Appendix 4. Experience.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 4. Experience.

Arthur Moffatt did not die due to lack of experience or poor leadership (a group of novices…an inexperienced party…indifferent leadership…poor leadership skills or poor planning) as asserted by James Murphy, Charlie Mahler and Bob Thum.
The cause of his death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The opinion of James Murphy.

Grinnell and four other young men were led on a poorly planned and lackadaisically executed canoe trip by Arthur Moffatt… I…would recommend this one as an excellent example of how not to conduct a canoe trip. [Murphy’s review (1996) of Grinnell’s book].
Response. Murphy’s accusation is only peripherally related to the matter of experience and so I omit further discussion of it, here.

The opinions of Charlie Mahler and Bob Thum.

Source. The following articles (likely identical) of 2005.
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf
http://www.canoeing.com/advanced/feature/deadmansriver.htm
Comment. I say that the accusations are opinions because neither Mahler nor Thum provided supporting evidence.
The opinion of Mahler.
…the Moffatt story unfolds as a tragedy just waiting to happen – indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party, bad chemistry, a plodding pace, and an apparent apathy to the season closing on them…
Thum, opinion 1.
Those guys had no business being up there. … They were a bunch of guys who didn’t know what they were doing and led by a guy with poor leadership skills. They fooled around and did a lot of crap and it finally came back to bite them. This was simply a group of novices led by someone more interested in film than travel, which squandered its time and resources and then made some tragic mistakes.
Thum 2, opinion 2.
Moffatt … had some experience, but not much.
Comment. One might have expected Thum, a lawyer, to provide evidence in support of these two assertions.

Item 1.

Thum.
… a group of novices and Moffatt … had some experience, but not much.
Mahler.
…an inexperienced party…
Comment 1.
As in nearly all the accusatory literature, no supporting evidence was provided, no source was mentioned.
Comment 2.
As I document in Ancillary 1. Accusations, Thum and Pessl had corresponded prior to the former’s 1966 Dubawnt trip; perhaps then much of the evidence provided below was known to Thum at the time.
Response 1.
…Art Moffatt was already an accomplished adventurer when other boys were still tying their first Boy Scout knots. At 17, he embarked on a major expedition, 700 miles down the Albany River from Sioux Lookout in western Ontario to the lower part of Hudson Bay. Incredibly, he made the trip alone. …
From 1950 to 1954, he led yearly trips down the Albany, studying the region’s geology and wild life as he went.
[Sports Illustrated, p 71, left column].
Response 2.
As well, Moffatt had paddled the Allagash, Androscoggin and Penobscot Rivers in Maine.
I suggest that he must have known what he was doing to make such demanding trips.
Response 3.
Pessl had made two Albany trips with Moffatt and other trips as well. Franck had tripped with Moffatt on the Albany. Grinnell had paddled but not tripped. Lanouette and LeFavour were young outdoorsmen but with no canoeing experience. [Pessl, p XIV].
Response 4. The matter of Grinnell’s experience.
The literature is contradictory and so I provide the following clarification.
(a) On page 14 of a follow-up to Kesselheim’s C&K article of 2012, Grinnell asserted the following. I was not the least experienced canoeist, but the most experienced.
That claim was denied by Pessl, in a later follow-up to the same article.
(b) In his book, Grinnell comments as follows regarding his experience.
But Joe Lanouette and Bruce LeFavour, my fellow bowmen and novices like me… [p 6].
But we novices in the bows… [p 33].
We three bowmen had never been on a long-distance canoe trip. [p 53].
Conclusion. Grinnell’s statement that he was most experienced paddler in the Moffatt party is at variance with his own evidence. Perhaps he was baiting Pessl.
Summary. The Thum-Mahler assertions
… a group of novices, and
Moffatt … had some experience, but not much, and
an inexperienced party
have no basis in evidence.

Item 2.

… didn’t know what they were doing … [Thum]
Again, the accusation is an opinion only.
Summary.
Early on 14 September (after 11 weeks on the water), the party had gotten through many rapids on the Dubawnt (some highly dangerous) without a wrap, without a dump, without serious damage to the boat.
Damage.
Results of an incomplete search.
I heard the stem crack…I heard the ribs cracking… [Grinnell, p 75].
A hole in one canoe [Grinnell, p 126].
There was a small dent in the bow…the real damage as from the rock in the tail. The inner planking had a cracked place and the canvas was scraped. [Franck, in Pessl, 26 July, p 53.]
…struck a rock…a brief check showed no water… [Pessl, 6 September, p 122].
…splintered a plank…[Pessl, 6 September, p 122].
…cracked a rib pretty badly [Pessl, 6 September, p 123].
…a little piece of planking knocked in, but the ribs weren’t broken and the canvas wasn’t cut; no serious damage. [Franck, in Pessl, 6 September, p 124].
Summary of the damage. … we had some scrapes / and dings … but no serious damage nor significant mishaps. [Pessl, private correspondence].
Swamps.
There were two swamps, neither in rapids. [Grinnell, pp 79 & 80. Pessl, p 168, 26 August].
Wraps.
None.
Dumps.
The only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died.
Summary.
Thum’s assertion … didn’t know what they were doing … has no basis in evidence.
I repeat that the Moffatt party descended a dangerous river without serious incident, even a single dump, until the afternoon of 14 September.
To put the matter gently, evidence that I provide elsewhere in this document demonstrates that the tragedy did not result from inexperience (as asserted by Thum); the cause was rather incorrect information from a source (J B Tyrrell) that had proved trustworthy for weeks previously.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
To put the matter bluntly, Thum was just mouthing off, building himself up in his own mind, at the expense of the reputation of a dead man.

Item 3.

…poor leadership skills…. [Thum]
Responses.
1. The accusation of poor leadership is an assertion only, a gratuitous judgment, one made without supporting evidence.
2. The burden of proof would appear to lie with the defamer. Evidently, Thum considers an assertion by himself to be proof; others might disagree.
3. As every paddler knows (I had thought), there are several ways to lead a party. Indeed, some groups have no leader; they work by consensus (sometimes not achieved). Some paddlers demand to be the boss, others resent being bossed. And a guided party is very different from a group of friends. As I see matters, the Moffatt party lay somewhere in the middle. Perhaps Moffatt could have been more assertive, but perhaps the others would have objected had he been. Who is to say, especially someone, like Thum, who was not there? In short, there is no one answer regarding which leadership style is best. Thum should have known that.
4. To me, the key question is whether/how the leadership affected the tragedy.
In fairness, I record Pessl’s comment
…the tragic disregard for time, distance, and season of the Moffatt leadership (and I include myself in that category)… [Pessl book, p 173 (2014).]
Response. I believe that Pessl was being overly self-critical here, as he was in other comments on nearby pages.
5. My reading of the literature leads me to conclude that the leadership was not poor at any time.
6. The evidence of Appendices 8 and 9 is that the cause of the tragedy had nothing to do with leadership, or experience, or planning, or blah, or blah, or blah. The cause was rather incorrect information from a source (J B Tyrrell) that had proved trustworthy for the entire trip up to the afternoon of 14 September 1955.
Appendix 8. Other rapids and
Appendix 9. Fatal rapids.

Summary.

Moffatt’s defamers Thum and Mahler asserted only that lack of experience was a cause of his death. But they provided no supporting evidence and so assertions are at best only opinions.
Certainly some participants were poorly experienced initially, but they acquired plenty of that in the 11 weeks on the river before Moffatt died. But, after 11 weeks in difficult conditions, likely all members of the party were sufficiently experienced by the afternoon of 14 September.
The challenge.
Let Thum and Mahler to explain why the only dumps of the entire trip on a dangerous river occurred in the fatal rapids. Let not hold our breaths waiting for either to respond.

Conclusion.

The assertions of Thum and Mahler, namely that lack of experience and poor leadership played a role in Moffatt’s death, have no basis in any evidence known to me.
The cause of the tragedy is described in Appendix 9. Fatal rapids.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 2. Holidays.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 5. Pace and Weather

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 5. Pace and Weather.

Summary.

Arthur Moffatt did not die due to a plodding pace early in the trip, forcing him later to race in desperate haste…against winter and so to take the ultimate chance in the fatal rapids.
The cause of his death is documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The assertions.

Comment. I call the following items assertions because in no case was any evidence provided in support of them.
Assertion 1.
Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated article, bottom of the right column, p 76].
Assertion 2.
Arthur Moffat, a seasoned traveller, took a group of young men on a slow and undisciplined trip down the Dubawnt. [2000]
Assertion 3.
Their lack of schedule meant they took risks to catchup on time and Moffatt died of exposure after they dumped in a large rapid they did not scout. [2000]
Assertion 4.
They were a bunch of guys who didn’t know what they were doing and led by a guy with poor leadership skills. They fooled around and did a lot of crap and it finally came back to bite them. This was simply a group of novices led by someone more interested in film than travel, which squandered its time and resources and then made some tragic mistakes. [2005]
Assertion 5.
…the Moffatt story unfolds as a tragedy just waiting to happen – indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party, bad chemistry, a plodding pace, and an apparent apathy toward the season closing on them… [2005]
Assertion 6.
For half of August, they voted to take “holidays” and went nowhere. [2012]
Assertion 7.
The men talked less and took more risks…all three boats plunged over two sets of waterfalls the paddlers hadn’t bothered to scout…. [2014]

Responses to side issues.
I refer the reader to the following Appendices for the evidence regarding the corresponding parts of the assertions of Moffatt’s accusers.
Appendix 4. Experience addresses the assertions poor leadership skills, indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party and the like.
Appendix 6. Food addresses the assertion provisions dwindle, game grows scarce and the like.
Appendix 7. Schedule addresses the assertions Already nine days behind schedule, lack of schedule and the like.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids addresses the assertion take an ultimate chance (which refers to the running of the fatal rapids without a scout) and the like.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general provides more general evidence regarding the Moffatt party’s approach to running rapids.

The pace/weather/schedule/holidays accusations.

The essence of the accusations is that the party travelled too slowly early,
in part out of laziness (that is, it took too many holidays),
in part because it lacked a schedule,
and who knows what else went on in the minds of Moffatt’s accusers.
Later, in desperate haste to make up time, the Moffatt party
raced against winter (perhaps even freeze-up),
and so it took risks to catchup on time,
and one of those risks resulted in the death of Arthur Moffatt.
The two lesser accusations are addressed in the following Appendices.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
The major accusations, those regarding pace and weather are addressed separately.
Part 1 (Pace) provides the pace-related evidence in the four legs of the trip. And so it addresses accusations that the early pace was too slow, forcing the party to take the ultimate chance by running the fatal rapids without a scout.
Part 2 (Weather) documents the weather experienced by the Tyrrell-Tyrrell party of 1893, as evinced by the books of J B Tyrrell and J W Tyrrell. It provides also a few pieces of weather evidence known to Moffatt from the 1893 trip.

Pace.

The evidence regarding the pace.
The trip breaks naturally into four legs.

Leg 1. 3 July to 16 July.
The Moffatt party started from Black lake (on the Fond du Lac River), then ascended the Chipman River (with its brutal portages), reaching the south end of Selwyn Lake (from which the basin of the Dubawnt River was reached by portage) on 16 July [Pessl, p 41]; part of the portage across the height of land was completed that day.
Comment of the Sports illustrated editor.
In the days that immediately followed, the expedition made good time despite erratic winds and rain, the back-stiffening portages and missed routes. The maps the party used – they were the only ones in existence – were never precise enough, and there were many times when, after long wearying hours of working up a stream, the canoeists would have to admit their mistake and painfully retreat. [SI article, bottom of right column, p 73]
Response.
The maps could be the government-issue maps of the time (not available to me) or (more likely?) J B Tyrrell’s maps. The latter for the reach from Black Lake to Selwyn Lake are the following.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=1
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=2

The evidence of Grinnell’s book.
1. The long portage up to the Height of Land dragged on for weeks. [p 19]
2. After climbing up the rapids of the Chipman River for nearly a month, we approached the Height of Land. [p 41]
3. The next day [22 July], we completed the portage across the Height of Land. [p 48]
4. For the first month, we had been travelling upstream to the Height of Land… p 73]
Remark. These passages support my conclusion that Grinnell did not keep a journal.
In particular, the height-of-land portage was completed on 17 July [Pessl, p 43] (not on 22 July), and so Leg 1 was completed in 15 days (not nearly a month).
Summary for Leg 1.
The pace was not plodding.
The pace was not undisciplined.
The pace was necessarily slow, but the party nevertheless made good time, considering the difficult circumstances.

Leg 2. 17 July to 3 August.
The party completed the height-of-land portage on 17 July.
By barrens-basher, river-bagger, ego-tripper standards only, slow, plodding and undisciplined are fair comments for this leg. One piece of evidence suffices: Pessl described this leg as a leisurely summer vacation. [p 66, 3 August]
But much of that period was devoted to filming and photographing, the very reasons for making the trip in the first place!
Participant Lanouette speaks to the matter. On sunny days Art and Skip would often be off loping around filming scenery and wild life- why not? That was a major goal of the trip. Incidentally … Art’s film became a feature attraction on a television show called “Bold Journey”. It was repeated several times, to my knowledge. [private correspondence]

Leg 3. 3 August to 14 September.
1. At a group meeting on 3 August, the party decided unanimously to continue to Baker Lake, rather than return to Stony Rapids.
2. In the early part of Leg 3, the pace was not plodding and the trip was neither slow nor undisciplined.
3. In the later part of the same leg, the pace was never desperate, especially on 14 September. In more detail, there was never an OMG-we-gotta-get-outa-here-ASAP decision, as suggested by the Sports Illustrated editor’s gratuitous assertion Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. … In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, p 76, bottom of right column]
Response 1. The passage nine days behind schedule has no basis in any evidence known to me.
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.
Response 2. The SI editor provided no evidence to support her/his assertions races against winter, desperate haste and ultimate chance. Nothing in all the literature that I have read, most noteworthy of all the writings of the trip participants, provides any support for any of the three.
I conclude that none of the three is graced by a basis in any evidence known to me.
4. In fairness, I quote the following: After the initial “halfway” scare of time-distance regarding food supplies…we are slowly drifting back into our previous lethargy. [Pessl, p 84, 13 August]
5. In fairness, the start was unnecessarily delayed some mornings. The result of a less-than-thorough search:
(a) Grinnell book [top of p 68].
(b) Pessl [p 100 (23 August)].
(c) Franck [in Pessl, p 108 (28 August).
(d) Sports Illustrated [top left of p 82, second paragraph (6 September)].
6. The party took to getting up very early, to beat the wind (especially on Dubawnt Lake), as I document in Appendix 7. Schedule.

Leg 4. 14 to 24 September.
After taking two days to recover from Moffatt’s death, the party certainly pushed hard. Too little is documented to say much more. Indeed, what more need be said?

Weather.

Introduction.
One question is whether the Moffatt party had cause to expect the harsh weather that it experienced in early September.
The far more important question is whether the weather had anything to do with the death of Arthur Moffatt.
Given that weather early in the two trips is less relevant to the tragedy, I document only that met by the Tyrrell party in the lower reach, from Dubawnt Lake to Baker Lake inclusive.
Today, we are told (I believe) that recreational paddlers should exit the barrens early; perhaps incorrectly, I recall advice (I can’t find the source, if ever it existed) to be gone by mid-August.
Even Eric Morse and party ventured into the barrens only in 1959, four years after the Moffatt party.
Moffatt’s sources regarding the weather.
I remind the reader that Moffatt had access to both J B Tyrrell’s
book, which I was able to access, and also to his
journal (aka his report), which I was unable to access.
But I was not able to access the full Moffatt–Tyrrell correspondence, in particular what (if anything) JBT told Moffatt about the weather.
As well, Moffatt had accessed J W Tyrrell’s book.
I possess some evidence (known to Moffatt) regarding the weather experienced in the 1893 trip, as I describe later.
I am able to assess, and I do, whether the weather experienced by the Moffatt party differed significantly from that experienced in 1893. The latter evidence from my inspection of both JBT’s book (which provides little weather-related material) and that of JWT (which provides lots).
Preview.
I provide the following items.
1. Some J B Tyrrell evidence known to Moffatt.
2. The evidence of J B Tyrrell’s book.
3. The evidence of J W Tyrrell’s book.
4. Analysis of the evidence.
5. Summary.
6. Conclusions.

1. Some Joseph Burr Tyrrell evidence known to Moffatt,
as documented in the writings of the participants.
A cursory search found only two items.
Item 1.
Tyrrell…had constant rain and cold, also patches of old snow everywhere. But for us it has been very pleasant… [Moffatt, 16 August, top left of p 80 of the SI article].
Item 2.
Throughout Tyrrell’s journal, he speaks of seeing patches of snow well to the south and he suffered his first snow storm on August 10. [Pessl, 28 August, bottom of p 107].
Comment.
J B Tyrrell’s journal (available to Moffatt but not to me) is distinct from J B Tyrrell’s book (which both Moffatt and I were able to access).
Observation.
The weather experienced by the Moffatt party on Dubawnt Lake was milder than that experienced by the Tyrrell party 62 years earlier. In particular, the former saw no snow remaining from the previous winter. [Pessl book, pp 97-110]

The weather-related evidence of Joseph Burr Tyrrell’s book.
1. Dubawnt Lake. Eleven days were spent on the lake during five of which we were unable to move on account of heavy storms. [p 56F].
Tyrrell’s days for Dubawnt Lake were 7-17 August 1893, Moffatt’s 21-27 August 1955 [Pessl, p 129]. In partial explanation of the longer time taken by the Tyrrell party, I note first that it was ice-bound as well as storm-bound, second that it had to find the exit (a difficulty compounded by the ice).
2. Dubawnt Lake. On the shore of this and the adjoining islands the bases of the cliffs were often covered with an accumulation of old snow and ice. [p 59F]
3. Wharton Lake. The greater part of two days was spent in this lake, struggling against head winds, …looking for its outlet… [p 65F].
Comment. The date was before 23 August, when the Tyrrell party completed the portage between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake. [p 66F]
4. Aberdeen Lake. On 28 August, Tyrrell recorded the temperature as 40 F [p 69 F].
5. Below Schultz Lake (date not provided). A heavy storm, with rain, now set in… The storm continued to rage for three days, during which time we were unable to launch our canoes. [p 72F]
6. The Tyrrell party reached the west end of Baker Lake on 2 September; on 6 September, he recorded the water temperature of the lake as 41 F. [p 74F]
Observations.
J B Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the following.
Moffatt item 1, in part. constant rain and cold, also patches of old snow everywhere….
Moffatt item 2, in part. …Tyrrell’s journal, he speaks of seeing patches of snow well to the south….
And so one sees that Moffatt had possessed Tyrrell information beyond that provided in Tyrrell’s book. I decided to take Tyrrell’s journal (in part 2) literally; I have been unable to access the Tyrrell part of the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.

The weather-related evidence of James Williams Tyrrell’s book.
Note. I possess no evidence that Moffatt had access to any of the following.
7 August. …we broke camp early…down the river toward the frozen lake. … By this time, however, the wind was again blowing strongly, and a cold heavy rain setting in drove us to camp. During the night the wind increased to a gale, accompanied by torrents of rain… For three days the storm continued. On the fourth it turned to snow and the temperature went down to freezing—rather inhospitable weather for the 10th of August. … [p 95 & 96]
As we proceeded across the country we found the ground frozen and all the little ponds covered by new ice…it was a point of discussion with us whether the season of this land was spring or autumn. … The morning of the 12th broke cold and dreary. New ice everywhere covered the ponds… [p 97] …
On the morning of the 16th we were early aroused by the voice of a howling gale and the pelting rain… This storm continued with fury for two days…wet and shivering in the tents… On the afternoon of the second day, the rain ceased and the wind fell sufficiently to enable us to faintly hear to the north the roar of heavy rapids. [pp 102&103] Comment. These were the exit rapids from Dubawnt Lake.
On Aberdeen Lake, the party enjoyed fine weather—something unusual in the Barren Land districts for two days. [p 113]
On the morning of the 29th, enshrouded by a dense fog, we entered the river…we entered the west end of Schultz Lake… We were evidently in for a blow… No sooner had we reached shore than the storm burst upon us, but once in the river channel we were able to obtain shelter from the force of the gale if not from the pelting rain. [p 115]
After reloading the canoes…the wind beating the cold rain and the spray from the crest of the waves in our faces…our soaked and shivering party sought comfort… By the morning of the first of September, the rain had ceased and the clouds partially cleared away. The gale, however, continued to blow so fiercely as to frequently whip clouds of spray off the surface of the river, so that we were quite unable to travel in canoes. [pp 116 & 117].
The Tyrrell-Tyrrell party reached the encampment now known as Baker Lake on 2 September.

