueberries and mushrooms…They are quite good fried and took the place of starch at dinner. Bruce caught a lot of lake trout, and I shot three ptarmigan… Caribou are all over the place…A party of two could live off the country without caribou, but by shooting caribou as you went, you could supply almost any number. [Franck, in Pessl, p 93]
18 August.
… we spent the rest of a cold, disappointing day…speaking in cautious terms of food vs. time… a store-bought meal of glop and cocao… Grilled a ptarmigan…and was delighted with the taste, wild, almost salty. [Pessl, p 94]
19 August.
Nicholson Rapids were finally run, without incident. As we sped along, the caribou ranged the cliffs and ridges at the river’s bank… [Pessl, p 94]
20 August.
Wind and a serious need for meat dictate a day in camp. …Butchering and hanging the meat took most of the afternoon… [Pessl, p 96]
20 August.
Very cold and windy this morning, so Art decided to declare a day of rest and kill a caribou. …I took a long walk to pick blueberries. …Joe picked mushrooms and got a good pot full for dinner. …After hunting all morning, Skip came back with only one ptarmigan. …I went out and hunted all afternoon, and only killed one. …When I got back to camp, I found the caribou already butchered.
…We shall have to be living more and more off the country in the future. We have only eight meals of macaroni left and about twenty-five half-pound packages of potatoes. This is our entire supply of starch.
[Franck, in Pessl, p 96]
20 August.
We got up this morning with all the intentions of making an early start so as to reach Dubawnt Lake before noon, except that during the night the wind had shifted once again to the northwest and by the time we got up it was blowing a small scale gale. …In the distance we could see whitecaps dotting the lake, so it was decided that we would remain in camp for the day. Bruce was to bring down another caribou and it was Art’s intention to follow him and get pictures of the hunter and the hunted. …the sky became solidly and dismally overcast—the wind increased. … I went out and picked a tobacco-tin of berries for my breakfast tomorrow. I also brought in about 10 mushrooms, which, when boiled in with our bully-beef glop, proved to be the taste treat of the century. [Lanouette].
21 August.
Not a single stick of wood in sight from the top of a hill. There is still grass and caribou everywhere though. …Somehow, the caribou are a great blessing and a softening of the land. It is its one source of plenty. [Franck, in Pessl, p 98].
22 August.
Used the primus stove for the first time today… With no fire to warm us and that magnetic pot of tea, we retire to our tents soon after eating. [Pessl, p 99]
22 August.
We are still flushing lots of ptarmigan but they are almost impossible to get a shot at. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday… [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
23 August.
We left camp at 4:30 PM in the face of this very cold N wind and after sneaking from one lee to another for a few miles we were again forced to make camp… Our feet and hands are continually cold and to get either wet has become a serious accident. …Our total mileage for the last few days amounts to about six miles. …With about 25 days left, we have had to cut almost our entire food consumption in 1/2. We still have plenty of meat, but the lack of fat and starches make dinner rather unsatisfying. …A good size caribou lasts about 4 days. [At] dinner this evening…only hot item is the tea. … I am confident we will arrive at Baker in good time with plenty of meat on our bones. [Pessl, pp 99&100].
Comment 1. 17 September is 25 days after 23 August; I note that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September.
Comment 2. I believe that by food consumption Pessl refers to the consumption of provisions, only.
24 August.
Heavy frost and a frozen milk pail greeted us as we shivered out of the sack at 4 AM; hurriedly gulped down hardtack and jam, and set off in a frosted canoe. …the day remained absolutely calm and we were able to continue paddling the entire day [with breaks for breakfast and lunch]. …Art… soon hauled in a 12-lb. lake trout which is boiling now for a chowder dinner. Lake trout have been quite easy to catch ever since we hit the river… we have enjoyed fish for breakfast most every day and every 3 days or so a fish dinner. Meat is certainly no problem. …supplies at present consumption should see us through. [Pessl, p 101].
Comment. supplies must refer to provisions, but I don’t whether at full ration or 1/2.
24 August.
We bolted down a hardtack and loaded up in a hurry… . Oats (at breakfast) sure tasted good after a 6 mi. paddle in the cold. …Art caught a 12 lb. lake trout. …[Franck] caught an 8-lb. lake trout before dinner…[Franck, in Pessl, p 102].
25 August.
After dinner, another flare up; this time Art boyishly insisting that we have hot tea and finally, a complete breakfast before starting off at 4:30 AM mornings. [Pessl, p 103]
26 August.
Midmorning brunch break was rather exciting; covey of four ptarmigan killed with a hunting knife. …Made camp…bagged a caribou and enjoyed ptarmigan stew for dinner. [Pessl, p 104]
26 August.
While we were coasting…we spotted a caribou…Joe…missed with his 30/30. Decided to camp here anyway, as the wind was too strong to travel. Bruce went out after lunch and killed a caribou…[Franck, in Pessl, p 104]
27 August.