Analysis of the evidence.
1. The Moffatt party could have reasonably expected something like the foul weather that it experienced on 1, 2 and 3 September, at some time.
2. Before 9 September 1955, even apart from the matter of the ice on Dubawnt Lake, the weather appears to have been kinder to the Moffatt party than it was to the Tyrrell party by 9 September 1893.
3. At no time did the Tyrrell party of 1893 experience anything like the storm that struck Moffatt’s party 62 years later, on 9 September 1955. That storm (which destroyed one of the three tents) is described by both Grinnell [p 193] and Pessl [p 129].
Comment. The Sports Illustrated article [top right of p 82] reported that the winds of the storm of 9 September destroyed the anemometer in Churchill. That statement was repeated by Grinnell [p 193], whose source must have been the SI article.
I express elsewhere my opinion of the veracity of the SI editor and that of Grinnell, but I see no reason to doubt that the anemometer was destroyed.

Summary.

The Moffatt party knew there to be no possibility of freeze-up until well into October, that is, well after its scheduled arrival in Baker Lake.
In the morning of 14 September, the party was on track to reach Baker Lake within a week or so of the hoped-for arrival date of 15 September. Indeed, despite the tragedy, it arrived on 24 September, two days later than the deadline (set by Moffatt) before an air search was begun.
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.

Conclusions.

Pace.
Contrary to the unevinced statements of Moffatt’s accusers, the early pace played no role in his death, for he exercised due caution even on the day that he died
Weather.
The Sports illustrated editor’s the Moffatt party races against winter…In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance is at best an exaggeration, given that freeze-up would not occur until well into October.
Reference for both items. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Appendix. Earlier barrenlands trips.

1. Samuel Hearne, 1771.
As best I know, his was the earliest lengthy trip made by Europeans.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Hearne
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/samuel-hearne/
http://www.hbcheritage.ca/people/explorers/samuel-hearne
McGoogan, Ken. Ancient Mariner: The Arctic Adventures of Samuel Hearne, the Sailor Who Inspired Coleridge’s Masterpiece.
2. Other early barrenlands trips are documented in the thread
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=125&t=46158
3. Oberholtzer-Magee, 1912.
The party reached the north end of Nueltin Lake on or about 30 August, then continued down the Thlewiaza River to Hudson Bay and points south.
I doubt very much that Moffatt had access to the record of this trip. One fine day, out of curiosity, I might compare the weather experienced by the two parties.
http://www.wilderness.net/NWPS/Oberholtzer

Celebrating the Oberholtzer-Magee 1912 Journey to Hudson Bay


Source not consulted. Bound for the Barrens: Journal of the Ernest Oberholtzer & Bill Magee 2,000-mile Canoe Voyage to Hudson Bay in 1912. Edited by Jean Sanford Replinger with Nancy Paddock.
http://arcticjournal.ca/bound-for-the-barrens/ , etc.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Appendix 6. Food.

Appendix 6. Food.

Preliminaries.

I (perhaps most of all) regret the length of this Appendix. But I felt it necessary to provide all the food-related evidence, as I know it and am able to report it, so that readers may judge the food situation for themselves.
Thanks to Fred “Skip” Pessl, Ed “Joe” Lanouette and his daughter Elizabeth Emge, and Bruce LeFavour for assistance in compiling the following. But I am solely responsible for every error.
I distinguish between
provisions, aka staples and supplies (oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes, macaroni, sugar, salt, powdered milk, and cornmeal), and
food from the land (caribou, fish, ptarmigan, mushrooms and blueberries).
Not all accusers make the distinction, referring only to food. The distinction is significant, for provisions could of course not be replaced (except from the cache, as was done on 7 September). And, it seems necessary to state, food from the land was unpredictable.
With respect to the only previous non-native trip on the Dubawnt River, Moffatt possessed the food-related evidence of J B Tyrrell’s book, J B Tyrrell’s journal (aka his report), correspondence with J B Tyrrell, and J W Tyrrell’s book.
Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Given multiple assertions that a shortage of food (indeed a lack of food) was in large part responsible for Moffatt’s death, the important period is the seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (the day of the tragedy). The evidence of the participants for that period is provided in the various parts of Sub-Appendix 4.

Participant publications used in the food-related accusatory literature.
The Sports Illustrated article (1959), which contains edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal.
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Grinnell’s book (1996 edition; the two later editions appear not to have influenced that literature).

Participant publications not used in the food-related accusatory literature.
For various reasons, none of the following items was mentioned in that literature prior to my efforts.
1. LeFavour’s four articles (1955). None is easily available. The most important one of these (the third, which deals with the events of 13 and 14 September) became available to me only because LeFavour provided a copy of it.
2. Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012) is by no means a participant publication, but it contains some Pessl comments, plus the following Kesselheim comments: Food almost gone… Hunger and the closing season weighed heavily on the team… half-starved men…
As best I know, these items did not influence the food-related literature more generally, in particular the publications of Kingsley (who had accessed Kesselheim’s article).
3. Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) and Pessl’s book (2014, which contains also the evidence of participant Franck). Both appeared too late to influence that literature.

Summary.
The entire evidentiary basis of the food-related accusatory literature (indeed, of the entire accusatory literature) lies in only three items:
the edited excerpts of Moffatt’s journal (provided in the SI article),
Grinnell’s article and
Grinnell’s book.
If I may get ahead of the story, the material provided in all three items deserves thought before being accepted.

The assertions.
In the matter of the supply of food, the assertions are the following.
Food was becoming the question now. [Sports Illustrated editor].
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated editor].
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. [Murphy].
Slightly giddy from lack of food… [Murphy].
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal. [Kingsley].
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Kingsley].
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley]
Comment. I thought it worthy of explicit mention that Arthur Moffatt is unable to respond to these assertions made of him. By chance, that responsibility has fallen to me.

Directory.

Item 0. Introduction.
Item 1. My sources regarding the food supply.
Item 2. Sub-Appendix 1. Preparations.
Item 3. Sub-Appendix 2. Fat and other food with high caloric content.
Item 4. Sub-Appendix 3. Food in the period from the start to 5 August.
Item 5. Introduction to the evidence of the participants regarding the food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September.
Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. The evidence of Moffatt for that period.
Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. The evidence of Grinnell for the same period.
Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. Ditto for the evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.
Item 9. Sub-Appendix 5a. The food-related assertions of the SI editor.
Item 10. Sub-Appendix 5b. The food-related assertions of Murphy.
Item 11. Sub-Appendix 5c. The food-related assertions of Kingsley.
Item 12. Summary of the food-related evidence for the period from 5 August to 14 September.
Item 13. Sub-Appendix 6. Food in the period from 15 September to 24 September.

Item 0. Introduction.

Planning.
Moffatt had assumed that the party could live entirely off the initial supply of provisions, that it would be necessary to obtain no food from the land.
Start to 5 August.
Moffatt had seriously underestimated the appetites of his five young companions, and so food was uncomfortably short in the period from the start to 5 August (when the first caribou was shot). Even in this period though, no member of the party was anywhere close to starvation.
5 August to 14 September.
The land was one of plenty in those crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death.
Five caribou were shot (the first on 5 August, the last on 5 September), many ptarmigan were killed, many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (these two only earlier in the period).
As well, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache, this on 7 September.
Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
Most important of all is the evidence of participant LeFavour for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour, The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).]
And 20 lb of lake trout were caught at the lunch stop on 14 September. [LeFavour article; confirmed in private correspondence from Lanouette].
Perhaps the reader is ready to assess, in the light of these evidences alone, the assertions
Food was becoming the question now.
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance.
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food…
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past.

Item 1. My sources regarding the supply of food.

Source 1. Moffatt’s journal.
The item is not publicly available and my best efforts failed to obtain full access to it.
Passages alleged to excerpts from it were provided in the Sports Illustrated article. Some passages were substantially edited; the prime example is the editor’s redaction of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last entry, that for 13 September. And other passages appear to have been picked in order to make points detrimental to Moffatt.
Other excerpts were provided in Grinnell’s book (1996), none in his article (1988).
Too late to influence the accusatory literature, participant Pessl provided excerpts in his book (2014).
As well, Pessl provided me with excerpts in private correspondence.
Source 2. The article (1988) of participant Grinnell.
Known to have been accessed by Kingsley.
Source 3. Grinnell’s book (1996).
Aside. As best I know, the later editions (those of 2005 and 2010) did not influence the Moffatt literature.
(a) The book is the only source used by Murphy and MacDonald in their articles of 1996; it bears explicit mention that these articles were billed as reviews of the book.
(b) Kingsley’s primary source.
Source 4. Pessl’s remarks in Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012).
Only Kingsley is known to have accessed the article. The corresponding evidence: Pessl’s People revealed themselves as imperfect… [Canoe&Kayak, top of the left column on p 52]. Reference. Kingsley, Paddle North, top of p 202.
Source 5.
Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013).
Not known to have influenced the accusatory literature, one assumes because it appeared so late.
Source 6.
Pessl’s book (2014), which contains excerpts from both his journal and that of Franck, plus other material. Not known to have influenced the accusatory literature, because it appeared so late.
Source 7.
Private correspondence
with Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.
Opinion 1.
I have learned to place full confidence in the following.
1. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal, but only as provided by Pessl in private correspondence; again, I place no trust in the versions provided in the SI article.
3. The evidence of Pessl (his book and private correspondence).
4. The evidence of Franck (in Pessl’s book).
5. The evidence of Lanouette (the SI condensation of his journal for 14 September, and private correspondence).
6. The evidence of LeFavour (his article of 1955 and private correspondence).
Opinion 2.
I have learned to trust, in the first instance,
no content of the Sports Illustrated article,
no content of Grinnell’s article, and
no content of Grinnell’s book.
The consequence.
Given that these three sources were the only primary sources used in the food-related accusatory literature (indeed, in the entire accusatory literature), it follows that
I place no trust in any of the accusatory literature, in the first instance.

Item 2. Sub-Appendix 1. Preparations.

This Sub-Appendix describes both Moffatt’s planning and also events prior to hitting the water.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954 to J B Tyrrell.
Of great importance also is the fact that we must carry sufficient supplies for the entire trip—the administration of the Northwest Territories will allow us to carry a rifle, but it is only to be used if we are in danger of starvation—which we feel is rather late in the game to begin living off the country. Nevertheless, we are prepared to travel under these conditions.
We shall, of course, attempt to take as many fish as we can, and here again we should appreciate specific information about the kinds of fish we shall encounter, places they may be taken, and methods used in taking them.
[Pessl, private correspondence]
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
Note. The following was written in response to a letter (not available to me) from JBT.
Your suggestion that we will face starvation unless we have good rifles is certainly to the point, and I wish the Administration of the Northwest Territories realised that in forbidding us to use rifles until we are in imminent danger of death they are putting us in a very difficult position. However, if those are the terms on which we may enter the country, we will have to face them or stay home. I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived. [Pessl, private correspondence]
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.

Excerpt from Moffatt’s Prospectus.
…In our journey north we will pass into the hunting and trapping grounds of the Chipewyan Indians and out into the Barren Grounds, beyond the northern limit of the trees. This is the summer range of the vast herds of caribou. The lakes and streams are reported to be full of trout up to 25 pounds in weight. …
Two of the major problems we shall face are food and fire. The greater part of the route is through the treeless tundra, and what fuel there is often too green or wet to burn. We will not be able to pack enough gas to cook two meals a day.
Food may be even more acute. I have a letter from Dr. Tyrrell…He writes: “You will need to have a couple of high-powered rifles so that you can shoot game at long range, otherwise starvation is likely to threaten from early in the trip…”

Reference. Sports Illustrated, p 71 (1959).

Excerpt from the Sports Illustrated article (1959).
The article consists of selections from Moffatt’s journal, plus insertions made by the editor (who remained anonymous). Lacking full access to Moffatt’s journal, I am unable to comment
either on the editor’s reasons for making those selections,
or on whether those selections faithfully reflect the contents of Moffatt’s journal.
For a week the Moffatt party waited. Grinnell, the last man to join the party, arrived at Stony Rapids on June 27 on schedule, but food supplies, which were supposed to accompany him on the Hudson’s Bay Company boat, were left off the manifest. Moffatt canceled the order, took what supplies he could get from the Hudson’s Bay Company post at Stony Rapids and set off by truck over 15 miles of rugged road for the jumping-off place at Black Lake. [SI article, pp 72&73]
Comment 1. As well as food (1,000 lb, much of it in wooden boxes [Pessl]), the party carried Moffatt’s camera box of 86 lb [SI article, bottom of the right column on p 72].
Comment 2. Grinnell actually arrived by air. The requested supply of peanut butter in plastic jars arrived neither on his flight nor on the one two days later.

Excerpt from The New York Times article (1959).
…the explorers had provisions for 80 days. They have been gone 85 days… [Sports Illustrated article, top of p 71].
Comment. With regard to the 80 days, I refer reader to the evidence (provided below) of Grinnell’s book.

Excerpt from Grinnell’s article (1988).
… In addition to oatmeal, we had three pilot biscuits for lunch with a ration of cheese, of jam and of peanut butter. For dinner Moffatt threw two pounds of macaroni into a five gallon pot which he flavoured with a couple of cans of “Spam”, “spork”, corned beef and the like along with a package of dehydrated soup. As a matter of principle, Moffatt believed in boiling everything. After eating the solid stuff, we then got to drink the juices. … After the first month, no food had ever tasted as good as Moffatt’s boiled “glops”. [pp 18&20]

Excerpts from Grinnell’s book (1996).
1. My discharge from the Army was slow in coming…and I did not arrive at Stony Rapids…until the 27th of June, about two weeks later than Art had originally planned to embark. The others had been waiting for me about a week, but we had not headed into the wilderness immediately. …our food had been left off the manifest [of the barge], and Art had had to scrounge three months supply from the Hudson’s Bay Post and from a private trader. He was able to fill the canoes to the gunwales, but the makeshift supplies were heavy; and the only case of peanut butter available was in glass jars. Art preferred unbreakable plastic jars for obvious reasons. He had radioed out to civilization, but the case of peanut butter in plastic jars did not arrive on my flight, nor on the next plane, which arrived two days later; and so, after too many delays, we loaded our ton of food and equipment onto Stony Rapids’ one truck and headed … to Black Lake with our peanut butter in glass jars. [pp 8&9]
Note. Some jars of peanut butter were broken later in the trip.
2. On his previous trips, Moffatt … had discovered how much oatmeal is eaten each day: about three times as much as one would have believed possible. He had multiplied this figure by eighty, added a little extra for emergencies,… Grinnell made similar remarks for lunch and dinner. [p 54].
Response. And so Moffatt had planned a trip of eighty days on the water, I assume starting on 28 June. Well, 80 days after the morning on 28 June gets one to the morning of 16 September. It is then perhaps no accident that Moffatt had informed the RCMP detachment in Baker Lake to expect the party to arrive there on 15 September.

Private correspondence from Lanouette.
Message 1.
Food: Always a hot topic of conversation. Initial supplies were insufficient. Art figured our appetites would double; actually they tripled! Eventually, as my diary makes abundantly clear, food became obsessive with us and at times quite divisive. Our final lunch enroute to Baker Lake: a moldy hardtack slathered with curry paste. Yum!
Comments. The above is lightly edited from the original. I don’t know what to make of the difference between the comments of Grinnell and Lanouette; but perhaps that difference is unworthy of discussion, given the party could not have started out with much more than it did.
Message 2.
… The food we left Stony Rapids with was insufficient for our ballooning appetites. Portions had to be stretched or diluted long before the accident. For one thing our original supplies by barge were delayed, so we had to leave Stony Rapids with locally available supplies. The supplies we had were kept in well-used packsacks we had to scrounge. The sacks were not altogether waterproof, so some foods got wet and deteriorated or spoiled (from weather or waves washing into the heavily laden canoes). … Our heavily laden canoes had very little freeboard and could not take waves of any significance. … We relished all the food we had – even liver, tongue, or half-rotted haunches of caribou, swarming with bot and blackflies. …
Comments. The above is lightly edited. I assume that the group’s food had been shipped in their packsacks; that is why they had to scrounge packsacks (inferior ones) in Stony Rapids.
Message 3.
…even before the accident our initial store-bought supplies were not adequate because:
1. Our appetites exploded.
2. Our canoes initially could barely carry what food we did have.
3. Waves and rain occasionally got into our supplies, sometimes deteriorating them.
4. Weather and filming delays impeded our schedule.

Comments. The above was lightly edited. Please excuse the overlap with messages 2 and 3, but I was reluctant to edit further.
My thanks, and I hope also those of the paddling community as a whole, to Lanouette for this information.

Comments of Luste (1996).
Luste comment 1. The most I have ever carried in my canoes is seven weeks of food. … I don’t think one can carry food for three months. [Grinnell book, p 286].
Interpretation. three months refers to the Moffatt trip, which was planned for 80 days.
Comment. It is perhaps relevant
first that Luste often soloed,
second that the Moffatt party’s boats (18-footers at that) were so heavily loaded initially that they could scarcely stay afloat, especially in the waves on the upstream route to Selwyn Lake.
Luste comment 2. In reading George’s [Grinnell’s] account, it is evident that not enough food, or more specifically, food with high caloric content, such as fat, was purchased for the trip. [Grinnell book, p 286].
Luste comment 3. The Moffatt party was woefully short of provisions and caloric energy sustenance… [Grinnell book, p 288].
Response to Luste comments 2 and 3.
The initial supply of provisions certainly proved inadequate, but the Moffatt party could have carried little more and still have stayed afloat.
Again, Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men.
The evidence (especially that of Pessl, provided below) leads me to agree with Luste that the initial supply of food contained little of caloric energy substance. But later, especially in the crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, some fat was obtained from the five caribou and the many fish.

Pessl’s book (2014).
Five members of the party arrived in Stony Rapids on 22 June, Grinnell on 27 June. To replace those that had been ordered but had not arrived on the HBC barge, provisions were purchased at the local HBC store.
We are carrying almost 1000 lbs. of grub, much of which is stored in wooden boxes … [Pessl, p 17].
In the morning of 29 June, the party was driven to the end of the road, at Black Lake. Misadventures and misfortune delayed the start of the trip to the evening of 2 July [Pessl, p 26].
Pessl comments regarding the food supply.
1. Our standard daily meals were generally minimal, approximately 2,400 calories … But even with these additions [long list, including food from the land] we were probably well short of the recommended 4,000 calories per day. [p 162]
2. I don’t think our food supplies were significantly compromised by the failure of our original order to arrive on schedule at Stony Rapids. [p 162]
Responses. I believe that Pessl’s 2,400 calories refers to provisions on board. I don’t know the source for 4,000 calories per day. Moffatt had planned to obtain no food at all from the land; nevertheless, the party carried two rifles, a .22 and fishing gear.

Summary regarding Moffatt’s preparations.
Moffatt’s considerable experience in outfitting trips led him to believe that the party could live entirely off the initial supply of provisions. Nevertheless, he had provided the party with equipment (documented above) to obtain food from the land.
At the start the boats could not have carried much more of anything and still have stayed afloat.

A glance ahead.
It turned out that Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men, and so bellies were not full for much of the period before 5 August (when the first caribou, of five) was shot.
But, in the crucial seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (Moffatt’s death), the party enjoyed an abundance of food on the whole.
At times, appetites were not satisfied. On the other hand, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
On 7 September, the party acquired a major resupply of provisions from the cache. [SI article, lower part of the left column on p 82]. Grinnell book [p 180&181]. Pessl book [pp 125&126].
Food from the land in that period included five caribou, many fish (three species), many ptarmigan, and blueberries and mushrooms (the latter two only earlier in that period).
To me, the evidence of participant LeFavour is particularly important: As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [13 September, LeFavour article, 1955]
As well, the party caught 20 lb of lake trout at lunch on the very day that Moffatt died. [LeFavour, Lanouette]

Item 3. Sub-Appendix 2. Fat and other food with high caloric content.

0. Perhaps the matter of fat… is important enough to merit its own Sub-Appendix.
1. The relevant content of Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the Barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.
2. I repeat Luste’s comment …it is evident that not enough food, or more specifically, food with high caloric content, such as fat, was purchased for the trip. [Grinnell book, p 286].
3. A Pessl comment.
The lack of fat in our diet, on the other hand, probably contributed to a serious caloric deficiency that may have exacerbated our discomfort in the cold, wet late season and may have resulted in reduced energy and endurance. We made a curious mistake early in the trip in not taking advantage of the Canada goose as a ready source of fat…although perhaps the need for animal fat in our diet was not as apparent when the birds were readily available and wood for roasting fires on hand was also at hand. Cooking a sturdy goose on a smoldering heather/twig fire on a wet, windy day in the Barrens would probably have been a real challenge, no matter how much we craved the fat. [Pessl, pp 162&163]
Comment. Pessl appears to acknowledge the validity of Luste’s comment regarding fat. But neither he nor Luste suggests that such lack contributed in any way to the tragedy.
4. Does anyone know (I sure don’t) whether the importance of fat and other food with high caloric content on such a long trip (~12 weeks) was understood by the paddling community ca 1955? That is, should Moffatt have known to provide such food?
If then, could much fat have been carried, given that the canoes were already very heavily laden?
5. The fat-related evidence of the participants.
5 August. Spent the day in camp … . Bruce and Joe shot a young spike horn… This sudden presence of wildlife not only provides good protein and fat, it also makes the hope of adequate provisions more realistic. [Pessl, p 69].
10 August. Right now, my thoughts are constantly preoccupied with food to an alarming extent. What I miss is not fresh meat, because we have plenty of that. I crave fats, sugar and starch. I would like big slabs of cornbread with lots of butter, fat meat like bacon or pork, and chocolate. [Franck, in Pessl, p 79].
20 August. … we have had to cut almost our entire food consumption in 1/2. We still have plenty of meat, but the lack of fat and starches make dinner rather unsatisfying. [Pessl, p 100].
Interpretation. food consumption refers to the consumption of provisions, only.
27 August. This caribou had more fat on him than the others and we could peel enough off the neck and shoulders to fry the meat without bacon. I never seem to grow tired of caribou as I think I would of beef. [Franck, in Pessl, p 106].
3 September. …I made four casts and got three fine trout. They are in lovely shape with lots of fat under the skin. [Franck, in Pessl, p 119].
Summary.
I lack the background in nutrition science to assess
either how much in the way of fat was provided by the caribou, fish (lake trout, arctic char and grayling) and ptarmigan,
or how much the participants needed.
But I refer the reader again to Moffatt’s earlier tripping experience.
The main point is that a caloric deficiency (or a fat deficiency, or any other food deficiency), if indeed such existed, bore no responsibility for Moffatt’s death. The cause is identified in Item 4. Sub-Appendix 3. The supply of food in the period from the start to 5 August.

Background.
Again, Moffatt’s personal experience was that initial supply of provisions would suffice for the entire trip. That is, he believed that no food from the land would be needed for the entire trip of ~80 days. Reference. Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell.
Aside. I don’t know how to reconcile Moffatt’s experience with that of Luste: The most I have ever carried in my canoes is seven weeks of food. … I don’t think one can carry food for three months. [Grinnell book, p 286].

Summary of the evidence.
Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men (recall Lanouette’s tripled). It would be of some interest to understand the reason for the error (the metabolism of young males? I have distant memories of such), but such a venture is well beyond my capabilities.
Some food from the land (blueberries and fish, but no caribou) was obtained in that period, but there was no guarantee of more, and so provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip.
Although the participants were often hungry (even ravenous at times, they were never at each other’s throats, they were never starving, as evinced by Grinnell’s The hunger began to express itself at dinner with a friendly rivalry to be first in line… [book, p 23].
On 3 August, the party decided unanimously to continue to Baker Lake, rather than return to Black Lake.

Conclusion.
The evidence is unequivocal. At times before 5 August (when the first caribou was shot), food was uncomfortably short. And so the short-of-food claims are reasonable for the period before 5 August.
But the party was far from starvation at any time.

The evidence of the Sports Illustrated article (1959) for the period from the start to 5 August.
Introduction. The article consists of passages alleged to be selections from Moffatt’s journal, plus assertions/insertions made by the anonymous editor. Lacking full access to Moffatt’s journal, and having learned to trust nothing in the SI article unless it is confirmed by a reliable source, I am unable to confirm whether the following passages indeed come from Moffatt’s journal, and if so, whether they are representative of it.
8 July. The men tired of their diet of imported stores and wanted to hunt, but Moffatt, mindful of the dangers that lay in expending ammunition, clamped down on shooting. [lower part of the right column on p 73; source not identified].
Question. What would they be shooting? Certainly not caribou, for the first was seen on 4 August. Ptarmigan?
15 July. The sharp talk at supper made everyone edgy. Heretofore we have all been equals. Now I have assumed the sergeant’s position. But someone has to stop the foolishness before it goes too far [Suggested to be a Moffatt comment, likely regarding food; p 73, lower part of right column].
26 July. We celebrated that night with a tremendous dinner of two-pound grayling per man, mashed potatoes and pudding. [Suggested to be a Moffatt comment; p 75, middle of left column].

The evidence of Grinnell’s article (1988) for the period from the start to 5 August.
To avoid unnecessary repetition, I include here relevant material provided also in Grinnell’s book. If I may be explicit, material provided only in his book is documented below (in a separate paragraph).
Grinnell gives dates only occasionally; this and other evidence led me to conclude that he did not keep a journal.
Unless stated otherwise, none of the following is confirmed by the evidence of other participants. I make this point because I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by a source that I know to be reliable.

1. The supply of sugar.
…Pessl announced that we had consumed half our sugar supply while covering less than one-third the distance to Baker Lake. It was clear that we would run out of sugar before reaching our destination unless… [Grinnell article, p 20, right column].
Confirmation by Pessl.
Had a grumpy outbreak over the sugar situation. We are now 1/2 through the supply and only about 1/3 of the distance to Baker Lake. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. Hope it works. [Pessl, 29 July, p 56]
Comment.
The first reach of the trip, the ascent of the Chipman River from Black Lake to the height of land and so to the waters of the Dubawnt River, was difficult and consequently slow. And so a better comparison would have been to the time remaining. I now do that analysis.
The time remaining on 29 July.
The trip began on 29 June, and so the party was 31 days into it on 29 July. The trip was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 15 September, but with a grace period of seven days, for a maximum of 87 days.
Conclusion.
Pessl’s less than one-third is accurate with respect to both distance and time remaining.

2. Controlling the men.
Grinnell alleged the following to have been asserted by Moffatt.
He who controls the food controls the men. [Grinnell article, p 21, top of the left column; Grinnell book, top of p 7 and top of p 17].
Response. This allegation has no basis in any evidence known to me.
Reminder. I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by a source known to be reliable.

3. The supply of powdered milk.
The next fight was over how the powdered milk was mixed. The United Bowmen’s Association felt that it should be watered down more: Moffatt felt that the quality should be maintained but the quantity cut back. [article, p 21, top of the left column]
Response. I’m unsure that this matter merits the term fight.

4. Moffatt took more than his share of the food?
1. Moffatt always helped himself first before calling the rest of us to dinner… [Grinnell book, p 21, top of the left column]
2. …the possibility that none would be left by time the sixth man got his. [same source]
3. Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours..
Response. The evidence (especially that provided in Items 5 and 6 below) supports the suggestion that Moffatt was getting more than his share of the food, for at least early in the trip.

5. The oatmeal question,
conflated with the matter of the size of Moffatt’s bowl/dishes.
Then there was the oatmeal question. Lefavour took to counting the number of spoonfulls of oatmeal we each took every morning. This did not much from bowl to bowl for the rest of us because we all had the same size bowl and always filled it as full as we could get it, but Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours.
On August 22, Moffatt came to breakfast, and picked up one of the standard bowls, somewhat to our surprise, and helped himself to oatmeal.
[Grinnell article. p 21, middle of the left column]

6. The size of Moffatt’s bowls/dishes.
Skip…says my pankin…is causing grumbling among the men, since they think I’m getting more than they are. Could be. Will use bowl from now on. [21 August. SI article, top of right column on p 80]
Grinnell’s comment Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours is confirmed by Pessl’s photo and the corresponding comment …Art…filling his controversial pannikin. [Pessl journal entry for 14 August, p 85]
Indeed, Grinnell’s comment is extended by the following: …He uses a special aluminum pannikin instead of the common bowl, thus causing suspicion of larger portions. When frying meat, he always fries his separately, thus implying special pieces and extra preparation… [14 August. Pessl, p 86]
Conclusions.
It appears that Moffatt was getting more that his fair share of food in the first six weeks of trip.
The matter was resolved four weeks before his death.

Comment.
Given the accusations made of Moffatt, I thought it necessary to state that none of the items
the supply of sugar,
how the powdered milk was mixed,
the oatmeal question,
the size of Moffatt’s bowl/dishes,
and so on,
was life-threatening.
In particular, none played a role in Moffatt’s death.

The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996) for the period from the start to 5 August.
Comments.
Again, comments duplicated in his article are addressed above.
Again, I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell. I lack independent confirmation of some of the following passages from his book.
Grinnell and Moffatt’s journal.
As I document in particular in
Ancillary 1. Accusations, Grinnell must have possessed Moffatt’s journal.
Given
1. that the SI editor is known to have possessed Moffatt’s journal, and
2. that the participants were not provided with copies of Moffatt’s journal [Pessl, private correspondence], and
3. that the editor and Grinnell are known to have had been in written contact (at the very least; witness the Epilogue of the SI article),
I suggest that the editor had supplied Grinnell with a copy of Moffatt’s journal.
And so it appears that they had cooperated to some extent. This possibility disturbs me, especially given
(a) that Grinnell (in neither his article nor his book) objected to any assertion made by the SI editor, and
(b) that both Grinnell and the SI editor redacted passages of significance regarding the running of the fatal rapids.

Passage 1.
As the days passed into weeks, we burned off the fatty lining from our oesophagi so that we felt hungry before, after, and during meals. The hunger began to express itself at dinner with a friendly rivalry to be first in line… [p 23].
Opinions.
1. The passage we felt hungry…first in line fairly represents the food supply from the start to 5 August (when the first caribou was shot).
2. That same passage represents not at all the food supply in the crucial period from 5 August to 14 September (when Moffatt died).
Passage 2.
The food was not elegant, but we loved Art’s glops. … On the portages, we were burning up about twice as many calories as we were getting from our rations. The more calories we burned, the more we craved food, especially fatty foods. … For the first time in my life, I had experienced the reality of hunger, the long-term, gnawing reality of hunger that reminded me of things beyond our control. …When the last item was eaten out of the bottom of our canoes, what then, Art? [pp 24&25].
Comment.
Given that Grinnell did not keep a journal, the passage When the last item…, what then, Art? was written after Moffatt’s death. I ask that the reader reflect on Grinnell’s motivation in providing the passage.
Passage 3.
In reference to the waters of the Dubawnt River. Every imaginable migratory bird nests there. The lakes are teeming with fish. The wolves follow the migrating caribou herds… [p 49].
Passage 4.
…which we felt was reasonable enough until we had spent forty days hungry in the wilderness; and then we went into revolt. [p 55].
Comment. The revolt remark is almost certainly a reference to the formation of the alleged United Bowmen’s Association.
The corresponding evidence of LeFavour: The UBA was simply a way for the three of us to bitch among ourselves and thereby relieve some tensions, not in any way a revolt. [LeFavour, private communication to Pessl; bottom of the right column on p 8 of Pessl’s Nastawgan article, Vol 40, No.2 (2013). Also Pessl book, p 168].
Passage 5.
…after nearly forty days in the wilderness on short rations, I was bored. [book, p 57].
Comment. Rations were indeed short in the almost 7 weeks before 5 August.
Passage 6.
…decided to make camp early so that we would have time to catch some fish before dinner. Bruce, Pete and Skip brought in fifteen fish thought to be grayling. [book, p 84].
Comment. The date for the last item is likely 26 July, as evidenced by Pessl’s journal (below).
Passage 7.
Art caught a lake trout that was almost as large as he was. [top of p 90].
Passage 8.
He (Moffatt) elaborated on what we already knew: at our current rate of travel we no longer carried enough food in our canoes to reach the outpost at Baker Lake. Our progress across the Barrens had been slower than he had anticipated, so that we were in danger of being trapped by freeze-up as well as by hunger.
Our only hope of survival lay in living off the land. If we were lucky enough to run across a herd of migrating caribou, we would probably survive: if not, we should expect the same fate as Hornby, Adlard and Christian, death by starvation.
[book, pp 90&91].
Comment 0.
The date was 3 August, when the party decided unanimously to continue downstream to Baker Lake, rather than return to Black Lake.
Comment 1.
The provisions on board from the beginning had turned out to be insufficient to reach Baker Lake at a comfortable level of consumption, and so the party would have to acquire food from the land, to some unknown extent.
Comment 2.
Grinnell’s Our progress across the Barrens had been slower than anticipated… is supported by the following excerpt from Pessl’s book.
During dinner today, Art brought up the condition of the supplies and distance to travel, and for the first time made everyone collectively conscious of the situation. We discussed the possibility of returning to Stony Rapids before it was too late, but agreed to a man to continue, with the definite intention of longer, more strenuous travel days. The attitude of the party finally is changing from that of a summer vacation to the serious determination faced with an urgent objective, and serious consequences if it fails. [Pessl, 3 August, pp 65&66].
Comment 3.
To me, Grinnell’s Our only hope of survival … death by starvation is at best sophomoric hyperbole. Perhaps it bears repeating that the party had already obtained considerable food from the land, certainly fish (Passages 4 and 7 above) and perhaps ptarmigan.
Comment 4.
We (the Moffatt party) had spent forty days fasting in the wilderness together… [p 95]. The allusion is clear, but artistic licence. Lest the assertion be taken literally, no member of the party fasted for even one day in the period before 5 August. I refer the reader to the evidence (provided above) in Grinnell’s book, and also to the evidence of Pessl and Franck (provided immediately below) for that same period (start to 5 August).
Comment 5.
The sighting of the first caribou occurred on 4 August, the shooting of the first the next day yet. Unfortunately for Moffatt’s reputation, Grinnell made no mention of either event, in either his article or his book.
Comment 6.
There was no possibility of freeze-up until well into October (well past the outer limit of 22 September for arrival in Baker Lake, after which date an aircraft search would have begun, indeed did begin). Reference. Appendix 5. Pace and weather.

Summary of the evidence of Grinnell’s book for the period from the start to 5 August.
Appetites far exceeded Moffatt’s expectations. Food from the land was plentiful at times, but short overall until the first caribou was shot. And so portions were insufficient.

The evidence of Pessl and Franck for the period from the start to 5 August.
1 July. The glop is getting very tasteless without the tomato paste and with macaroni every God damn night. … good spot for lake trout and Bruce caught two around 4½ lb. [Franck, in Pessl, p 25].
Comment. The party had yet to hit the water.
2 July. Some of the food got wet and we had to spread it out to dry. … we got water in and soaked a little oatmeal. … We spread the wet food out on a big rock shelf to dry… [Franck, in Pessl, p 27].
3 July. We had a roast beef with all the trimmings. [Franck, in Pessl, p 28].
4 July. … after the usual pause of hardtack, etc … . [Pessl, p 28].
7 July. Art broke out one of the cans of ham and we feasted. [Franck, in Pessl, p 31].
8 July. Two pounds of macaroni in the glop and it all disappeared in short order. [Franck, in Pessl, p 33].
9 July. … the smell of boiling glop pervaded the hungry dreams of 6 tired, “not so iron men.” [Pessl, p 33].
10 July. … after dinner, Bruce came back to camp with a 7-lb. lake trout … a morning supplement to the usual oats and coffee. [Pessl, p 34].
11 July. Taking the lake trout supplement as the keynote for an outstanding breakfast… [Pessl, p 34].
11 July. Skip fried the fish for breakfast. … We all ate so much that everyone laid around for an hour or two. Later, at camp I took George’s .22 and walked around … to see if I could find a spruce hen … I took a long shot and got her in the neck … a small meal for one man. [Franck, in Pessl, p 35].
14 July. We all have ravenous appetites and are still hungry after even the largest meal. [Franck, in Pessl, p 39].
15 July. … unsuccessful fishing … already the lack of food, or perhaps the psychological need for a little extra left in the pot is beginning to affect the party. … as the joke begins to wear off, the rush for an extra portion becomes tense. [Pessl, pp 39&40].
16 July. The usual meal of glop fixed things up pretty well… [Pessl (in reference to feeling woozy) p 41].
22 July. Made a detailed inventory of our food stock and we seem to be in good shape for about 50 more days. This brings us into the first part of September when we should likely reach Baker Lake. Sugar and other sweets pose somewhat of a problem in as much as the longer we are away the more intense the sweet tooth becomes. However, minor rationing should take care of this. [Pessl, p 48].
Interjections.
1. By food stock, Pessl means provisions.
2. 50 more days after 22 July gives 10 September, five days before the scheduled date for arrival in Baker Lake. That is, Pessl believed the provisions on hand to be pretty well sufficient to complete the trip. I emphasise that Pessl was counting on obtaining no food from the land in making that estimate.
3. The party encountered the caribou two weeks after 22 July, namely on 4 August.
4. Given the accusations made of Moffatt, it seems necessary to state that a shortage of sugar and other sweets is not life-threatening.
Also not life-threatening is Moffatt’s personal supply of cigarettes (falsely represented by the SI editor as the expedition’s supply of the same). [SI article, middle of the right column on p 75]
23 July. Cold, wet and the pot refusing to boil! At last the tell-tale bubbles and a hot meal of glop, pudding and tea. [Pessl, p 49].
23 July. The party was windbound. George [went] to hunt grouse; the result was not documented. [Franck, in Pessl, p 49].
25 July. The realization that prolonged periods of immobility eat into our supplies with no increase in mileage to balance the scale eats into the minds of everyone. [Pessl, p 51]
26 July. We…have enjoyed excellent fishing … 13 grayling within 1/2 hr! [Pessl, p 52].
26 July.We camped on the left bank, and Bruce and I got out fishing. The Arctic grayling were very abundant here and we had a tremendous meal. They must be scaled but they make excellent eating. [Franck, in Pessl, p 53].
27 July. The end of firewood has not really touched us yet and we enjoy the fuel of the bush in the form of driftwood… [Pessl, p 54].
28 July. Art seems somewhat overly cautious, probably due to the risk of the camera equipment…Art had swamped… very little damage… 1/2 bag oatmeal, some wet hardtack and considerable quantities of dampened pride. [Pessl, p 55].
29 July. We continued drying our wet supplies…Had a grumpy outbreak over the sugar situation. We are now 1/2 through the supply and only about 1/3 of the distance to Baker Lake. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. [Pessl, p 56].
Interjections.
1. The earlier part of the trip had been slow, in part because of the difficult upstream travel on the Chipman River.
2. Again, I suggest that a shortage of sugar is not life-threatening.
30 July. Doled out the sugar ration into six small cans…great concern whether it should go over the oatmeal or into the tea. Not sure how Art feels about all this. … the gradually narrowing circle of men standing close to the campfire, holding steaming red bowls in both hands. [Pessl, p 58].
31 July. The problem of catching fish and then cleaning them and cooking them became a major issue today … an argument developed into a battle … On the brighter side, I caught my first grayling today: fine jumpy, fighty fish but a great big lake trout is still my favorite; calories prevail! We are camped in the midst of blueberry heaven. …Tonight, we had a big meal of glop and blueberry bannock …. [Pessl, pp 59-60].
1 August. Trees have disappeared for most practical purposes . . . firewood becomes the object of very passionate scavenger hunts; twisted stumps and watersoaked driftwood are treasures. [Pessl, p 61].
1 August. … we found two jars [of peanut butter] out of twelve broken. [Franck, in Pessl, p 62].
2 August. … the usual wind-bound day, highlighted by Art’s catching a tremendous 15# lake trout … a bountiful dinner of fish, mashed pots, bacon and tea. [Pessl, p 63].
2 August. I am really beginning to get worried that we will run out of food before we get to Baker Lake. … After lunch, Art caught a huge lake trout…39”long, 15.5 lb. Then he caught one half that size and we had enough for a fish dinner. [Franck, in Pessl, p 64].
Comment. Franck’s run out of food refers to the supply of provisions, only.
Interpretation. Despite the catching of the trout, Franck was counting on obtaining no more food from the land for the remainder of the trip. And so it bears mention that five caribou were shot in the weeks before 14 September, and that much more food (many ptarmigan, three species of fish, blueberries and mushrooms) was obtained from the land in those weeks.
3 August. Pessl, passage 1. Oats, fried fish and tea for breakfast … this lake is full of large lake trout … This is a big help to our supply inventory in as much as we have about 45 days of food left and we estimate that it will take us at least that long to reach Baker Lake. [Pessl, p 64]
Comment 1. supply inventory and food refer to provisions, only.
Comment 2. about 45 days of provisions would feed the party until about 17 September. The scheduled date for arrival in Baker Lake was 15 September, with a week’s grace before the air search was begun. But, from his at least that long, Pessl was concerned that arrival would not occur until considerably later.
Opinion. On 3 August, Pessl believed that the party had enough food, in the way of provisions alone, to reach the vicinity of Baker Lake in comfort.
3 August. Pessl, passage 2. On stay-over days …we have 1/2 ration oats + fish, fish chowder for lunch which needs only a package of dried soup and a little milk with boiled chunks of fish; and then fried fish and mashed potatoes for dinner. … During dinner today, Art brought up the condition of the supplies and distance to travel, and for the first time made everyone collectively conscious of the situation. [Pessl, p 65].
Comment 1. supplies refers to provisions, only.
Comment 2. The first caribou was seen the very next day, and so the food situation promised to improve; indeed, it did so, for the first caribou was shot on 5 August.
Interpretation of the passage Art brought up…conscious of the situation.
Moffatt thought that food (in the form of provisions alone) was sufficient to reach Baker Lake on schedule, but that the party would have to pick up the pace in order to do so.
That is, Moffatt was still counting on obtaining no food from the land for the remainder of the trip.
3 August. Franck. We are not yet halfway, but we have consumed more than half of supplies. [Franck, in Pessl, p 66].
Comments.
Again, supplies refers to provisions.
The party had yet to encounter the caribou, of which it shot five in total.
I believe that Franck’s halfway refers to distance, not time. As I mentioned previously, progress upstream on the Chipman River had necessarily been very slow. But, one fine day, I’ll measure the distance remaining and compare it with the time remaining (43 days to 15 September).
4 August. Franck …We went on down the river through a few small rapids when we saw our first caribou calmly grazing on top of a high bank. … We saw many caribou today, but all scattered along the banks in small groups. … I caught a few grayling for breakfast [for the next day]. [Franck, in Pessl, p 68].
Comment.
The party shot its first caribou the very next day.