Questionable winds…another beautiful day in camp… Game was abundant. Everywhere I looked caribou were moving about… Mankind seems to find its proper place again as merely one member of the kingdom, and the false values of a blinded, hurried society easily fall away. The furious race for wealth and position seem ridiculous here and the contentment of simplicity certainly worth the sacrifice of an extra station wagon. [Pessl, pp 104&105]
Opinion. Bravo, Skip!
27 August.
…I want to get enough food as soon as I can. But the country is so beautiful now, and it would be a shame to hurry through it… We saw a lot of caribou. … After a bit [of a rest], I looked up and saw a small calf not ten feet from me. Peeking over the rocks, I saw two does and a fine buck join it. I could have killed any one of them with a .22 or even a spear. …When we got back to camp, we found Bruce with two big fish, 6 and 8 lb.
This caribou had more fat on him than the others and we could peel enough off the neck and shoulders to fry the meat without bacon. I never seem to grow tired of caribou as I think I would of beef. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 106&107].
28 August.
A fine breakfast of oats, caribou liver, lake trout roe and tea… [At lunch] As the water for fish chowder heats on the beach…the .22 cracks frequently as George does his best to provide us with another ptarmigan dinner. [Pessl, pp 107&108]
28 August.
While I was walking up the hill, I saw a few sitting ptarmigan, easy shots. When I walked closer, a flock of nine got up. By the time that I got to the bottom of the hill, George had killed seven. Apparently, the whole island is full of them.
We had a fish chowder for lunch using 15lb. of fish Bruce had caught the day before and were so full we could hardly move. We have been living like kings off the land here. There is surely no danger of starvation as long as we can fish and hunt.
[At dinner]…We tried the ptarmigan in the glop, just boiled, and they were delicious; better than broiled. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108].
29 August.
…leisurely breakfast of another “day off”… Caught a few “lakers” for tomorrow’s breakfast and enjoyed a good portion of fried roe for lunch. We are able to cook small portions of food… The process is troublesome, but certainly worth a hot noonday meal.. [Pessl, p 109]
29 August.
Windy this morning so we stayed put. … the panic is off for a few days. …I got back to camp about 4:00 and was so hungry I succumbed to temptation to eat my entire supply of extra food I had saved up. They were only a drop in the bucket. …Bruce and I cut up the caribou meat and cooked dinner… . [Franck, in Pessl, p 109&110].
30 August.
Heavy winds and rain squalls chased us back into the tents this morning just as we were finishing our second cup of coffee, and a good thing it was, for I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much farther from the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we had been loading.
…After lunch, skies cleared and we enjoyed one more rare “shirts off” day as we paddled … to the outlet of the lake.
(Dubawnt Lake) [Pessl, pp 110&111]
30 August.
Raining when I woke up, but we had breakfast just the same, a heavy one with lots of fish and roe. We are getting low on gas now. Skip thinks that we have enough for less than a week at our present rate of consumption.
By lunch, things had begun to clear up some and we finally got off about 4:00 in sunlight, heading for the mouth of the river … catching fish on the way.
[Franck, in Pessl, pp 111&112].
31 August.
Scouting and running of rapids, then a lengthy scout of the gorge. Try as I may, I couldn’t impress upon the others the necessity to hurry [that is, to get on the river early in the morning]. …We were lucky to find some dry birch twigs…with five stoking and one cooking, were able to cook a meal without the use of our precious fuel supply.
It seems that we are continually faced with some shortage problem. Now that we have rationed food supply sufficiently for the remainder of the trip, we are running out of gas. Estimate about 3 days supply left. Woe is me…raw meat is not too bad, but raw oats and macaroni may be too much!
[Pessl, pp 112&113]
Interpretation. Pessl believed that the provisions, although rationed, would suffice for the remainder of the trip. His concern was now with the gas supply.
31 August.
Franck [in Pessl, pp 113-115] devotes most of his entry to the scouting and the running of rapids.
1 September.
It was a cold and miserable cook who crawled back into the tent after gulping a few spoonfuls of oats and quantities of hot tea. … bowl of soup for lunch … I caught enough fish for a late dinner of chowder and tea. [Pessl, p 115].
2 September.
Another bitch of a day, worse than yesterday by a long shot. …about noon, I crawled out and began preparing our first meal of the day. Hot oats seemed appropriate. Building the tiny birch fire in a high wind with wet twigs… At the very height of the storm, the pot somehow came to a boil…we all ate cold oats in the rain. … fish soup for dinner and then it [rain] came down again…”piss pot”! [Pessl, pp 115&116]
2 September.
After lunch … still too much wind to move. … I did a little fishing and caught a nice trout, perhaps an arctic char. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 116&117].
3 September.
Another day of the same hellish weather, and after suffering through another breakfast, I crawled back into the tent and slept until 3 PM when soup was served for lunch. …bundled up, took an empty packsack and went on a long wood hunt. …Was quite successful with the twigs… [Pessl, pp 117&118]
3 September.
After lunch Skip and I got empty pack sacks and walked down river to gather driftwood. It is quite abundant in some spots and we had no trouble filling our bags. …The fishing is fantastic when you hit a good spot. Just before dinner, I made four casts and got three fine trout. They are in lovely shape with lots of fat under the skin. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 118&119].
4 September.
Snow greeted me this morning as I crawled out of the tent into a harsh flurry. …Water bucket was frozen solid…working [preparing breakfast] in the face of flurries. …By lunch the skies had cleared and the sun warmed things considerably. …Canoes were carried along the rim of the gorge in dazzling sunshine… [Pessl, p 119].
4 September.
The most beautiful portage [that to Grant Lake] I have ever made and the most beautiful spot on the river so far. …After the cold stormy weather we have been having, this break was delightful and everyone was in high spirits and full of good predictions about the weather for the rest of the trip. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 119&120]
5 September.
Breaking ice in the water bucket and melting milk from the night before has become regular morning chore. The first one-half hour before the fire is really perking and the oats cooking is pretty grim business. …We spent the better part of the day completing the portage and the late afternoon killing and butchering what will probably be our last caribou. [Comment. It was the last]. The animals have very considerately kept right with us in spite of the cold weather. The berries and mushrooms have long since shriveled and disappeared, but the caribou remain for the pot. We are now cooking all our meals on the green dwarf birch twigs and have pretty well worked into the laborious collecting and stoking routine. Sugar ration has been cut again, while Art continues to snitch… We have plenty of meat but very little else and after an extended period even great quantities of meat are not very satisfying. [Pessl, pp 120&121]
5 September.
After lunch. Still Art was taking so long that we decided not to travel this afternoon, but to camp here at the end of the portage and kill another caribou. …I had caught only three tiny trout and grayling in an hour and was about to give up, but tried one more pool and hooked an enormous arctic char on my first cast …he went a shade under 15 lb. We had this fish for dinner and he was enough for all of us. Bruce came in about the same time…saying he had shot a caribou and he went back to butcher it. [Frank, in Pessl, pp 121&122]
6 September.
Got a late start this morning due to our unconscious reluctance to head out amid cold, driving snow. But after an hour or so of vigorous paddling, we were warm enough to really enjoy a cold, brisk and remarkable refreshing day. …A heavy wind out of the North kept us from making any real progress and after a lunch of hardtack, etc., and tea, we were pushed against the shore.
Pessl then describes the encounter with the grizzly.
Made camp at the mouth of the Chamberlin River and were happily surprised to find large quantities of driftwood. Have plenty for morning in addition to two full packsacks which we will carry with us and hoard as long as possible. [Pessl, pp 122&123].
6 September.
Franck too described the encounter with the grizzly.
… Then Art settled down close to a ptarmigan to wait for the sun, while George shot two others. …One my way back [from retrieving the forgotten knife], I picked up a good bundle of firewood. …Working together, Bruce and I filled three pack sacks with good wood, in addition to what we needed for dinner and breakfast; enough for three days if we are careful. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 124&125]
7 September.
A sudden squall delayed the start for a few hours.
…we spotted a cache of oil drums… Along with the gasoline, also found a large quantity of dehydrated vegetables. The party helped itself. …only the self-centered joy of finding more food. [Pessl, p 125 (Grant Lake)].
7 September.
…we saw some red gas drums on the beach and pulled over. Behind them, we found a cache of dried vegetables …We tried the gas cans…we filled our five-gallon can and put the remaining white gas in jam cans. …From the cache, we had gotten twenty-four enormous cans of dried vegetables, more than we could possibly eat. We tried cooking one can for dinner and it filled two pots by the time we got all the meat and a handful of Catelli in. We started eating with relish, but the vegetables soon palled and only Joe could finish what was left. Even he nearly got sick that night. I don’t care if I don’t see another vegetable, except onions; I still crave them. [Franck, in Pessl, p 126]
8 September.
Rainy breakfast and the prospect of clearing skies in the near future send us to the tents for a lazy, relatively calm wait. …Intermittent showers kept us in camp until 4 PM. …We are camped above a rocky rapid on a very exposed boulder plain and as I write, the wind and driving snow-rain intensifies. The tent shudders and the nearby “tarp-cook house” flaps violently. Sleep tonight will be restless at best. [Pessl, pp 127&128]
8 September.
Cold and cloudy this morning. As did Pessl, Franck describes the archaeological site. [Franck, in Pessl, p 128]