Summary of the food supply in the period from the start to 5 August.
Some food from the land was obtained in the period; but the party was still often hungry, because provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip, lest the land not be fruitful. In this connection, perhaps it bears mention
first that the Moffatt party had only the evidence of the Tyrrell brothers to rely on for evidence regarding the caribou and other food from the land,
second that encounters with the caribou are far from guaranteed (as I know personally from six trips in the barrens, but 100 years later),
third that there was no guarantee that the party would arrive on schedule, namely on 15 September.
Items.
1. Lake trout, some large (two on 1 July, one on 10 July, two on 2 August, perhaps more on 3 August), and some grayling (13 on 26 July, 1 one on 31 July, a few on 4 August).
2. a spruce hen (female spruce grouse) on 11 July (a small meal for one man).
3. blueberry heaven on 31 July.
Comment 1. The shortage of food was far from life-threatening, but food from the land would be necessary in order to complete the trip in comfort.
Comment 2. Fat appears to have been in short supply, but it is unclear
(a) whether the shortage was serious, or
(a) whether the importance of fat was generally known by recreational paddlers at the time.
Comment 3. Concern regarding the food supply was much reduced on 4 August, when the first caribou were sighted.

Item 5. Introduction to the evidence of the participants regarding the supply of food in the period from 5 August to 14 September.

Two days after the party decided to continue downstream (rather than return to Black Lake), the food situation was much relieved with the shooting of the first caribou, this on 5 August.
This period, from the shooting of that caribou to Moffatt’s death (on 14 September), is the crucial one because Moffatt’s defamers asserted (that is, provided no evidence) that a shortage of food in it was in large part responsible for his death. Indeed, Murphy asserted that Moffatt died due to a lack of food.

Directory of the evidence for the period.
Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. The evidence of Moffatt.
Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. The evidence of Grinnell.
Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. The evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

Summary of the evidence for the period.
Food was occasionally short in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, but the party was well fed on the whole.
1. Food from the land.
Five caribou were shot (the first on 5 August, the last on 5 September).
Many ptarmigan were obtained by various means.
Many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught.
Blueberries and mushrooms were harvested, but these only earlier in the period.
2. Food from provisions.
On 7 September, a major resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache.
3. On three documented occasions, the paddlers were gorged with food.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
4. The supply of food on 13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour article, 1955]
5. The supply of food on 14 September.
At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party added to the above 20 lb of lake trout. [LeFavour article, 1955; Lanouette, private correspondence.]
Comment.
Perhaps the reader is already able to assess the assertions of Moffatt’s defamers regarding the food supply in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death.

Item 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. Food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Moffatt.

My sources for the following were
edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article, and
unedited excerpts from his journal (kindly supplied by participant Pessl).
Caution.
Given that the strong>SI editor redacted the key evidence Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, I trust no content of that article unless it is confirmed by evidence of a trustworthy participant.

Moffatt’s planning.
For the convenience of the reader, I quote one last time that passage from Moffatt’s letter to J B Tyrrell, of 14 January 1955.
I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.

4 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
To set the stage, I provide evidence from the last day of the previous period (start to 4 August).
We got up at 4:30, Skip made breakfast, while I took pix of sunrise. Our beautiful clear sky sailed – or was pushed – fast NE by heavy clouds, which brought light cold rain and NW wind. But we were under way by 6, and kept on till 10, having hard time following route through islands. I couldn’t tell where we were from map, but there was just enough current between islands, and bent weeds in the water, to show us we were right. Finally, at 10:30, we seemed to be definitely in the fast – moving river, and stopped to have cocoa – we were numbed with cold – soaked legs – hands raw from cold wind & rain – but fire and hot drink quickly brought us around.
Hills all bare here, only groves of spruce and tamarack here and there.
Then on, through many-channeled river, to fast little rapid, where we stopped to make cloudy day film – f4.5-5.6 – of Skip + Pete shooting rapid, and on again 2 or 3 miles, when Joe and I suddenly saw 2 caribou outlined against sky on ridge on left bank.
Stopped at once, jumped out with camera, got pix – ate lunch there, went on through more rapids, caribou now everywhere, till we saw big bull and cow swimming – got fine pix of Skip + Bruce chasing them in the water, of animals close by.
On to heavy rapid 1/2 way to Barlow Lake – 5:30 – good camp, island, sun, caribou everywhere – got great shots of herd on sky line, behind tents, of Bonaparte gull in tree top, and finally no pix but good view of long-tailed jaeger – now 2.
Also first Arctic ground squirrel, and white wolf – got shot of latter.

Source. Pages 82 and 83 of Moffatt’s journal, as kindly supplied by Pessl.

4 August.
Comment. The date, not provided by the editor, comes from the above.
…their first arctic ground squirrel, a white wolf, and then they met the caribou en masse. [SI article, lower left column, p 75].
Assessment: A bare-bones (less than a sentence) but nevertheless faithful condensation of the relevant portion of Moffatt’s journal for that day.

5 August.
Poor morning, and I didn’t get up at 5 as I had planned. Because Skip didn’t get called, he slept until 11 – which rather teed me, since he had originally said he would cook breakfasts because I was hard to get out of sack in a.m.
Instead of moving – it was 1 p.m. when breakfast over – we decided to kill a caribou. Bruce + Joe went out, got small female – forked horns, in velvet – fine shot behind shoulder, Bruce, second in back, Joe – they finished her in neck, cut throat. I got pix, but it was cloudy all the time, and at 4-2.8, had rotten sun.
Made sequence – hunt, kill, skinning, butchering, hanging meat, and finally stew. Meat sour-sweet, tastes a little like the guts and stomach contents smell.
But before dinner I finished one more shot of caribou also looked at rapids – going to be tricky to shoot, and had bowel movement – been partially constipated for three days – today blood in stool. Can it be poor food – macaroni, bully, oats and hardtack – or have I got the hernia I worried about earlier, which still feels odd down in left groin. Not good if I have, but nothing much to do about it here.
Getting very anxious to be home, but tonight we are still south of 62nd parallel – have to go almost to 65° – and should do it in less than a month – but can we?
Weather gets steadily worse – sun very little – only in patches – wind constant and cold
[illegible] rain squalls every day.
We are not yet beyond limit of all trees – valleys + low places still have plenty in groves, but hills + ridges and meadows bare, stony, greenish with grass – creeping
[illegible]-bearing plants, and dwarf birch. Tamarack numerous, largest trees, bed rock almost non-existent.
Berries, weather, stony hills and long undulating horizons seem characteristic of this area.

[pp 83-85 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].

5 August.
I have nothing to report, for the SI editor omitted the complete entry for 5 August.
That is, s/he skipped from the 4 August entry caribou en masse to the 6 August entry We made good time…, thereby omitting mention of the shooting of the first caribou (partially consumed that very day) on 5 August.
Comment 1. Some might consider the shooting and partial consumption of the first caribou on 5 August (an event ignored by the editor) to be a more important event than the sighting of the first caribou on 4 August (mentioned by the editor).
Comment 2.
The editor omitted mention also of the caribou shot on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September, all as documented in Moffatt’s journal. Of the five, the editor mentioned only the caribou shot on 11 August. Particularly important for our understanding of the food situation in the days shortly before Moffatt’s death (and so the assertions that Moffatt died due to a lack of food) is the editor’s failure to mention the caribou shot on 5 September, food from which was in such supply on 14 September that the party had no need to hunt for the remainder of the trip.
Given that the editor omitted mention of four of the five caribou shot, perhaps I may ask that the reader consider editor’s intentions for making the following assertions.
1. Food was becoming the question now [9? August; top of left column, p 76].
2. …game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [16-17 August, bottom of right column, p 76].

6 August.
Up at 7:30 – Skip had breakfast ready – we ate, I took films of Skip and Pete shooting the big rapid. This took quite a while, since high clouds covered the sun, but after they had passed, we had a clear, very windy day, with light windblown dew point clouds – a real rarity of a day in these latitudes. We made good time down the swift river – many boulders and easy rapids – and caribou in groups of 3 to 10 were grazing placidly in the meadows at the waters edge, or walking slowly along the stony yellowish ridges.
Those grazing would look up as we passed, and watch us curiously, and a few would put up their white tails and trot a few paces back from the river before turning again to stare.
We are already accustomed to their presence, and hardly look twice at them. It is surprising how easy they are to see. Sometimes if they are standing still, the light white winter hair on their backs still being shed, and the new dark hair underneath make them look like a boulder – or rather, the boulders can be mistaken for caribou. Their horns are still in velvet of course – the big bucks have huge racks, the cows and young bucks smaller sets – the cows without a central keel. Their white feet make them appear to be wearing gaiters.
Yesterday I could hear their ankles or hooves – I don’t know which as they trotted away from me.
It is not necessary to hunt them – all you have to do is sit downwind – be still – and they will walk up to you.
At lunch today got pix of Arctic Cotton, also good rapid – then into lake – Barlow – about 4 miles, and on into bay by 5 p.m. Wind strong beyond and I climbed hill at point.
[Moffatt describes a chipping site, with also scrapers and points.]
Cooked caribou steaks tonight – with mashed potatoes and tea. Then went on long walk with camera to hills back of camp, but saw nothing – a few caribou, one of which walked almost up to me.
Country very lovely – almost completely barren – blue and purple hills in distance, groves of birch in hollows, thin line of spruce here and there at edge of lakes and rivers.
Night absolutely calm – full moon one day old, loons crying in distance, distant roar of small rapid south of lake. Not a cloud in the sky.
Hills back of camp very stony, rough boulders in till, patches of yellow bare gravel, berries growing among boulders. Pothole lakes surrounded by muskeg which seems golden green and strongly in contrast with gray and buff hills. Trees stand out occasionally on side of ridge or skyline like sentinels.
Not a mosquito, not a black fly here as I write at 11:30 p.m. by moonlight and twilight. Very warm – first warm night in weeks. Three poles with
[I omitted the second “with”] caribou meat hanging from their apex at shore-Skip’s tent to left. Bank shallow and stoney.
A few weak northern lights earlier, nothing now – one star in north.
Saw five Canada geese today – big honkers. Makes 14 seen so far.
Joe doesn’t care for caribou – afraid of flies + parasites – rest of us think it’s fine. Not gamey at all – best fried.
All of us getting on each other’s nerves – as usual – six weeks out now – a long time. Have used about 3000 feet of film same amount to go. Plenty still of film to take yet.
Only 15 packs of cigarettes left and 1/2 can of roll-your-own. Sugar ration inadequate too.

[pp 85-87 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].
Comment. I discuss below Moffatt’s tobacco and sugar remarks.
Aside. Perhaps readers who have not visited the barrenlands will enjoy them, if only vicariously, from the above.

Interjection.
Except that for 13 September, I possess no more complete entries from Moffatt’s journal, only
edited excerpts from the SI article of 1959, and
excerpts provided by Pessl in private correspondence.

6 August.
We made good time down the river. … It is not necessary to hunt them [the caribou]. All you have to do is sit downwind, be still, and they will walk up to you. [SI article, top right column, p 75].

~8 August. An assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor.
On August 8 the Moffatt party reached Cairn Point, a turning point in the journey… Among other things, the expedition’s provisions were beginning to run low. There were only 15 packs of cigarettes left and a half can of roll-your-own. The sugar ration was proving woefully inadequate. [Sports Illustrated, p 75, right column]
Response 1. The supply of cigarettes.
The passage Only 15 packs…roll-your-own was lifted from Moffatt’s journal entry for 6 August, namely Only 15 packs of cigarettes left and 1/2 can of roll-your-own. [pp 85-87 of Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl].
From the context, one sees that Moffatt refers to his personal supply, only. Indeed, each participant had his own supply of cigarettes, starting with the first day of the trip.
Conclusion. The editor represented Moffatt’s concern with his personal supply of cigarettes as a shortage of the party as a whole.
Further, a shortage of cigarettes is scarcely a life-threatening matter, scarcely one worthy of such special note; indeed, in retrospect, that shortage might be argued to be beneficial, albeit in the long term.
Response 2. The supply of sugar.
By this time, each participant had his own supply of sugar. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. [29 July. Pessl book, p 56].
Conclusion. Given that the sugar matter was resolved on 29 July, and that the editor’s assertion was dated 7 or 8 August, one sees that the editor represented Moffatt’s concern with his personal supply of sugar as a shortage of the party as a whole.
Opinion 1.
Given that neither was responsible in any way for the tragedy, I suggest that the accusatory literature (beginning with the SI article and continuing with Grinnell’s book) has made rather too much both of the shortage of sugar and of the distribution of its supply.
Opinion 2.
Some might consider the shooting of the first caribou (on 5 August, an event not mentioned by the editor) to be more worthy of publication than a false suggestion that the party as a whole was running short of cigarettes.

~8 August. A passage attributed to Moffatt.
…All is well–enough food–or almost enough. [SI article, top of the left column on p 76]. Caution. I lack confirmation from Moffatt’s journal.
As before, food refers to provisions only.
Analysis. Moffatt is satisfied, as best he could have been at this stage in the trip, with the supply of provisions for the remainder of the trip. After all, he was in charge of the procurement of provisions; that was a primary concern of his, and this is far from the only time that he comments on that supply during the trip, both before and after ~8 August.

8 or 9 August. An editorial interjection.
Food was becoming the question now. [p 76, top of the left column]
Response 1.
Given his remark …All is well—enough food—or almost enough of ~8 August, Moffatt was clearly satisfied with the food supply at the time. The reference here was, I believe, to the supply of provisions, a matter that Moffatt addressed many times in his journal.
Response 2.
The first caribou had been shot three days previously (an event that went unmentioned by the editor), and there were many more around, easy pickings.
A request.
Given this evidence regarding both the supply of provisions and the food from the land (especially the caribou) at that time, I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s motivation in asserting that Food was becoming the question now.

10 August.
Found could conserve sugar by pouring prunes on oats. Syrup sweet enough for one bowl. [SI article, p 76, left column].

11 August.
The second caribou was shot this day, as mentioned in the following.

12 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal (Sports Illustrated version).
Should have mentioned in yesterday’s log that Bruce [LeFavour] went hunting in the morning…and shot fork-horn cow caribou.
We cut up the loins for steaks. They were full of grubs and cysts of one kind or another, but who cares about tapeworm or worse when fresh meat as good as this is on hand and has not been for 30 days?
[SI article, p 76, left column].

12 August. The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
… made blueberry johnny cake, cut up loins of caribou for steaks. They were full of grubs and cists of one kind or another, but who cares about tapeworm or worse when fresh meat as good as this is on hand and has not been for 30 days, and also when supplies are down to about 30 days with over 400 miles to go… [Pessl, private correspondence]
The first “30 days”.
A considerable exaggeration, given that the first caribou was shot seven days earlier.
The second “30 days”.
Given that 30 days after 12 August gets one to 11 September, and that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, I conclude that Moffatt believed the supply of provisions, it alone, to be close to adequate for the remainder of the trip. The difference of four days is then inconsequential, especially because of the about.
In particular, Moffatt counted on obtaining no more food from the land.
It turned out that three more caribou were shot after 11 August (these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September), and that the land provided much more food.
A request.
Given this evidence (possessed in full by the editor) of Moffatt, I ask that the reader reflect on the purpose of the editor’s assertion Food was becoming the question now.
Aside.
I measured the distance from Cairn Point on Carey Lake to Baker Lake to be ~400 miles, in good agreement with Moffatt’s value.
Reference. Ancillary 4. Distances.

13 August.
Went into a small bay, good wood, plenty blueberries. I steaked up most of one hind quarter of caribou, mashed potatoes, made chocolate pudding and tea… [Pessl, private correspondence].

14 August.
Most conversation revolves around food. Running low of staples, only 30 days’ supply left. [Sports Illustrated, p 76, left column].
Comment 0.
staples means what I call provisions.
Comment 1.
I lack full access to his journal, but Moffatt’s food must refer to provisions (rather than food from the land), given that the second caribou had been shot three days earlier, on 11 August.
Comment 2.
13 September is 30 days after 14 August. Given that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, one sees that Moffatt believed the supply of provisions, alone, to be adequate to reach Baker Lake within a few days of the scheduled arrival date.
Comment 3.
Three more caribou were shot after 14 August, these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September.