Comment.
And so end the daily journals of Pessl and Franck (the latter as reported by Pessl). On the next day (9 September), a storm (reported to be of hurricane force in Churchill [SI article, top of the right column, p 82]. I caution that I consider the article to be an unreliable source).
From here until 9/17 our daily, chronological entries end. The days after 9/8 were filled with such horror and suffering that it was impossible to write anything at all. In one moment, this grand adventure had become a nightmare beyond my comprehension. The narrative that follows was written after we had arrived at Baker Lake, after the others had departed and I was alone with my recollections and my demons. [Pessl, in Pessl, p 129]
The sole Pessl/Franck entry regarding food in the period 9 to 14 September.
Up at daylight; four men breaking camp, the other two preparing breakfast of oatmeal with a carefully rationed teaspoon of sugar and a cup of tea, then into the canoes. [Pessl, in Pessl, p 130].

Summary of the evidence of Pessl and Franck.
The party was occasionally short of food in the period from 5 August to 14 September, but it was well fed on the whole. Indeed, as documented in Pessl’s book (I lack access to the corresponding evidence of Moffatt), on three occasions the paddlers were gorged with food. I refer the reader to the entries (provided above) for 22 August, 28 August and 30 August.

The evidence of LeFavour and Lanouette.
Lefavour source. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).
13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting.
14 September.
20 pounds of trout were caught at the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death.
Lanouette source. Private correspondence.
Lanouette confirms the catching of the lake trout; I recall that he gave the weight as 17 ½ lb.