15 August.
…painful discussion –salt running low, milk running low. How to save it? [Sports Illustrated, p 76, right column].
Opinion. Moffatt continues his meticulous assessment of the supply of provisions, even regarding minor items like salt and milk.

17 August.
Rain kept on to midafternoon, then everybody got busy getting together complete meal off the country, mushrooms (a kind of brown, large one, porous underneath rather than ribbed like usual ones) for vegetable, six 5lb. lakers for meat, also 3 ptarmigan via Pete for extra meat, blueberries for dessert and tea. [Moffatt’s journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Comment. The corresponding entry does not appear in the SI article.

20 August.
The third caribou was shot this day, an event that escaped mention by the SI editor.

21 August.
Only about 20 days’ food left. Lean caribou is temporarily filling but does not stay with you. We get five meals out of the caribou – four quarters and back meat, plus heart, tongue and liver. Neck and spareribs for lunch meat. Unfortunately, we do not have enough wood to make soup. No more onions, dried vegetables. …Ptarmigan plentiful here, … [Sports Illustrated, p 80, lower left and top right columns].
Comment 1.
Pessl gives the date as 22 August, as below.
Comment 2.
Since Moffatt says about, the difference from the previous estimate (that of 14 August) is negligible.
Comment 3.
Several more caribou had been shot since 5 August.
Comment 4.
Again, food means provisions. That supply (of about 20 days) would last until 10 September or so, if no more food were obtained from the land. But much food from the land was obtained later in the period; moreover, provisions were obtained from the cache, this on 7 September.
Opinion.
Moffatt continues his meticulous evaluation of the supply of provisions.

22 August.
Only about 20 days food left. Lean caribou temporarily filling, but does not stay with you. 5 meals on caribou: 4 quarters + back meat, plus heart, tongue and liver, and neck and spareribs for lunch meat. Not enough wood to make soup. [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Opinion.
A faithful condensation on the part of Pessl. But perhaps I copied the date incorrectly.

24 August.
Moffatt caught a 12-pound lake trout. [Sports Illustrated, p 80, right column].

26 August.
The fourth caribou was shot this day, an event not mentioned by the SI editor.

28 August.
On north side island stopped to cook lunch, fish chowder: 12 lbs. lake trout, 4 oxo cubes, 1 pack dry vegetable soup, salt, pepper and flour paste. Very filling. [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].

5 September.
Only about 15 days of oatmeal left, five days of cornmeal, 18 days of hardtack, 18 days of sugar and 11 two-pack mashed potatoes or 22 one-pack days. Four days of macaroni, meat supply good, canned meat, fish and caribou. Should make it, unless weather turns very bad. [SI article, p 81, centre of right column].
Comment 1.
The party was scheduled to arrive 10 days later, on 15 September, but with a week’s grace period.
Opinions.
1. Moffatt continues his conscientious evaluation of the supply of provisions. Yet again, he is optimistic regarding the supply.
2. As far as it goes, the above is a faithful condensation (as supplied by Pessl, in private correspondence) of Moffatt’s entry for the day.
Comment 2.
But the Sports Illustrated editor omitted Moffatt’s mention of the shooting of fifth (and last) caribou that very day, as evinced in his journal.
Bruce killed caribou – leg shot, chase into lake, then neck shot – George & Skip & Bruce skinned and brought in the meat… [Moffatt journal, as provided by Pessl in private correspondence].
Opinion. The editor redacted evidence that reflects badly on her/his assertion that a lack/shortage of food contributed to Moffatt’s death.

7 September.
The supply of provisions was augmented by those from the cache.
We…saw red gas cans and something white…the white thing was…a small piece of muslin covering 24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy…We took the stuff, figuring it had been left for us by Ray Moore…we celebrated with a huge mess of vegetables and caribou glop, carrots and beans mixed. Supper was wonderful. [Moffatt journal, as reported in the SI article, p 82, lower left and top right columns.]
Grinnell confirmation.
…It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We raided the dump. [Grinnell book, pp 180&181]
Pessl confirmation.
…found a large quantity of dehydrated vegetables…took the whole shebang. [Pessl book, pp 125&126]

10 September.
The evidence of Moffatt’s journal.
…Ten days’ sugar supply left, about the same amount of hardtack, 10 days’ oats, five days’ cornmeal. Joe broke two of three remaining peanut butter jars tonight on a portage. Even a little item of that sort is becoming vitally important to us. The food situation is poor, but we mean to get out of here as fast as possible now. About 200 miles to go. [SI article, p 82, centre of right column].
Comment 1.
This a faithful transcription of Moffatt’s journal for the day, as supplied by Pessl. Again, here food here refers to provisions, only.
Comment 2.
Arrival in Baker Lake by the scheduled date of 15 September would have required five days at an unreasonable average of 40 miles per day. I expect the weather-enforced, non-travel days of 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 September to be largely responsible for the delay. But arrival in Baker Lake by the end of the grace period (22 September) appears to have been achievable on 10 September.
Comment 3.
That distance of 200 miles, along the Dubawnt River to the junction with the Thelon River (between Beverly Lake and Aberdeen Lake) and thence to Baker Lake, agrees reasonably well with my measurement at Toporama.
My point here is that Moffatt had corrected the distance given in his Prospectus.
After the tragedy, rather than continue down the Dubawnt to its junction with the Thelon, the survivors portaged from Marjorie Lake to Aberdeen Lake on the Thelon.

13 September. The evidence of Moffatt.
Moffatt’s complete entry for the day is provided in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
I provide here only the evidence related to food.
…Skip caught 3 trout… lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack,… Others portaged while I cooked huge glop, fish and bully, pudding + tea. [Moffatt journal; via Pessl, private correspondence]

13 September. The version provided by the Sports Illustrated editor.
I cooked fish and bully, pudding and tea. [Sports Illustrated, bottom right of p 82]
Comment. One sees that the editor redacted the passage Skip caught 3 trout… lunch 2 fish chowder, 2 hardtack.
Opinion. The redacted passage bears on the supply of food and so on the SI editor’s assertions (game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now) regarding that supply.

14 September.
The assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor, and the evidence of participant LeFavour.
In what to me is a clear reference to Moffatt’s death that day, the editor asserted the following
…game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [16-17 August, bottom of right column, p 76].
Interpretation.
The editor suggests that food (in particular that from the land) was so short, and the party was in such desperate haste to reach Baker Lake before the onset of winter, that Moffatt took the ultimate chance by running the fatal rapids without a scout.
Response 1.
As documented in Moffatt’s journal (possessed in full by the editor) itself, three more caribou were shot after 16-17 August, these on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September. If the reader will indulge me, I remind her/him that the editor omitted all mention of these major additions to the food supply.
Response 2.
Participant LeFavour (in Sub-Appendix 4c) provided the following for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death.
As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).]
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on the truth of the editor’s assertions game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now.

The cause of Moffatt’s death is documented in
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Item 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. Food supply from 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Grinnell.

Introduction.
1. For those seven weeks, I provide one evidence from Grinnell’s article (1988), then multiple evidences from his book (1996).
2. Despite my reservations regarding his writings on other matters, Grinnell’s book provides an accurate (though abbreviated) description of the food supply in those crucial seven weeks from 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) to 14 September (the day of the tragedy).
I accept his evidence because it is verified by the evidence of Moffatt himself (Sub-Appendix 4a) and by that of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl (Sub-Appendix 4c).
3. Summary. Grinnell’s book documents that food (both from the land and from provisions, the latter augmented by those obtained from the cache) was bountiful, on the whole, in the seven weeks preceding Moffatt’s death.

The evidence of Grinnell’s article (1988).
…we had all discovered the caribou, the berries [blueberries], the mushrooms and the lake trout… [p 21, left column].
Comment. The unspecified date was after 5 August, when the first caribou was shot.

The evidence of Grinnell’s book (1996).
Passage 1. My first awareness of Reality with a capital “R” came to me in the form of hunger, that everlasting hunger that must be satisfied or death will in time arrive; and my second awareness came in the form of freezing cold, which kills more quickly. [p 2; undated]
Comment. Food was short in the period from the start to the shooting of the first caribou on 5 August. Because Moffatt had severely underestimated the appetites of the five younger men, provisions had to be conserved for the remainder of the trip, and food from the land had been insufficient to make up the difference. But the hunger in that period was far from life-threatening, death was far from imminent. And so I suggest that Grinnell made here a general remark, though rather a hyperbolic one.
But hunger was all but nonexistent in the crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death. As I document elsewhere, in those weeks the party obtained
a plethora of food from the land, plus
a massive resupply of provisions (this on 7 September).
Passage 2. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Comment. This was the first caribou killed, of the five; as mentioned previously, the SI editor redacted mention of this event.
Passage 3. Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 4. …picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Comment. This caribou (the one shot on 11 August) was the only one (of the five) to be mentioned by the SI editor.
Passage 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Comment. The five caribou were shot on 5 August, 11 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September.
Passage 10. … I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Comment. This account regarding the easy killing of the ptarmigan is confirmed by Franck [Pessl, p 108].
Passage 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [p 158]
Passage 12. The acquisition of the supplies from the cache, this on 7 September.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [pp 180 & 181].
Comment. This acquisition of supplies from the cache is confirmed by the evidence of Moffatt [Sports Illustrated, p 82, lower left and upper right columns] and that also that of Pessl-Franck-Lanouette-LeFavour [Sub-Appendix 4c, below]

Summary of the evidence of Grinnell’s book.
In those crucial seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, five caribou were shot, many fish (three species) were caught, many ptarmigan were killed, and a copious supply of mushrooms and blueberries was harvested (though only earlier in the period).
As well, a major resupply of provisions was obtained, this on 7 September.
Bellies were not full on occasion, but appetites were satisfied on the whole. Indeed, on three known occasions, appetites were far more than satisfied.

Opinion. This evidence of Grinnell’s book is particularly relevant
1. to the assertions of Murphy (made in what was alleged to be his review of Grinnell’s book):
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food…, and also
2. to the assertions of Kingsley (whose primary source was Grinnell’s book):
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past.

Item 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. The supply of food in the weeks between 5 August to 14 September. The evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

My sources.
Franck. Pessl’s book (2014).
Lanouette. Private correspondence.
LeFavour. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955); private correspondence.
Pessl. His book of 2014 and private correspondence.
Summary of the evidence of these four participants.
Grinnell’s account of the bountiful supply of food from the land in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death is confirmed and considerably augmented.
Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three known occasions.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
As well, the participants confirm the massive resupply of provisions (this on 7 September), as documented also in the SI article (1959) and in Grinnell’s book (1996).

The evidence of Franck and Pessl.
Source. Pessl’s book (2014).