Summary of the food-related evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

Food from provisions.
In the period before 7 September, provisions had to be conserved, for there was no guarantee that more caribou and other food from the land would be obtained.
On 7 September, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache.
References. Moffatt’s journal for 7 September. Sports Illustrated article [bottom of the left column on p 82]. Grinnell’s book [pp 180&181]. Pessl’s book [pp 125&126].
I am unable to assess how much food was obtained from provisions in the period. Given that bellies were not full at times, I assume that a decision had been made to conserve provisions for the remainder of the trip, lest no significant additions to the supply be made from the land.
I possess no evidence regarding what in the way of provisions was on board in the afternoon of 14 September, but, given the above, I expect that much of the supply acquired on 7 September was still available a week later.

Food from the land.
Contrary to the assertions of Kingsley in particular, Moffatt had expected to obtain no food at all from the land.
Nevertheless, the land was one of plenty for the most part. Hunting (five caribou and many ptarmigan) was excellent, as was fishing (lake trout, grayling and arctic char); blueberries and mushrooms were harvested, but these only early in the period.

Summary.
In those seven weeks, bellies were not full at times. On the other hand, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
At lunch on 14 September, the party had so much food on board that it had no more need to hunt.

Interjection.
Having documented the evidence of the participants, I expose the accusations made of Moffatt to the light of that evidence.

Sub-Appendix 5a. The food-related assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Reminders.
The editor’s sole source was Moffatt’s journal, to which s/he had full access.
Sub-Appendix 4a (above) provides the excerpts from Moffatt’s journal that were available to me.

Food from the land.. A comparison of the evidence provided in Moffatt’s journal compared with that provided by the Sports Illustrated

The caribou.
Moffatt’s journal documents that five caribou were shot (these on 5 August, 10 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September).
The SI editor mentioned only one of these, that shot on 11 August.
Comments.
I suggest that the SI editor’s failure to mention the caribou shot on 5 September is particularly relevant to the supply of food available on 14 September, and so to the editor’s assertions game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now.
In this connection, I repeat the evidence of participant LeFavour (dated 13 September): As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).

The fish.
Of the many caught in the period, the SI editor mentioned only the following.
(a) two-pound grayling per man [SI article, middle of the left column on p 75, 26 July]
(b) Moffatt caught a 12-lb lake trout. [SI article, bottom of right column on p 80, 24 August]
Evidence not available to the SI editor. At the lunch break on 14 September, the party caught 20 lb of trout [LeFavour article (1955); Lanouette (private correspondence)].

The ptarmigan.
The SI editor’s sole references to the many ptarmigan obtained.
1. Ptarmigan plentiful here… [SI article, top of the right column on p 80, 21 August]
2. the grizzly flushed three ptarmigan as he ran [SI article, bottom of the left column on p 82, 6 September].
Question. In view of the editor’s assertion game grows scarce, was not the documented acquisition and consumption of many ptarmigan more worthy of mention than the grizzly’s flushing of three such?

The blueberries.
The SI editor made no mention of the many picked.

The mushrooms.
The SI editor’s sole mention of the many mushrooms picked.
George, who had been feeling poorly after trying a yellow mushroom [SI article, middle of the left column on p 80, 20 August.]

Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Statement of the assertion.
Food was becoming the question now. [SI article, 8 August, p 76, top of the left column, p 76]

Response 1.
The editor’s Food was becoming the question now was preceded immediately by the Moffatt passage All is well–enough food—or almost enough. [same source as the above]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 2.
As documented by Moffatt, the first caribou was shot three days earlier, this on 5 August.
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of this event.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 3.
The second caribou was shot on 11 August, as indeed acknowledged by the editor.
Should have mentioned in yesterday’s log that Bruce [LeFavour] went hunting in the morning…shot fork-horn cow caribou. [12 August, SI article, middle of the left column, p 76]

Response 4.
Moffatt’s journal provides the following
…meat supply good, canned meat, fish and caribou. Should make it, unless weather turns very bad. [5 September. SI article, p 82, top of left column].
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 5.
The third, fourth and fifth caribou were shot on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September respectively, all as documented on Moffatt’s journal.
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of these events.
As noted also above, the SI editor omitted mention of the caribou shot on 5 August, also documented in Moffatt’s journal.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 6.
Moffatt’s journal documents that a plethora of other food was obtained from the land: many ptarmigan, many fish (three species), blueberries and mushrooms (the latter two only earlier in the period).
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of this abundance.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

A general question.
Was the Sports Illustrated editor in such unseemly haste to vilify Moffatt that s/he failed to read
either Moffatt’s journal
or her/his own article?

Assertion 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor.
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, 16-17 August, bottom of the right column, p 76.]

Response to “provisions dwindle”.
Yes, provisions dwindle as they are consumed.
But, as documented later in the Sports Illustrated article itself, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache, on 7 September.
…saw red gas cans…24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Moffatt journal excerpt; Sports Illustrated, 7 September, bottom of the left column on p 82]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 1 to “game grows scarce”.
As noted also above, the SI editor mentioned the shooting of the second caribou on 11 August, but omitted mention of the other four caribou shootings (those of 5 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September), all documented in Moffatt’s journal.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 2 to “game grows scarce”.
The SI editor’s sole mentions of the many ptarmigan consumed in the period:
1. Ptarmigan plentiful here… [SI article, top of the right column on p 80, 21 August]
2. the grizzly flushed three ptarmigan as he ran [SI article, bottom of the left column on p 82, 6 September].
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 3 to “game grows scarce”.
I don’t know whether fish qualify as game, but surely they count as food.
As documented above, Moffatt’s journal documents the catching of many fish in the period.
The SI editor’s only mentions of that bounty.
1. a two-pound grayling per man [SI article, middle of the left column on p 75, 26 July].
2. Moffatt caught a 12-lb lake trout. [SI article, bottom of right column on p 80, 24 August]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response to “In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance”.
The fatal rapids were run without a scout because J B Tyrrell had advised Moffatt that they were not dangerous. And JBT’s advice had proved reliable for the previous 11 weeks of the trip; in particular, the only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in those where Moffatt died.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Concluding remarks regarding the Sports Illustrated article.
1. Given that the SI editor omitted mention of so much evidence favourable to Moffatt, perhaps I am justified in asking the following.
What other evidence does Moffatt’s journal (not fully available to me) contain that is favourable to Moffatt but escaped mention by the SI editor, who had full access to that journal?
2. Opinion.
The SI article is notable both
for its assertions that a shortage of food was in large part responsible for Moffatt’s death, and
for its omissions of evidence that no such shortage existed.

Item 10. Appendix 5b. The food-related assertions of Murphy.

Again, the following assertions were made in what was alleged to be a review of Grinnell’s book.

Murphy assertion 1.
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Murphy assertion 2.
Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit.
Source for both assertions.
Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11.
http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html

Response.
I point out to Murphy the following passages from Grinnell’s book (the very subject of his review), starting from 5 August.
Passage 1.
Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Passage 2.
Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 3.
…picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Passage 4.
…we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 5.
Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 6.
One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 7.
I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 8.
Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Passage 9.
… I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Passage 10.
…we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [p 158]
Passage 11.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [pp 180 & 181].

Summary.
I remind Murphy
first that all these passages appear in Grinnell’s book, and
second that Murphy’s assertions
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit.
were made in what was asserted by him to be a review of Grinnell’s book.

The question.
Did Murphy read Grinnell’s book, the very subject of his review?

Item 11. The food-related assertions of Kingsley.

Kingsley’s food-related sources, in order of importance.
Grinnell’s book (1996).
The Sports Illustrated article (1959).
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (May 2012).

Reminder of some evidence of Grinnell’s book (Kingsley’s primary source).
Passage 1.
Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Passage 2.
Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 3.
…picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Passage 4.
…we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 5.
Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 6.
One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 7.
I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 8. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Passage 9.
… I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Passage 10.
…we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries. [p 158]
Passage 11.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [7 September; pp 180 & 181].