4 August. The party met the caribou.
Actually, everywhere we looked groups of caribou could be seen. The horizon was a constant panorama of moving bodies and antlers. [Pessl, p 67].
5 August.
Spent the day in camp and although the weather was poor for filming, the caribou offered plenty of opportunity for excitement. After breakfast, Bruce and Joe climbed a nearby ridge, picked out a young, spike horn and shot it. …The prospect of firm, chewable meat for the next few days is very welcome. …This sudden presence of wildlife not only provides good protein and fat, it also makes the hope of adequate provisions more realistic. [Pessl, p 69].
Interpretation of the passage “… the hope of adequate provisions more realistic”. The availability of food from the land requires less reliance on the provisions remaining from the initial supply.
Caution. The reader need not attempt to compare the above summary for 5 August with the account of the Sports Illustrated editor for that same day.
5 August.
We had all the grayling we could eat for breakfast. …The water below is full of grayling, all good sized and eager for the fly. … Everyone sits up at night broiling it (the caribou shot after breakfast) and eating ‘til they can hold no more. The best pieces are the long roasts from the back. [Franck, in Pessl, p 69].
5 August.
… the day was gray, cold, and quite a wind was blowing over the plain from the southwest … It had been decided a few days before that we would need some caribou meat in order to stretch our supplies of food a little longer, and because the day was a bad one for traveling, we figured that this was as good a time as any to shoot some fresh meat. [Lanouette, private correspondence].
6 August.
Pan-fried steaks replaced yesterday’s delicious stew and for the second evening in a row, we enjoy fresh meat.
The abundance of caribou has already ceased to be cause for comment as we pass herd after herd on the river. … hundreds of caribou peacefully grazing … often during the night, we can hear the eerie echo of these rattling hooves as the caribou wander by our tents. …
Peter and Bruce have stirred up a few caribou just north of me and in their haste the animals run within 15 ft of the rock on which I am sitting…
[Pessl, p 71].
6 August.
We had caribou steaks…and they were as tender as the finest filet mignon. [Franck, in Pessl, p 72].
7 August.
At dinner tonight, Art … insisted … that the dinner cook should be entitled to extra sugar rations. He seems to be suffering more than the rest of us from the short rations due mainly to large amounts of tea and coffee that he relishes… [Pessl, p 72]
Comments. short rations refers to sugar, rather than food in general.
The matter of the sugar supply had apparently been resolved on 29 July [Pessl, p 56]. But it resurfaced again on 9 August. Sugar again became an issue this morning, with Art “borrowing” from the cooking ration. Later he apologized…and all seems smooth again. [Pessl, p 76] And again on 5 September. Sugar ration has been cut again, while Art continues to snitch. [Pessl, p 121]
… Caribou meat continues to dominate our meals; tongue and heart are top delicacies. [Pessl, p 72]
7 August.
…still eating on our caribou. We tried smoking some and eating it for lunch and it turned out delicious. I think the meat gets better as it ages a little. Caribou have been getting scarcer… [Franck, in Pessl, p73]
8 August.
Latest fad finds us all preparing half-smoked, half-cooked meat…to supplement the lunch ration… First animal is running out; will be looking for a new kill soon… Saw first ptarmigan today…the prospects of early arrival in Baker Lake seem good. [Pessl, pp 74&75].
8 August.
We had our last meal from the caribou tonight, but the chuck is still left and good, except… [Franck, in Pessl, p 76].
9 August.
Sugar again became an issue this morning, with Art “borrowing” from the cooking ration. Later he apologized…and all seems smooth again. …Berry picking led me within a few feet of a caribou this afternoon. [Pessl, p 76]
9 August.
…I flushed five ptarmigan. …Caribou are getting quite scarce with only an occasional one showing up. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 76&77].
10 August.
…there are lots of caribou here today. [Pessl, p 78].
10 August.
We saw more caribou today, but still only singles and pairs. …Right now, my thoughts are constantly preoccupied with food to an alarming extent. What I miss is not fresh meat, because we have plenty of that. I crave fats, sugar and starch. I would like big slabs of cornbread with lots of butter, fat meat like bacon or pork, and chocolate. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 78&79].
11 August.
Bruce bagged a caribou … . Once again we are well stocked with meat. … Blueberries are super and with the meat and fish provide a substantial part of our diet. This is my first experience of “living off the land”, substantially backed up by a can or two as needed. [Pessl, p 79].
11 August.
…Bruce came in…finally got a young cow about noon. …There was hardly any of that caribou left when we walked off. [Franck, in Pessl, p 81].
12 August.
…energies were spent preparing a beautiful blueberry johnny cake which was combined with two enormous slabs of “roast beef” to produce a fine banquet. The quantities of meat that we consume at one sitting are enormous…a boiling pot of soup stock made of caribou backbone chopped in chunks, reinforced by the usual pot of tea… [Pessl, 82]
12 August.
Around 4…Art set about making a johnny cake. I almost went mad with hunger sitting around watching him, so I went off to pick blueberries. We picked quite a pot full to put in the johnny cake and they really improved the flavor, but the cake itself sits so heavy once you eat two big slabs of it that I almost wished I was hungry again. [Franck, in Pessl, p 83]
13 August.
The usual morning oats…were supplemented with vast quantities of fried caribou liver… After the initial “halfway” scare of time-distance regarding food supplies…we are slowly drifting back into our previous lethargy. …In this land of fish, caribou and berries all seems well and so we mosey along. …enjoyed caribou soup for lunch…are camped again with the sizzle of cooking steaks. …today we once again saw the animals (caribou) grazing along the shore…[Pessl, p 84]
13 August.
We had a tremendous lunch of the usual hardtack and a soup made by boiling the backbone of the caribou. Delicious soup, and I had had a lot of caribou liver for breakfast, so I was quite full. This liver is excellent, but too rich and filling to eat for breakfast. … I am beginning to get a little tired of caribou and long for a glop dinner for a change. These blueberries that grow everywhere are delicious, especially with milk and sugar. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 85&86].
Comment. Franck records that both Moffatt and he were helping themselves to extra food.
14 August.
Comment. Pessl again expresses his discontent with Moffatt’s use …of community sugar for personal use at times…. He expresses also discontent with Moffatt’s handling of the general plan of the day’s travel. [Pessl, pp 86&87]
14 August.
Caribou are getting more abundant for some reason. We have been seeing lots of them since we entered Markham [Lake]… I have an alarming tendency to look forward to lunch and especially a peanut butter and cheese hardtack as the high point of the day. I am beginning to think that…I am nothing but a big belly. I look forward to Baker Lake most because it means all I can eat. [Franck, in Pessl, p 87].
15 August.
… I picked blueberries; very ripe now. …This caribou seems to be going bad much faster than the other. It already smells high and some pieces are full of maggots. Caribou seem to be increasing. We see them all the time now… [Franck, in Pessl, p 89].
16 August.
1. We spent the entire morning scouting this very difficult rapid… The protection of our supplies dictates our caution …our awareness of the approaching winter is a huge burden on days like this.. [Pessl, p 90]
Eventually, the party decided to stay put.
2. Milk became an issue yesterday; and again it seemed to be the four guys against Art; problem of rationing given to Skip. … After a touchy trial and error mushroom test in which I gulped down one raw specimen with some misgiving, but with no immediate after effects, mushrooms have become part of our “natural” diet. They are very plentiful in this area and when fried in bacon grease are a fine supplement with the caribou steaks. Food from the land has become so important that everyone walks with head down and a sharp eye for berries, mushrooms and other edible plants. An unfortunate result of this is that thoughts of food seem to dominate almost all other mental activity. Conversation, spare time and imagination concentrate on food. This is a sad state of affairs, considering generally how well we eat. [Pessl, pp 90 & 91]
16 August. Franck.
Bruce and I got out and caught some fish. The rapid is full of grayling and lake trout; fine big fish, the fattest I have ever seen. We had a caribou stew and threw the rest away as it was too high to stand any longer. …We still have 300 mi. to Baker Lake, after we get to Dubawnt Lake and only about thirty days of food left. [Franck, in Pessl, p 91].
Comment 1. 15 September (the intended arrival date in Baker Lake) is thirty days after 16 August. That is, on 16 August, Franck believed that the party had enough food to reach Baker Lake on schedule and in comfort.
Comment 2. I believe that food refers to provisions; it is unclear though to what extent, if any, Franck was counting on food from the land.
17 August.
Breakfast of oats, lake trout, bacon, blueberries and tea…storms continued to threaten so we remained at camp and spent most of the day getting food so as not to use much of our rapidly diminishing store-bought supply. Lunch consisted of a fish chowder utilizing 5 grayling, 1 C rice and I pkg. dried soup; also 1 hardtack with jam. Dinner was really a woodsman’s triumph, although it took all afternoon to gather. Five medium lake trout which we catch at will are served as the main course. A large bucket of mushrooms was fried for our vegetable and blueberries furnished dessert along with the customary tea. Later in the evening Pete came in with 3 ptarmigan which are hanging on a tent pole now and will serve as the beginning of another meal soon. … It is marvelous and quite fortunate how abundant food in the Barrens is at this season and how six quite inexperienced men are able to supply a substantial part of their diet with such ease. The recent hot weather has ruined a lot of our meat so that even boiling the worst parts is no longer too effective. However, a change to fish for a while is welcome. [Pessl, p 92].
17 August.
For lunch, we had a fish chowder made with five grayling; an excellent dish! …Joe gathered blueberries and mushrooms…They are quite good fried and took the place of starch at dinner. Bruce caught a lot of lake trout, and I shot three ptarmigan… Caribou are all over the place…A party of two could live off the country without caribou, but by shooting caribou as you went, you could supply almost any number. [Franck, in Pessl, p 93]
18 August.
… we spent the rest of a cold, disappointing day…speaking in cautious terms of food vs. time… a store-bought meal of glop and cocao… Grilled a ptarmigan…and was delighted with the taste, wild, almost salty. [Pessl, p 94]
19 August.
Nicholson Rapids were finally run, without incident. As we sped along, the caribou ranged the cliffs and ridges at the river’s bank… [Pessl, p 94]
20 August.
Wind and a serious need for meat dictate a day in camp. …Butchering and hanging the meat took most of the afternoon… [Pessl, p 96]
20 August.
Very cold and windy this morning, so Art decided to declare a day of rest and kill a caribou. …I took a long walk to pick blueberries. …Joe picked mushrooms and got a good pot full for dinner. …After hunting all morning, Skip came back with only one ptarmigan. …I went out and hunted all afternoon, and only killed one. …When I got back to camp, I found the caribou already butchered.
…We shall have to be living more and more off the country in the future. We have only eight meals of macaroni left and about twenty-five half-pound packages of potatoes. This is our entire supply of starch.
[Franck, in Pessl, p 96]
20 August.
We got up this morning with all the intentions of making an early start so as to reach Dubawnt Lake before noon, except that during the night the wind had shifted once again to the northwest and by the time we got up it was blowing a small scale gale. …In the distance we could see whitecaps dotting the lake, so it was decided that we would remain in camp for the day. Bruce was to bring down another caribou and it was Art’s intention to follow him and get pictures of the hunter and the hunted. …the sky became solidly and dismally overcast—the wind increased. … I went out and picked a tobacco-tin of berries for my breakfast tomorrow. I also brought in about 10 mushrooms, which, when boiled in with our bully-beef glop, proved to be the taste treat of the century. [Lanouette].
21 August.
Not a single stick of wood in sight from the top of a hill. There is still grass and caribou everywhere though. …Somehow, the caribou are a great blessing and a softening of the land. It is its one source of plenty. [Franck, in Pessl, p 98].
22 August.
Used the primus stove for the first time today… With no fire to warm us and that magnetic pot of tea, we retire to our tents soon after eating. [Pessl, p 99]
22 August.
We are still flushing lots of ptarmigan but they are almost impossible to get a shot at. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday… [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
23 August.
We left camp at 4:30 PM in the face of this very cold N wind and after sneaking from one lee to another for a few miles we were again forced to make camp… Our feet and hands are continually cold and to get either wet has become a serious accident. …Our total mileage for the last few days amounts to about six miles. …With about 25 days left, we have had to cut almost our entire food consumption in 1/2. We still have plenty of meat, but the lack of fat and starches make dinner rather unsatisfying. …A good size caribou lasts about 4 days. [At] dinner this evening…only hot item is the tea. … I am confident we will arrive at Baker in good time with plenty of meat on our bones. [Pessl, pp 99&100].
Comment 1. 17 September is 25 days after 23 August; I note that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September.
Comment 2. I believe that by food consumption Pessl refers to the consumption of provisions, only.
24 August.
Heavy frost and a frozen milk pail greeted us as we shivered out of the sack at 4 AM; hurriedly gulped down hardtack and jam, and set off in a frosted canoe. …the day remained absolutely calm and we were able to continue paddling the entire day [with breaks for breakfast and lunch]. …Art… soon hauled in a 12-lb. lake trout which is boiling now for a chowder dinner. Lake trout have been quite easy to catch ever since we hit the river… we have enjoyed fish for breakfast most every day and every 3 days or so a fish dinner. Meat is certainly no problem. …supplies at present consumption should see us through. [Pessl, p 101].
Comment. supplies must refer to provisions, but I don’t whether at full ration or 1/2.
24 August.
We bolted down a hardtack and loaded up in a hurry… . Oats (at breakfast) sure tasted good after a 6 mi. paddle in the cold. …Art caught a 12 lb. lake trout. …[Franck] caught an 8-lb. lake trout before dinner…[Franck, in Pessl, p 102].
25 August.
After dinner, another flare up; this time Art boyishly insisting that we have hot tea and finally, a complete breakfast before starting off at 4:30 AM mornings. [Pessl, p 103]
26 August.
Midmorning brunch break was rather exciting; covey of four ptarmigan killed with a hunting knife. …Made camp…bagged a caribou and enjoyed ptarmigan stew for dinner. [Pessl, p 104]
26 August.
While we were coasting…we spotted a caribou…Joe…missed with his 30/30. Decided to camp here anyway, as the wind was too strong to travel. Bruce went out after lunch and killed a caribou…[Franck, in Pessl, p 104]
27 August.
Questionable winds…another beautiful day in camp… Game was abundant. Everywhere I looked caribou were moving about… Mankind seems to find its proper place again as merely one member of the kingdom, and the false values of a blinded, hurried society easily fall away. The furious race for wealth and position seem ridiculous here and the contentment of simplicity certainly worth the sacrifice of an extra station wagon. [Pessl, pp 104&105]
Opinion. Bravo, Skip!
27 August.
…I want to get enough food as soon as I can. But the country is so beautiful now, and it would be a shame to hurry through it… We saw a lot of caribou. … After a bit [of a rest], I looked up and saw a small calf not ten feet from me. Peeking over the rocks, I saw two does and a fine buck join it. I could have killed any one of them with a .22 or even a spear. …When we got back to camp, we found Bruce with two big fish, 6 and 8 lb.
This caribou had more fat on him than the others and we could peel enough off the neck and shoulders to fry the meat without bacon. I never seem to grow tired of caribou as I think I would of beef. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 106&107].
28 August.
A fine breakfast of oats, caribou liver, lake trout roe and tea… [At lunch] As the water for fish chowder heats on the beach…the .22 cracks frequently as George does his best to provide us with another ptarmigan dinner. [Pessl, pp 107&108]
28 August.
While I was walking up the hill, I saw a few sitting ptarmigan, easy shots. When I walked closer, a flock of nine got up. By the time that I got to the bottom of the hill, George had killed seven. Apparently, the whole island is full of them.
We had a fish chowder for lunch using 15lb. of fish Bruce had caught the day before and were so full we could hardly move. We have been living like kings off the land here. There is surely no danger of starvation as long as we can fish and hunt.
[At dinner]…We tried the ptarmigan in the glop, just boiled, and they were delicious; better than broiled. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108].
29 August.
…leisurely breakfast of another “day off”… Caught a few “lakers” for tomorrow’s breakfast and enjoyed a good portion of fried roe for lunch. We are able to cook small portions of food… The process is troublesome, but certainly worth a hot noonday meal.. [Pessl, p 109]
29 August.
Windy this morning so we stayed put. … the panic is off for a few days. …I got back to camp about 4:00 and was so hungry I succumbed to temptation to eat my entire supply of extra food I had saved up. They were only a drop in the bucket. …Bruce and I cut up the caribou meat and cooked dinner… . [Franck, in Pessl, p 109&110].
30 August.
Heavy winds and rain squalls chased us back into the tents this morning just as we were finishing our second cup of coffee, and a good thing it was, for I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much farther from the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we had been loading.
…After lunch, skies cleared and we enjoyed one more rare “shirts off” day as we paddled … to the outlet of the lake.
(Dubawnt Lake) [Pessl, pp 110&111]
30 August.
Raining when I woke up, but we had breakfast just the same, a heavy one with lots of fish and roe. We are getting low on gas now. Skip thinks that we have enough for less than a week at our present rate of consumption.
By lunch, things had begun to clear up some and we finally got off about 4:00 in sunlight, heading for the mouth of the river … catching fish on the way.
[Franck, in Pessl, pp 111&112].
31 August.
Scouting and running of rapids, then a lengthy scout of the gorge. Try as I may, I couldn’t impress upon the others the necessity to hurry [that is, to get on the river early in the morning]. …We were lucky to find some dry birch twigs…with five stoking and one cooking, were able to cook a meal without the use of our precious fuel supply.
It seems that we are continually faced with some shortage problem. Now that we have rationed food supply sufficiently for the remainder of the trip, we are running out of gas. Estimate about 3 days supply left. Woe is me…raw meat is not too bad, but raw oats and macaroni may be too much!
[Pessl, pp 112&113]
Interpretation. Pessl believed that the provisions, although rationed, would suffice for the remainder of the trip. His concern was now with the gas supply.
31 August.
Franck [in Pessl, pp 113-115] devotes most of his entry to the scouting and the running of rapids.
1 September.
It was a cold and miserable cook who crawled back into the tent after gulping a few spoonfuls of oats and quantities of hot tea. … bowl of soup for lunch … I caught enough fish for a late dinner of chowder and tea. [Pessl, p 115].
2 September.
Another bitch of a day, worse than yesterday by a long shot. …about noon, I crawled out and began preparing our first meal of the day. Hot oats seemed appropriate. Building the tiny birch fire in a high wind with wet twigs… At the very height of the storm, the pot somehow came to a boil…we all ate cold oats in the rain. … fish soup for dinner and then it [rain] came down again…”piss pot”! [Pessl, pp 115&116]
2 September.
After lunch … still too much wind to move. … I did a little fishing and caught a nice trout, perhaps an arctic char. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 116&117].
3 September.
Another day of the same hellish weather, and after suffering through another breakfast, I crawled back into the tent and slept until 3 PM when soup was served for lunch. …bundled up, took an empty packsack and went on a long wood hunt. …Was quite successful with the twigs… [Pessl, pp 117&118]
3 September.
After lunch Skip and I got empty pack sacks and walked down river to gather driftwood. It is quite abundant in some spots and we had no trouble filling our bags. …The fishing is fantastic when you hit a good spot. Just before dinner, I made four casts and got three fine trout. They are in lovely shape with lots of fat under the skin. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 118&119].
4 September.
Snow greeted me this morning as I crawled out of the tent into a harsh flurry. …Water bucket was frozen solid…working [preparing breakfast] in the face of flurries. …By lunch the skies had cleared and the sun warmed things considerably. …Canoes were carried along the rim of the gorge in dazzling sunshine… [Pessl, p 119].
4 September.
The most beautiful portage [that to Grant Lake] I have ever made and the most beautiful spot on the river so far. …After the cold stormy weather we have been having, this break was delightful and everyone was in high spirits and full of good predictions about the weather for the rest of the trip. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 119&120]
5 September.
Breaking ice in the water bucket and melting milk from the night before has become regular morning chore. The first one-half hour before the fire is really perking and the oats cooking is pretty grim business. …We spent the better part of the day completing the portage and the late afternoon killing and butchering what will probably be our last caribou. [Comment. It was the last]. The animals have very considerately kept right with us in spite of the cold weather. The berries and mushrooms have long since shriveled and disappeared, but the caribou remain for the pot. We are now cooking all our meals on the green dwarf birch twigs and have pretty well worked into the laborious collecting and stoking routine. Sugar ration has been cut again, while Art continues to snitch… We have plenty of meat but very little else and after an extended period even great quantities of meat are not very satisfying. [Pessl, pp 120&121]
5 September.
After lunch. Still Art was taking so long that we decided not to travel this afternoon, but to camp here at the end of the portage and kill another caribou. …I had caught only three tiny trout and grayling in an hour and was about to give up, but tried one more pool and hooked an enormous arctic char on my first cast …he went a shade under 15 lb. We had this fish for dinner and he was enough for all of us. Bruce came in about the same time…saying he had shot a caribou and he went back to butcher it. [Frank, in Pessl, pp 121&122]
6 September.
Got a late start this morning due to our unconscious reluctance to head out amid cold, driving snow. But after an hour or so of vigorous paddling, we were warm enough to really enjoy a cold, brisk and remarkable refreshing day. …A heavy wind out of the North kept us from making any real progress and after a lunch of hardtack, etc., and tea, we were pushed against the shore.
Pessl then describes the encounter with the grizzly.
Made camp at the mouth of the Chamberlin River and were happily surprised to find large quantities of driftwood. Have plenty for morning in addition to two full packsacks which we will carry with us and hoard as long as possible. [Pessl, pp 122&123].
6 September.
Franck too described the encounter with the grizzly.
… Then Art settled down close to a ptarmigan to wait for the sun, while George shot two others. …One my way back [from retrieving the forgotten knife], I picked up a good bundle of firewood. …Working together, Bruce and I filled three pack sacks with good wood, in addition to what we needed for dinner and breakfast; enough for three days if we are careful. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 124&125]
7 September.
A sudden squall delayed the start for a few hours.
…we spotted a cache of oil drums… Along with the gasoline, also found a large quantity of dehydrated vegetables. The party helped itself. …only the self-centered joy of finding more food. [Pessl, p 125 (Grant Lake)].
7 September.
…we saw some red gas drums on the beach and pulled over. Behind them, we found a cache of dried vegetables …We tried the gas cans…we filled our five-gallon can and put the remaining white gas in jam cans. …From the cache, we had gotten twenty-four enormous cans of dried vegetables, more than we could possibly eat. We tried cooking one can for dinner and it filled two pots by the time we got all the meat and a handful of Catelli in. We started eating with relish, but the vegetables soon palled and only Joe could finish what was left. Even he nearly got sick that night. I don’t care if I don’t see another vegetable, except onions; I still crave them. [Franck, in Pessl, p 126]
8 September.
Rainy breakfast and the prospect of clearing skies in the near future send us to the tents for a lazy, relatively calm wait. …Intermittent showers kept us in camp until 4 PM. …We are camped above a rocky rapid on a very exposed boulder plain and as I write, the wind and driving snow-rain intensifies. The tent shudders and the nearby “tarp-cook house” flaps violently. Sleep tonight will be restless at best. [Pessl, pp 127&128]
8 September.
Cold and cloudy this morning. As did Pessl, Franck describes the archaeological site. [Franck, in Pessl, p 128]

Comment.
And so end the daily journals of Pessl and Franck (the latter as reported by Pessl). On the next day (9 September), a storm (reported to be of hurricane force in Churchill [SI article, top of the right column, p 82]. I caution that I consider the article to be an unreliable source).
From here until 9/17 our daily, chronological entries end. The days after 9/8 were filled with such horror and suffering that it was impossible to write anything at all. In one moment, this grand adventure had become a nightmare beyond my comprehension. The narrative that follows was written after we had arrived at Baker Lake, after the others had departed and I was alone with my recollections and my demons. [Pessl, in Pessl, p 129]
The sole Pessl/Franck entry regarding food in the period 9 to 14 September.
Up at daylight; four men breaking camp, the other two preparing breakfast of oatmeal with a carefully rationed teaspoon of sugar and a cup of tea, then into the canoes. [Pessl, in Pessl, p 130].

Summary of the evidence of Pessl and Franck.
The party was occasionally short of food in the period from 5 August to 14 September, but it was well fed on the whole. Indeed, as documented in Pessl’s book (I lack access to the corresponding evidence of Moffatt), on three occasions the paddlers were gorged with food. I refer the reader to the entries (provided above) for 22 August, 28 August and 30 August.

The evidence of LeFavour and Lanouette.
Lefavour source. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).
13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting.
14 September.
20 pounds of trout were caught at the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death.
Lanouette source. Private correspondence.
Lanouette confirms the catching of the lake trout; I recall that he gave the weight as 17 ½ lb.

Summary of the food-related evidence of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl.

Food from provisions.
In the period before 7 September, provisions had to be conserved, for there was no guarantee that more caribou and other food from the land would be obtained.
On 7 September, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache.
References. Moffatt’s journal for 7 September. Sports Illustrated article [bottom of the left column on p 82]. Grinnell’s book [pp 180&181]. Pessl’s book [pp 125&126].
I am unable to assess how much food was obtained from provisions in the period. Given that bellies were not full at times, I assume that a decision had been made to conserve provisions for the remainder of the trip, lest no significant additions to the supply be made from the land.
I possess no evidence regarding what in the way of provisions was on board in the afternoon of 14 September, but, given the above, I expect that much of the supply acquired on 7 September was still available a week later.

Food from the land.
Contrary to the assertions of Kingsley in particular, Moffatt had expected to obtain no food at all from the land.
Nevertheless, the land was one of plenty for the most part. Hunting (five caribou and many ptarmigan) was excellent, as was fishing (lake trout, grayling and arctic char); blueberries and mushrooms were harvested, but these only early in the period.

Summary.
In those seven weeks, bellies were not full at times. On the other hand, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.
At lunch on 14 September, the party had so much food on board that it had no more need to hunt.

Interjection.
Having documented the evidence of the participants, I expose the accusations made of Moffatt to the light of that evidence.

Sub-Appendix 5a. The food-related assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Reminders.
The editor’s sole source was Moffatt’s journal, to which s/he had full access.
Sub-Appendix 4a (above) provides the excerpts from Moffatt’s journal that were available to me.

Food from the land.. A comparison of the evidence provided in Moffatt’s journal compared with that provided by the Sports Illustrated

The caribou.
Moffatt’s journal documents that five caribou were shot (these on 5 August, 10 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September).
The SI editor mentioned only one of these, that shot on 11 August.
Comments.
I suggest that the SI editor’s failure to mention the caribou shot on 5 September is particularly relevant to the supply of food available on 14 September, and so to the editor’s assertions game grows scarce and Food was becoming the question now.
In this connection, I repeat the evidence of participant LeFavour (dated 13 September): As we sped through Wharton Lake only the occasional snow flurry fell, an incentive not a deterrent. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).

The fish.
Of the many caught in the period, the SI editor mentioned only the following.
(a) two-pound grayling per man [SI article, middle of the left column on p 75, 26 July]
(b) Moffatt caught a 12-lb lake trout. [SI article, bottom of right column on p 80, 24 August]
Evidence not available to the SI editor. At the lunch break on 14 September, the party caught 20 lb of trout [LeFavour article (1955); Lanouette (private correspondence)].

The ptarmigan.
The SI editor’s sole references to the many ptarmigan obtained.
1. Ptarmigan plentiful here… [SI article, top of the right column on p 80, 21 August]
2. the grizzly flushed three ptarmigan as he ran [SI article, bottom of the left column on p 82, 6 September].
Question. In view of the editor’s assertion game grows scarce, was not the documented acquisition and consumption of many ptarmigan more worthy of mention than the grizzly’s flushing of three such?

The blueberries.
The SI editor made no mention of the many picked.

The mushrooms.
The SI editor’s sole mention of the many mushrooms picked.
George, who had been feeling poorly after trying a yellow mushroom [SI article, middle of the left column on p 80, 20 August.]

Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Statement of the assertion.
Food was becoming the question now. [SI article, 8 August, p 76, top of the left column, p 76]

Response 1.
The editor’s Food was becoming the question now was preceded immediately by the Moffatt passage All is well–enough food—or almost enough. [same source as the above]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 2.
As documented by Moffatt, the first caribou was shot three days earlier, this on 5 August.
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of this event.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 3.
The second caribou was shot on 11 August, as indeed acknowledged by the editor.
Should have mentioned in yesterday’s log that Bruce [LeFavour] went hunting in the morning…shot fork-horn cow caribou. [12 August, SI article, middle of the left column, p 76]

Response 4.
Moffatt’s journal provides the following
…meat supply good, canned meat, fish and caribou. Should make it, unless weather turns very bad. [5 September. SI article, p 82, top of left column].
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 5.
The third, fourth and fifth caribou were shot on 20 August, 26 August and 5 September respectively, all as documented on Moffatt’s journal.
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of these events.
As noted also above, the SI editor omitted mention of the caribou shot on 5 August, also documented in Moffatt’s journal.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 6.
Moffatt’s journal documents that a plethora of other food was obtained from the land: many ptarmigan, many fish (three species), blueberries and mushrooms (the latter two only earlier in the period).
Nowhere in the SI article will the reader find mention of this abundance.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor actually read Moffatt’s journal?