The related evidence (not available to Kingsley) of participant LeFavour.
13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. LeFavour article, 1955]
14 September.
At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party added to the above 20 lb of lake trout. [LeFavour article; confirmed by participant Lanouette in private correspondence]

Kingsley assertion 1.
Version 1. After the first two weeks, the crew grew hungry before, during and after every meal. [Up Here, upper right column on p 90].
Version 2. As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during and after every meal. Hunting kept the party fed through August as supplies ran down. [Lake, p 13].
Response.
An admission on my part regarding the second version:
Given that hunting kept the party fed, I don’t understand how it was possible for the the men to grow hungry before, during and after each meal.

Kingsley assertion 2.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Up Here heading, left column on p 88].
Response 1.
As evinced by his correspondence with J B Tyrrell, Moffatt had believed that the party could live off the initial supply of provisions for the entire 11 weeks or so. That is, Moffatt did the very opposite of envisioning a land of plenty.
Response 2.
Nevertheless, the Moffatt party found the land to be one of plenty in the crucial seven weeks before his death.
Summary. Had Moffatt indeed envisioned a land of plenty, he would have been plenty right.
Opinion regarding the assertion.
A nice turn of phrase, but plenty wrong with respect to the evidence.

Kingsley assertion 3.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley book, middle of p 188; also Up Here, lower right column on p 90].
Response 1.
Let me quote but one item from Grinnell’s book, Kingsley’s primary source:
Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Response 2.
Begging the reader’s patience, I quote again the evidence of LeFavour for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death. …we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting.

The question.
Did Kingsley read Grinnell’s book?

A request.
I ask that the reader assess these three assertions of Kingsley in the light of the evidence available to Kingsley.

Item 12. Summary of the food-related evidence for the period from 5 August to 14 September.

Reminder. This period covers the crucial seven weeks between the shooting of the first caribou and Moffatt’s death.
1. Food from the land. Five caribou were shot (the last on 5 September), many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, many ptarmigan were killed, and many mushrooms and blueberries were harvested (these last two only early in the period).
2. Provisions. On 7 September, a major resupply was obtained from the cache.
3. On three documented occasions in that period, the participants were grossly overfed.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
4. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party already had so much food on board that it had no more need to hunt. And, for good measure, it caught 20 lb of lake trout before proceeding downstream.
5. Nevertheless, the Sports Illustrated editor, Murphy and Kingsley asserted
first that food was very short in those seven weeks, and
second that such shortage was a major contributing factor to Moffatt’s death.
Conclusions.
Not one food-related assertion made over those 55 years (1959 to 2014) is encumbered by a basis in evidence. That is, the actual food supply in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death bears no resemblance to that represented by the Sports Illustrated editor, Murphy and Kingsley.
The cause of Moffatt’s death is identified in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Item 13. Sub-Appendix 6. Food in the period from 15 September to arrival in Baker Lake on 24 September.

Reminder.
Before the fatal rapids were run on 14 September, the party had enough food on board to see it through to Baker Lake. To be explicit, there was no more need to hunt, or to fish or to forage.
Summary.
Most food (most provisions, the remains of the caribous, and the 20-lb lake trout caught at lunch that day) was lost in the rapids. Also lost were both rifles and the .22 (these were the main means to acquire food from the land, but perhaps the survivors would have lacked time to hunt), and the stove, and all dishes, pots and pans.
The party had to make do with the little that remained; fortunately, that included fishing gear (one rod and one lure).