A general question.
Was the Sports Illustrated editor in such unseemly haste to vilify Moffatt that s/he failed to read
either Moffatt’s journal
or her/his own article?

Assertion 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor.
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, 16-17 August, bottom of the right column, p 76.]

Response to “provisions dwindle”.
Yes, provisions dwindle as they are consumed.
But, as documented later in the Sports Illustrated article itself, a massive resupply of provisions was obtained from the cache, on 7 September.
…saw red gas cans…24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Moffatt journal excerpt; Sports Illustrated, 7 September, bottom of the left column on p 82]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read her/his own article?

Response 1 to “game grows scarce”.
As noted also above, the SI editor mentioned the shooting of the second caribou on 11 August, but omitted mention of the other four caribou shootings (those of 5 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September), all documented in Moffatt’s journal.
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 2 to “game grows scarce”.
The SI editor’s sole mentions of the many ptarmigan consumed in the period:
1. Ptarmigan plentiful here… [SI article, top of the right column on p 80, 21 August]
2. the grizzly flushed three ptarmigan as he ran [SI article, bottom of the left column on p 82, 6 September].
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response 3 to “game grows scarce”.
I don’t know whether fish qualify as game, but surely they count as food.
As documented above, Moffatt’s journal documents the catching of many fish in the period.
The SI editor’s only mentions of that bounty.
1. a two-pound grayling per man [SI article, middle of the left column on p 75, 26 July].
2. Moffatt caught a 12-lb lake trout. [SI article, bottom of right column on p 80, 24 August]
Question.
Did the Sports Illustrated editor read Moffatt’s journal?

Response to “In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance”.
The fatal rapids were run without a scout because J B Tyrrell had advised Moffatt that they were not dangerous. And JBT’s advice had proved reliable for the previous 11 weeks of the trip; in particular, the only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in those where Moffatt died.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Concluding remarks regarding the Sports Illustrated article.
1. Given that the SI editor omitted mention of so much evidence favourable to Moffatt, perhaps I am justified in asking the following.
What other evidence does Moffatt’s journal (not fully available to me) contain that is favourable to Moffatt but escaped mention by the SI editor, who had full access to that journal?
2. Opinion.
The SI article is notable both
for its assertions that a shortage of food was in large part responsible for Moffatt’s death, and
for its omissions of evidence that no such shortage existed.

Item 10. Appendix 5b. The food-related assertions of Murphy.

Again, the following assertions were made in what was alleged to be a review of Grinnell’s book.

Murphy assertion 1.
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Murphy assertion 2.
Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit.
Source for both assertions.
Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 and 11.
http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html

Response.
I point out to Murphy the following passages from Grinnell’s book (the very subject of his review), starting from 5 August.
Passage 1.
Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Passage 2.
Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 3.
…picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Passage 4.
…we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 5.
Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 6.
One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 7.
I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 8.
Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Passage 9.
… I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Passage 10.
…we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [p 158]
Passage 11.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [pp 180 & 181].

Summary.
I remind Murphy
first that all these passages appear in Grinnell’s book, and
second that Murphy’s assertions
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise.
Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit.
were made in what was asserted by him to be a review of Grinnell’s book.

The question.
Did Murphy read Grinnell’s book, the very subject of his review?

Item 11. The food-related assertions of Kingsley.

Kingsley’s food-related sources, in order of importance.
Grinnell’s book (1996).
The Sports Illustrated article (1959).
Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988).
Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (May 2012).

Reminder of some evidence of Grinnell’s book (Kingsley’s primary source).
Passage 1.
Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August, pp 97&98].
Passage 2.
Full bellies… [a few days later; p 113].
Passage 3.
…picked blueberries…Art’s blueberry “Johnny Cake”…caribou soup…dehydrated mashed potatoes…freshly butchered caribou steaks…full bellies [12 August, pp 115&116].
Passage 4.
…we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, p 127].
Passage 5.
Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou, … , savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [After 20 August, p 135].
Passage 6.
One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [p 146].
Passage 7.
I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [p 147].
Passage 8. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Passage 9.
… I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, pp 156 & 157].
Passage 10.
…we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries. [p 158]
Passage 11.
As it grew dark…we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. …We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [7 September; pp 180 & 181].

The related evidence (not available to Kingsley) of participant LeFavour.
13 September.
As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. LeFavour article, 1955]
14 September.
At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party added to the above 20 lb of lake trout. [LeFavour article; confirmed by participant Lanouette in private correspondence]

Kingsley assertion 1.
Version 1. After the first two weeks, the crew grew hungry before, during and after every meal. [Up Here, upper right column on p 90].
Version 2. As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during and after every meal. Hunting kept the party fed through August as supplies ran down. [Lake, p 13].
Response.
An admission on my part regarding the second version:
Given that hunting kept the party fed, I don’t understand how it was possible for the the men to grow hungry before, during and after each meal.

Kingsley assertion 2.
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Up Here heading, left column on p 88].
Response 1.
As evinced by his correspondence with J B Tyrrell, Moffatt had believed that the party could live off the initial supply of provisions for the entire 11 weeks or so. That is, Moffatt did the very opposite of envisioning a land of plenty.
Response 2.
Nevertheless, the Moffatt party found the land to be one of plenty in the crucial seven weeks before his death.
Summary. Had Moffatt indeed envisioned a land of plenty, he would have been plenty right.
Opinion regarding the assertion.
A nice turn of phrase, but plenty wrong with respect to the evidence.

Kingsley assertion 3.
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley book, middle of p 188; also Up Here, lower right column on p 90].
Response 1.
Let me quote but one item from Grinnell’s book, Kingsley’s primary source:
Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156].
Response 2.
Begging the reader’s patience, I quote again the evidence of LeFavour for 13 September, the day before Moffatt’s death. …we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting.

The question.
Did Kingsley read Grinnell’s book?

A request.
I ask that the reader assess these three assertions of Kingsley in the light of the evidence available to Kingsley.

Item 12. Summary of the food-related evidence for the period from 5 August to 14 September.

Reminder. This period covers the crucial seven weeks between the shooting of the first caribou and Moffatt’s death.
1. Food from the land. Five caribou were shot (the last on 5 September), many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, many ptarmigan were killed, and many mushrooms and blueberries were harvested (these last two only early in the period).
2. Provisions. On 7 September, a major resupply was obtained from the cache.
3. On three documented occasions in that period, the participants were grossly overfed.
22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99].
28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108]
30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110]
4. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, the party already had so much food on board that it had no more need to hunt. And, for good measure, it caught 20 lb of lake trout before proceeding downstream.
5. Nevertheless, the Sports Illustrated editor, Murphy and Kingsley asserted
first that food was very short in those seven weeks, and
second that such shortage was a major contributing factor to Moffatt’s death.
Conclusions.
Not one food-related assertion made over those 55 years (1959 to 2014) is encumbered by a basis in evidence. That is, the actual food supply in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death bears no resemblance to that represented by the Sports Illustrated editor, Murphy and Kingsley.
The cause of Moffatt’s death is identified in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Item 13. Sub-Appendix 6. Food in the period from 15 September to arrival in Baker Lake on 24 September.

Reminder.
Before the fatal rapids were run on 14 September, the party had enough food on board to see it through to Baker Lake. To be explicit, there was no more need to hunt, or to fish or to forage.
Summary.
Most food (most provisions, the remains of the caribous, and the 20-lb lake trout caught at lunch that day) was lost in the rapids. Also lost were both rifles and the .22 (these were the main means to acquire food from the land, but perhaps the survivors would have lacked time to hunt), and the stove, and all dishes, pots and pans.
The party had to make do with the little that remained; fortunately, that included fishing gear (one rod and one lure).

The evidence of Pessl.
14-16 September.
We had lost our leader, our mentor; both rifles, all our cooking equipment and most of our food, but we had a plan. [Pessl, p 133]
17 September.
Our food consists of some cans of meat which were salvaged, a quantity of wet oats and cornmeal, some dehydrated veggies, and, of course, fish (we were lucky to have saved one casting rod). Breakfast then generally involves a mixture of wet oats, fish and some milk powder cooked in a sort of pasty stew. The rest of the meals are much the same, although lunches are the usual fare of hardtack, etc, (these items having survived in Pete’s canoe). Dinner is usually a repeat of breakfast, with perhaps a chunk of bacon boiled in the stew. We are using large veggie cans to cook in and are eating out of tobacco tins and using knives and sticks as utensils. We are extremely lucky to have been able to improvise in this way, … . The food is all paste, horrible looking, and probably the most welcome dishes these five have ever had. [Pessl, pp 133&134].
18 and 19 September.
For these days, which were spent portaging eight miles from the NE arm of Marjorie Lake (on the Dubawnt River) to the south shore of Aberdeen Lake (on the Thelon River), Pessl records nothing worth mentioning regarding food.
20 September.
The party encountered an Inuit family. Pessl records little regarding food, except …traded knives for tobacco; gave them chocolate bars and dehydrated vegetables… [Pessl, p 138]
21 September.
We just finished our bad-weather breakfast of one hardtack with a spoonful of jam … . Just as we were finishing a cold dinner of a chunk of so-called canned ham and a few apricots in our tents, we were hailed from outside by our Eskimo friend [Alec] of yesterday. “Come, my canoe, tea.” …Soon, Alec came back with a huge kettle of caribou chunks. Meat and wonderful stewing broth after all these days of lean meals! It was marvelous. We stood around chewing on the chunks, drinking teas and talking with smiles and gestures. [Pessl, p 139].
23 September.
Dispatch of our carefully hoarded food supply was the highlight of the day. Breakfast began with two tins full of cornmeal instead of just one, one can of fish/roast beef/mashed potato glop and a large pot of tea. Even with our scanty larder we seem to have come up with a surplus. Lunch saw two extra hardtacks and a few extra hardtacks and a few extra spoonfuls of jam . . . great stuff. Dinner continued with spinach, canned beef glop and a batch of sweet cocoa. For the second time since the 14th, we go to bed with full bellies. [Pessl, pp 141&142].
24 September (arrival in Baler Lake).
Our final lunch enroute to Baker Lake: a moldy hardtack slathered with curry paste. Yum! [Lanouette, private correspondence].
Comments.
1. I was struck by the party’s decision not to ask the Inuit party for food.
2. In addition to the above, Pessl [pp 162&163] provides a most frank and informative discussion of both food and equipment.

Conclusion.
The survivors were hungry most of the time until the chance encounter with an Inuit family shortly before arrival in Baker Lake.
But, even before that encounter, the food deficiency was never life-threatening, the party was never close to starvation.
Even in those dire circumstances, there was never a lack of food as alleged by Murphy.

Summary.

In those crucial seven weeks between 5 August (the shooting of the first caribou) and 14 September (Moffatt’s death), five caribou were shot, many ptarmigan were obtained, many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (the latter two only earlier).
As well, a major resupply of provisions was acquired from the cache (this on 7 September).
Bellies were not full on occasion, but food was never uncomfortably short. Indeed, the paddlers were gorged with food on three documented occasions.

One last time, I provide the assertions of Moffatt’s defamers.
Food was becoming the question now. [Sports Illustrated editor].
…provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated editor].
Lack of food… contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. [Murphy].
Slightly giddy from lack of food… [Murphy].
As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during, and after each meal. [Kingsley].
When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Kingsley].
The caribou were long gone. … Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Kingsley]

Conclusions.

Given that food (both from the land and from provisions) was abundant on the whole in the seven weeks before Moffatt’s death, not one of these seven assertions survives confrontation with the evidence available to his accusers even at the time: Moffatt’s journal (in the case of the Sports Illustrated editor) and Grinnell’s book (in the case of Murphy and Kingsley).
The evidence provided later by the other four participants (Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl) confirms and extends the evidence of Moffatt and Grinnell.
Arthur Moffatt died not from a lack/shortage of food, but rather because he had been misled by the advice of J B Tyrrell, advice that had proved reliable for the previous 11 weeks of the trip (otherwise he would not have followed it on 14 September), but which failed him that day.
Reference. Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
Copyright to excerpts from the journal of Arthur Moffatt remains with the Moffatt family.
Copyright to the remainder of the Appendix belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Edition of 16 January 2018.

Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Appendix 8. Rapids in general.

Foreword.
Some overlap of material presented here (Rapids in general) is unavoidable with that presented in Preliminaries.
1. Moffatt was fully aware of the difficulty of the rapids that lay ahead, as witnessed by his comment
Dr. J. B. Tyrrell left on July 2. Almost two and a half months later, after running scores of dangerous rapids, the party reached the coast. [Art Moffatt’s Prospectus, Sports Illustrated, p 71].
This remark went unmentioned in all the accusatory literature.
2. The Sports Illustrated editor was in full possession of Moffatt’s journal, which describes in particular Dubawnt rapids and how the party dealt with them. In this context, I refer the reader to my discussion (below) of Assertions 1 and 2 of the SI editor.
3. Moffatt’s last journal entry (that for 13 September) contains the passage Following Tyrrell’s route.
We shall soon see what the Sports Illustrated editor did with that passage.
4. The remark If the rapids were too rough, Art simply portaged around them of participant Grinnell [book, middle of p 75, 1996] went unmentioned in all the accusatory literature.
5. Lanouette’s journal for the day of Moffatt’s death contains the passage In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids.
We shall soon see what Grinnell did with that passage.

The redactions.
1. The SI editor redacted the passage Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for 13 September. [SI article, p 82, lower right column].
A full discussion of this passage is provided below, but what conclusion is possible but that Moffatt had obtained route advice from Tyrrell (J B Tyrrell) and that he was following it?
A request.
I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s reason for redacting this passage.
2. Participant Grinnell redacted the passage In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from his version [p 202] of the SI condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September 1955. I note that Lanouette was Moffatt’s bowperson.
Begin aside. The full item (not the condensation) is provided
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt. My opinion is that the condensation is a faithful one.
End aside.
Why were Moffatt and Lanouette were surprised?
Because J B Tyrrell had informed Moffatt, implicitly, that there were no rapids of significance in that reach. That is, Grinnell redacted evidence that Moffatt had been misled by Tyrrell’s advice.
A request.
I ask the reader to reflect on Grinnell’s purpose in redacting that passage,
3. Opinion. Given that both the SI editor and Grinnell redacted evidence that I believe to be exculpatory, it concerns me that the two had at least corresponded before the publication of the SI article, as evinced by the Epilogue on p 88 there.
4. Discussion of the passage Following Tyrrell’s route
redacted by the SI editor from her/his version of Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September
Does the passage evince that Moffatt had followed the Tyrrell party in taking the eastmost of the two exits from Wharton Lake?
Or does it evince that Moffatt was only following Tyrrell’s advice when he ran the fatal rapids without a scout?
I confess that I don’t know.
The matter of the interpretation aside, again I ask that the reader reflect on the editor’s purpose in redacting the passage.

Information from the Tyrrell-Tyrrell trip of 1893.
1. Thanks to the kind, helpful and excessively patient staff at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library of the University of Toronto, I have a copy of the book (known to have been accessed by Moffatt)
Tyrrell, James Williams. Across the Sub-Arctics of Canada (Toronto, 1908)
for the entire reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
The material (largely ethnography) provided by JWT is fascinating in its own right but it sheds no light on the conditions that led to Moffatt’s death. Little mention is made of Dubawnt rapids in general, none of the fatal rapids in particular.
2. Thanks to the same staff, I have a copy of the book (known to have been accessed by Moffatt)
Tyrrell, Joseph Burr. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897) for the same reach (Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet).
Where appropriate, for example for the rapids immediately below Dubawnt Lake, I provide the relevant excerpts. Especially noteworthy is the excerpt regarding the reach just above Marjorie Lake, for it was in this reach that Moffatt died; as I document in Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt, Tyrrell makes no mention of rapids in that reach.
3. But Moffatt had obtained rapids (and likely other) information from J B Tyrrell by other means. In particular, Tyrrell had advised Moffatt not to be concerned with the fatal rapids, as evinced by the following statements of trip participants.
(a) As mentioned above, Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy contains the passage
In a few minutes … real beginning of the first rapids. [condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September; Sports Illustrated, p 85]. I remind the reader that Grinnell redacted this passage, which I suggest to be exculpatory. [Grinnell book, p 202]
(b) Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake following the last portage. [Pessl, private correspondence].
(c) His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point, namely lunch time on 14 September, immediately prior to the running of the fatal rapids. [LeFavour, private correspondence].
4. J W Tyrrell’s book and J B Tyrrell’s book not being the sources for the rapids information documented in point 3, the remaining possibilities are J B Tyrrell’s journal and private correspondence between Moffatt and J B Tyrrell. Unfortunately for a full understanding of the tragedy, neither source is available, as I document in
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.

The assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor.
Assertion 1.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top of right column, p 82, between the Moffatt journal entries for 7 and 9 September].
Assertion 2.
Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of page 76, appearing between the Moffatt entries for 15 and 16 August].
Comment.
I call these assertions because the editor provided no evidence in support of either.

Guide to the discussion of the two assertions.
With respect to the rapids parts of the assertions (the entirety of number 1, plus parts of number 2), this Appendix addresses primarily rapids upstream from those where Moffatt died, whereas Appendix 9 is devoted primarily to the fatal rapids. Given the content of the assertions, some overlap is unavoidable.
I address here also, only briefly because I devote Appendices 6 (Food) and 7 (Schedule) to these matters, the passages provisions dwindle, game grows scarce and nine days behind schedule.
Summary.
As documented here and in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids, the editor’s assertions related to rapids (including the fatal ones) have no basis in any evidence known to me.
As documented in Appendix 6. Food, the editor’s assertions related to the food supply have no basis in any evidence known to me.
As documented in Appendix 7. Schedule the editor’s assertions related to the schedule have no basis in any evidence known to me.
Conclusion.
Given that no part of either assertion has a basis in any evidence known to me,
and that the editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry,
I have significant concerns regarding the objectivity of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Restatement of Assertion 1.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top of right column, p 82, between the Moffatt journal entries for 7 and 9 September].
Comment. Given that the assertion appears between the Moffatt journal entries of 7 September and 9 September, perhaps I should have provided evidence for only the reach below Grant Lake (reached on 5 September [Pessl, p 120].
Well, I omit all mention of the evidence for the evidence for the reach above Nicholson Lake (reached on 14 August [Pessl, p 86]), but I decided to provide (for background) the evidence for the entire reach from the downstream end of Nicholson Lake to the downstream end of Wharton Lake (reached on 8 September [Pessl, p 127]).
The evidence for the reach (between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake) where Moffatt died is provided in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Note.
Assertion 1 is a general remark regarding Dubawnt rapids below Grant Lake, but the suggestion is clear that Moffatt died because he had taken a chance in the rapids above Marjorie Lake.
Pessl’s opinion of Assertion 1.
unsubstantiated nonsense [private correspondence].
Reminder.
The editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September, the day before Moffatt died.
Comments.
It bears repeating that Moffatt’s journal was the only published source for the SI article.
The SI editor identified the locations of none of the churning chutes of white water. Given that the remark appears between selections from Moffatt’s journal for 7 and 9 September, and that no significant rapids were encountered on any of those three days, the SI editor must have been making a general assertion.
I surmise that this one is intended to provide background for the editor’s later assertions taking chances and desperate haste regarding the fatal rapids.
For completeness, I began a general search for churning chutes.
5 August (when the first caribou was shot) is about a month earlier than 7 September, and so I restricted my search (for candidates in Pessl’s book) for the churning chutes) accordingly.
6 August. The wind caused some difficulty, but there was no other problem. [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 70&71].
7 August. Some water was shipped. [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, p 71].
8 August. The party portaged the rapids met that day. [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, p 76].
10 August. Four rapids (one big one) were run. Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 77&78].
13 August. One rapid was run.[Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 84&85].
15 August. As described in the next paragraph, the next rapids were met this day.
I quit.
Out of impatience with the editor’s failure to identify locations of the churning chutes of white water, at this point, I gave up the day-by-day search of Pessl’s book and used other means.