The evidence of Pessl.
14-16 September.
We had lost our leader, our mentor; both rifles, all our cooking equipment and most of our food, but we had a plan. [Pessl, p 133]
17 September.
Our food consists of some cans of meat which were salvaged, a quantity of wet oats and cornmeal, some dehydrated veggies, and, of course, fish (we were lucky to have saved one casting rod). Breakfast then generally involves a mixture of wet oats, fish and some milk powder cooked in a sort of pasty stew. The rest of the meals are much the same, although lunches are the usual fare of hardtack, etc, (these items having survived in Pete’s canoe). Dinner is usually a repeat of breakfast, with perhaps a chunk of bacon boiled in the stew. We are using large veggie cans to cook in and are eating out of tobacco tins and using knives and sticks as utensils. We are extremely lucky to have been able to improvise in this way, … . The food is all paste, horrible looking, and probably the most welcome dishes these five have ever had. [Pessl, pp 133&134].
18 and 19 September.
For these days, which were spent portaging eight miles from the NE arm of Marjorie Lake (on the Dubawnt River) to the south shore of Aberdeen Lake (on the Thelon River), Pessl records nothing worth mentioning regarding food.
20 September.
The party encountered an Inuit family. Pessl records little regarding food, except …traded knives for tobacco; gave them chocolate bars and dehydrated vegetables… [Pessl, p 138]
21 September.
We just finished our bad-weather breakfast of one hardtack with a spoonful of jam … . Just as we were finishing a cold dinner of a chunk of so-called canned ham and a few apricots in our tents, we were hailed from outside by our Eskimo friend [Alec] of yesterday. “Come, my canoe, tea.” …Soon, Alec came back with a huge kettle of caribou chunks. Meat and wonderful stewing broth after all these days of lean meals! It was marvelous. We stood around chewing on the chunks, drinking teas and talking with smiles and gestures. [Pessl, p 139].
23 September.
Dispatch of our carefully hoarded food supply was the highlight of the day. Breakfast began with two tins full of cornmeal instead of just one, one can of fish/roast beef/mashed potato glop and a large pot of tea. Even with our scanty larder we seem to have come up with a surplus. Lunch saw two extra hardtacks and a few extra hardtacks and a few extra spoonfuls of jam . . . great stuff. Dinner continued with spinach, canned beef glop and a batch of sweet cocoa. For the second time since the 14th, we go to bed with full bellies. [Pessl, pp 141&142].
24 September (arrival in Baler Lake).
Our final lunch enroute to Baker Lake: a moldy hardtack slathered with curry paste. Yum! [Lanouette, private correspondence].
Comments.
1. I was struck by the party’s decision not to ask the Inuit party for food.
2. In addition to the above, Pessl [pp 162&163] provides a most frank and informative discussion of both food and equipment.

Conclusion.
The survivors were hungry most of the time until the chance encounter with an Inuit family shortly before arrival in Baker Lake.
But, even before that encounter, the food deficiency was never life-threatening, the party was never close to starvation.
Even in those dire circumstances, there was never a lack of food as alleged by Murphy.

Summary.

In those crucial seven weeks between 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) and 14 September (Moffatt’s death), five caribou were shot, many ptarmigan were obtained, many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (the latter two only earlier).
As well, a major resupply of provisions was acquired from the cache (this on 7 September).
Bellies were not full on occasion, but food was never uncomfortably short. Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.

One last time, I provide the assertions of Moffatt’s defamers.
Food was becoming the question now. [Sports Illustrated editor].
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated editor].
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. [Murphy].
Slightly giddy from lack of food… [Murphy].
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal. [Kingsley].
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Kingsley].
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley]

Conclusions.

Given that food (both from the land and from provisions) was abundant on the whole in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, not one of these seven assertions survives confrontation with the evidence available to his accusers even at the time: Moffatt’s journal (in the case of the Sports Illustrated editor) and Grinnell’s book (in the case of Murphy and Kingsley).
The evidence provided later by the other four participants (Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl) confirms and extends the evidence of Moffatt and Grinnell.
Arthur Moffatt died not from a lack/shortage of food, but rather because he had been misled by the advice of J B Tyrrell, advice that had proved reliable for the previous 11 weeks of the trip (otherwise he would not have followed it on 14 September), but which failed him that day.
Reference. Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
Copyright to excerpts from the journal of Arthur Moffatt remains with the Moffatt family.
Copyright to the remainder of the Appendix belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Edition of 16 January 2018.

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