Candidates for the editor’s Assertion 1.
For the entire reach from the downstream end of Nicholson Lake to the downstream end of Wharton Lake, I identified only three candidates for the editor’s churning chutes. The reach immediately below Wharton Lake (the reach where Moffatt died) is discussed in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Candidate 1
is the rapids between Nicholson Lake (lake exited on 15 August 1955, rapids exited on 19 August) and Dubawnt Lake (entered on 21 August).
Candidate 2
is the rapids between Dubawnt Lake (exited on 30 August) and Grant Lake (entered on 6 September).
Candidate 3
is the falls above Wharton Lake (entered on 11 September).
Summary of the evidence for candidates 1 through 3.
The assertion Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye has no basis in evidence for any of the rapids between the downstream end of Nicholson Lake and the upstream end of Wharton Lake.
Moreover, as documented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids, the assertion has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to the rapids where Moffatt died, those from the downstream end of Wharton Lake to the upstream end of Marjorie Lake.
Conclusion.
No part of the assertion of the Sports Illustrated editor
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has a basis in any evidence known to me.

Candidate 1. The Dubawnt River between Nicholson Lake and Dubawnt Lake.

I note that Nicholson Lake is the last major lake upstream from Dubawnt Lake.
For the corresponding rapids, I provide excerpts from J B Tyrrell’s book, Moffatt’s journal, the Sports Illustrated article, Grinnell’s book and Pessl’s book (which contains also the evidence of Franck).
1. The excerpt from J B Tyrrell’s book.
From the north end of Nicholson Lake, the river flows northward for two miles and a half down a heavy rapid, with a descent of about forty feet… Near the foot of the rapid the stream turns eastward, and for about six miles flows in the bottom of a valley from 150 to 200 feet deep. [p 55F]
2. The excerpt from Moffatt’s journal.
All along it was it was very heavy current and big waves. I was tired + hungry – it was now 5 pm. – and knew it was no time to make decisions -… [Pessl, private correspondence]
3. The Sports Illustrated version of Moffatt’s journal.
All along we could see it was a very heavy current and big waves. We were hungry. It was late now and I was tired. I knew this was no time to make a decision. [SI article, right column of p 76]
One sees that the SI version is a faithful version of Moffatt’s, but a gratuitous one.
4. The evidence of Grinnell’s book.
Passage 1.
The date was August 15th. We had been held up by a dangerous rapids that ran through a gorge ahead. There was a high cliff on our side of the river, which made scouting the rapids difficult. After spending an afternoon scouting, Art had been unable to decide whether to portage around the gorge or to shoot it. By the end of the day, he had decided to make camp and to take a second look in the morning.
The next morning, rain squalls were lashing our tents. Art decided to wait out the storm. He thought that if the weather would cooperate, the gorge could be shot; but the weather was not co-operating. The squalls blowing up the gorge created high waves in the rapids.
We set up the kitchen tarpaulin to wait out the weather. Wild storm clouds continued to blow this way and that… ; and thus we waited for four days for Art to make a decision about the gorge.
[p 122].
Passage 2.
The following is identical to the SI version apart from the addition of the date. August 15th: … All along we could see it was a very heavy current and big waves. We were hungry. It was late now and I was tired. I knew this was no time to make a decision. [p 132]
Passage 3.
Three days later, Art had still not made a decision…; but on the following day, Art loaded his canoe and took Skip down the rapids as his bowman. … As it turned out, the portaging had been an unnecessary precaution: the rapids in the gorge were no worse than many others we had shot. But perhaps Art had been right to be cautious, even though we had wasted the better part of four days. In the wilderness, it is both easy and fatal to get careless; and after the gorge, Art did get careless. [p 133].
As I remark also below, I caution that Grinnell’s Art did get careless refers only to the rapids of 20 August. In particular, it does not refer to the fatal rapids of 14 September.
Comment.
According to Grinnell, Moffatt’s caution regarding these rapids had resulted in the loss of the better part of four days. I agree that Moffatt had exercised great caution, but quibble that the storm cost one of those days.
5. The evidence of Pessl’s book.
15 August.
…We soon stopped to look over two rapids, both of which we decided to run. As I entered the first rapid it became evident that things were not entirely as they had looked from the shore. … By the time we reached the lower eddy, we crouched in a waterlogged, sluggish canoe and slowly made our way to shore. … Bruce and I helped the other two canoes portage. … We stopped for the night at the head of a heavy rapid… [Pessl, pp 88&89].
… we pulled over to look at the first rapid. There was about a quarter of a mile of swift water above it, but the main rapid is short, steep and narrow; no rocks, but full of bad waves. Skip ran it first, but almost swamped, … the river narrowed down and got very swift heading into a deep gorge. Here we pulled aside on the right and walked down half a mile or so to scout. This one is very bad. [Franck, in Pessl, p 89]
16 August.
We spent the entire morning scouting this very difficult rapids…large breaking waves and sharp curves…pulsating current…Returned to camp with two plans…The protection of our supplies dictates our caution. [Pessl, p 90]
For that day, Franck records plans for the rapids. [Pessl, p 91]
17 August.
The day was spent in camp, due to bad, then threatening weather.
The big rapid still remains a problem. Hope we can tackle it tomorrow. [Pessl, p 92]
No new decision has been reached on the rapid question… [Franck, in Pessl, p 93]
18 August.
Art and I spent the morning scouting the w shore after a tricky crossing and returned with the dilemma still unresolved. … We spent the rest of a cold, disappointing day huddled in the tent… [Pessl, p 94]
19 August.
…Well, we finally shot the rapid and the beauty and the pride and the confidence of overcoming a difficult obstacle pervades us all. …The rest of the afternoon was spent in an exhilarating ride down the swift, sharply defined river as it flowed thru beautiful bedrock canyons in long sweeping S turns. [Pessl, p 94]
Comment. Franck provides more details regarding the running of these rapids. [Pessl, p 95]
Summary regarding Candidate 1.
Please note Moffatt’s extreme caution regarding the rapids below Nicholson Lake, caution that Grinnell suggests to have been largely unnecessary. I’m not sure though that I agree with Grinnell’s assessment.
The important point is that the Moffatt party ran these rapids only after considerable scouting.
With regard to these rapids, the party was certainly not taking chances; it certainly did not shoot down churning chutes of white water.
Conclusion.
The Sports Illustrated editor’s
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to the rapids between Nicholson Lake and Dubawnt Lake.

The rapids of 20 August.

Although these rapids, which lie several days’ travel below Nicholson Lake, are not candidates for the churning chutes, I discuss them because I found disturbing the editor’s representation of the evidence regarding them.
1. The relevant passage from Moffatt’s journal.
Off at 11 in am. Up little lake against head wind, into river, and down with swift current to couple of heavy but short rapids, of which I looked over the 2nd only. Shot both. [Pessl, private correspondence]
2. The corresponding excerpt from the Sports Illustrated article; the editor alleges this to be an excerpt from Moffatt’s journal.
Today we shot a couple of heavy but short rapids, only the second of which I looked over. Not very smart of me. I probably should have been more careful. [SI article, middle of the left column on p 80]
One sees that the fragment only the second of which I looked over. Not very smart of me. I probably should have been more careful is a fabrication of the editor.
3. On his page 133, Grinnell quoted verbatim the above passage from the SI article. I have no quarrel with that action.
But, in his introduction to that passage, Grinnell remarked …after the gorge, Art did get careless. I assume that Grinnell was deceived by the fabrication of the editor, with whom he had corresponded.
4. I caution that Grinnell’s Art did get careless refers only to the rapids of 20 August. In particular, it does not refer to the fatal rapids of 14 September.
Conclusion.
The passage Today we shot…more careful. is a fabrication on the part of the editor, yet another reason to believe nothing in the Sports Illustrated article unless it has independent confirmation.
That matter aside, the passage was written with reference to the rapids of 20 August, only.

Candidate 2. The Dubawnt River between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake.

Introduction.
The Moffatt party exited Dubawnt Lake on 30 August [Pessl, p 111] and entered Grant Lake on 6 September [Pessl, p 122]. Between the two lakes lies a gorge impassable by tripping parties.
I provide first the evidence of J B Tyrrell for the entire reach between the two lakes.
I provide then the evidence of the participants
for the reach above the gorge, followed by that
for the gorge itself, and finally that
for the reach below the gorge.

The evidence of J B Tyrrell for the reach between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake.
The river, where it leaves the lake, is about 200 yards wide. It almost immediately flows down two slight rapids, after which it has a current of four miles an hour… The channel rapidly deepens…and the stream rushes along in long swift rapids which required all the dexterity of our good canoemen to run. …
Seven miles below Doobaunt Lake, the river flows…and then suddenly contracts, and for two miles rushes as a foaming torrent down a narrow gorge about twenty-five yards wide, descending in the distance one hundred feet…
Past this heavy rapid, which is the most serious obstruction on the whole river, a portage two miles and a half was made on the south bank. …
At the foot of this heavy rapid the river discharges into Grant Lake. …
[p 63 F]

The evidence of Pessl and Franck for the reach between Dubawnt Lake and the gorge.
I provide the day-by-day evidence of both Pessl and Franck, as reported in Pessl’s book.
30 August. Pessl.
After lunch, skies cleared and we enjoyed one more rare “shirts off” day as we paddled the remaining 15 miles across the bay [Outlet Bay] to the, …as we approached the narrowing we gradually became conscious of the increasing current while in the distance the almost forgotten river sounds of rushing water and rumbling rapids gradually became audible.
We are back on the river now, floating on a current strengthened by the entire drainage of the huge lake and driving toward the long treacherous 2½-mile outlet rapid flowing through a steep canyon and finally settling in Grant Lake.
[Pessl, p 111]
31 August. Pessl.
Beautiful morning of sun and successful rapid shooting gave us high hopes that we would be camped this evening at the beginning of the long portage to Grant Lake.
Two long rapids before lunch and a long difficult one after were negotiated with little trouble and we then pulled up in a bay to scout the approach to the gorge.
I spent about 3 hours walking along the river, sketching routes through the remaining rapids and finally reached a high bluff where the portage follows the rim of the gorge. …Over my right shoulder the turquoise water of Grant Lake stretches as an enticing reward for the coming strenuous portage. …
The first rapid was run under very difficult conditions due to the wind and its effect on the waves and we were forced to make camp…
[Pessl, pp 112&113].
31 August. Franck
provides a more complete description of the approach to the gorge.
Still warm and sunny today. We got going down the river fairly early. I looked over the first rapid and then went ahead. …I just got through the first rapid… Then I stopped to look over one that went around a bend to the right. It looked easy to shoot on the right side, so I kept on going through the next two. Then I stopped to look one over that went around a bend to the right. It looked easy to shoot on the right side, so I walked down to look at the next. I didn’t really take a careful look, but what I did see looked easy, so I walked back to where I had left the canoe. By this time, Art and Skip had caught up. They got out to look at the first one, but took my word that the next one was easy, so I jumped in the canoe and shot down first. [Franck, in Pessl, pp 113 &114]
From this point (the top of p 114) to the middle of p 115, Franck recounts the group’s adventures in running rapids above the gorge.
1, 2 and 3 September.
The party was weatherbound for the entirety of the three days. [Pessl, pp 115-119].
4 September. Pessl.
After breakfast, we loaded in the snow, shot one rapid in the midst of a heavy flurry and then unloaded for the long portage. [Pessl, p 119]
4 September. Franck.
… we pulled over to the other side and stopped to look over the last rapid before the portage started. We ran it close to the right side, but by the time that we got through and over to the head of the portage, it was…time for lunch. … The most beautiful portage I have ever made and the most beautiful spot on the river so far. … [Pessl, pp 119&120]
5 September. Pessl.
We spent the better part of the day completing the portage and the late afternoon killing and butchering what will probably be our last caribou. [Pessl, p 121]
Comment. It was indeed the last.
5 September. Franck.
After lunch, it started to cloud over from the north but it was still quite calm. Still, Art was taking so long that we decided not to travel, but to camp here at the end of the portage and kill a caribou; … [Pessl, p 122]
Summary of the evidence regarding the reach above the gorge.
All rapids were scouted thoroughly before being run.
All serious rapids were portaged.
There were no dumps in the entire reach.
No member of the party took chances with regard to these rapids.
No member of the party shot down churning chutes of white water.
Conclusion.
The Sports Illustrated editor’s
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to the rapids between Dubawnt Lake and the gorge.

The gorge itself.
Summary.
The entire reach of the gorge was portaged by every member of the party, beginning on 4 September and finishing on 5 September [Pessl, pp 119-122],
Conclusion.
The Sports Illustrated editor’s assertion Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
has no basis in any evidence known to me with respect to with respect to the rapids in the gorge.
Extraneous comments regarding the gorge.
impassable heavy rapids…enormous waves…never experienced such an expression of power and unalterable force…the infinite power of the river… [Pessl, pp 117-118].
…wonderful green and white waves, some ten feet high in the gorge itself. The green, white and cobalt-blue water was a beautiful sight… [Moffatt, Sports Illustrated, right side of p 81].

The Dubawnt River between the gorge and Grant Lake.

The evidence of Moffatt’s journal for 6 September for that reach.
The following excerpt was kindly provided by Pessl in private correspondence.
Breakfast at 8- cloudy, cold and snow flurries- but decided to move, very strong NW wind. Also decided to portage last 100 yds. of rapid, partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or hurting film & cameras…Also portage took some time…very shallow and swift stretch, but not really bad. …
Skip and Pete both shot it, both hitting rocks…Skip cracking rib, Pete cracking planking. Anyway, got past worst part, shot through last few riffles, turned north across mouth of river where north wind was working up heavy seas as it blew over strong current…

Comment. One sees that Moffatt took extra precautions to protect the film and cameras; that concern continued to his death. In fairness, though, Moffatt portaged in part to get warm.

The evidence of Moffatt’s journal for 6 September, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article.
Breakfast at 8. Cloudy, cold, snow flurries and very strong northwest wind, but decided to move anyway, despite the dangers. We haven’t much time left. Also decided to portage the last 100 yards of rapid, partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or of hurting film and cameras.
… Also portage took some time. Skip and Pete both shot it, both hitting rocks, Skip cracking a rib, Pete cracking planking.
[SI article, p 82, top of left column].
Comment. I don’t understand why the SI editor omitted the passage …very shallow and swift stretch, but not really bad from Moffatt’s journal for 6 September; that matter aside, the passage evinces that no major rapids existed below the gorge.

The evidence of Pessl’s book regarding that reach.
5 September. The portage around the gorge was completed [Pessl and Franck, in Pessl, pp 120-122], but there lay yet ahead rapids above Grant Lake.
6 September. First off, Bruce and I shot a rocky rapid flowing into the lake [Grant Lake]. We struck a rock just after leaving shore and were able to stop in an eddy to check for damage [none was found at that time]…we started out again, this time making it with no trouble. Art and Pete watched from shore. Art chose to portage. Pete shot the rapid, hit a rock in the shoals below and splintered a plank. …When we unloaded the canoe, I found that the morning rock had splintered the planking and cracked a rib pretty badly… [Pessl, pp 122&123]
6 September. Skip and I decided to shoot down through what is left of the rapid into Grant, while Art made a portage to warm up. Skip went first, but struck a rock at the head of the rapid. …I shoved off and got further out in the middle, but I struck head on and bounced off a rock about half way down. It sounded awful, but when we looked later, we found that there was a little piece of the planking knocked in and the canvas wasn’t cut; no serious damage. The rest of the rapid was all dangerously shoal, but we got though all right. Skip and I waited for Art… [Franck, in Pessl, p 124]
Comment. And so Moffatt chose to portage part of the lower reach; occupants of the other two canoes ran that reach in its entirety.

The evidence of Pessl’s first email message regarding the reach below the gorge.
For the reader’s convenience, I repeat the assertion of the Sports illustrated editor.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye
Pessl responds. This is a rather large editorial leap from the reality of our situation, probably inspired by the fact that Peter and I shot the rapids at the entrance to Grant Lake on Sept. 6. We both hit rocks in that rapids and sustained minor damage to our canoes, while Art portaged the bottom part of the same rapids. But that was a considered strategy; Art choosing to portage “…partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or of hurting film and cameras.” [p 140 of Moffatt’s journal, reported faithfully in the Sports Illustrated article, top left of p 82].
Both Art and Peter watched from shore as I shot the rapids. Peter followed, then Art near the bottom of the rapids. This was all a pretty normal and shared situation: rapids examined, options discussed and decisions made. Not a risky departure from our standard procedure as suggested by the SI writer.

The evidence of Pessl’s second email message regarding the reach below the gorge.
Comment. The following is lightly edited from Pessl’s email message (of 26 November 2016), kindly and generously supplied, as always.
… I have spent considerable time reviewing the various pertinent journals and following the maps with the journal descriptions …
The rapid entering the southern end of Grant Lake which we encountered on 6 September is described as a “…very shallow and swift stretch, but not really bad.”
[Moffatt journal, pp 140-141].
I described that rapid as “…a rocky rapid flowing into the lake.” [Pessl, p 122].
Peter noted after bouncing off a rock and crunching a plank, “the rest of the rapid was all dangerously shoal with barely enough water for the canoe.” [Pessl, p 124].
My recollection is of a wide, shallow stretch of the river entering Grant with swift flow and many boulders. But nothing of the high energy flows and narrow channels that might be described as “churning chutes”.
Pessl’s summary.
From 6 September (when we entered the upper reaches of Grant Lake) until 11 September (when we entered Wharton Lake), the challenges to our travel were strong winds, snow and freezing temperatures, not difficult fast water, certainly not “churning chutes”.
Well, I hope this clarifies the circumstances of the early-mid Sept. Moffatt journey to the best of my knowledge and reference to the available journals. It was the weather, not the river channel/flow that challenged us while below the Dubawnt Lake outlet gorge into Grant Lake and then on to Wharton Lake.

Summary of the evidence for Candidate 2 (the reach between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake).
1. Waters above the gorge were run in their entirety by all members of the party, without difficulty.
2. Only the waters of the gorge are truthfully described as churning chutes of white water. But the entire gorge was portaged by all members of the party.
3. Four members of the party ran all waters below the gorge.
Moffatt (and so his bowperson Lanouette) portaged that reach …partly to get warm, also to avoid risk of wetting or of hurting film and cameras. [p 140 of Moffatt’s journal, reported faithfully in the Sports Illustrated article, top left of p 82].
Conclusions regarding that reach.
The Sports Illustrated editor provided no evidence in support of his/her assertion
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye.
The evidence of the participants with respect to the rapids between Dubawnt Lake and Grant Lake begs leave to differ with the assertion of the SI editor.

Candidate 3. The falls above Wharton Lake.

These falls (the Uksurlajuaq Rapids at Toporama) are located two unnamed lakes below Grant Lake.
As I now document, they were portaged in their entirety, by all members of the party, on 10 September (given incorrectly as 8 September in Pessl’s book).

The evidence of Pessl’s email message.
Comment. The following is lightly edited from Pessl’s email message (of 26 November 2016) supplied by him kindly and generously, as always.
… I have spent considerable time reviewing the various pertinent journals and following the maps with the journal descriptions …

We portaged around the falls above Wharton Lake on 10 September. On 11 September, we “shot last run of the rapid below falls, rough at first, green waters over boulders, then shallow, wide channel, hard to see in poor light, another rapid and Wharton Lake.” [Moffatt journal, p 150].
Pessl’s summary.
From 6 September (when we entered the upper reaches of Grant Lake) until 11 September (when we entered Wharton Lake), the challenges to our travel were strong winds, snow and freezing temperatures, not difficult fast water, certainly not “churning chutes”.
Well, I hope this clarifies the circumstances of the early-mid Sept. Moffatt journey to the best of my knowledge and reference to the available journals. It was the weather, not the river channel/flow that challenged us while below the Dubawnt Lake outlet gorge into Grant Lake and then on to Wharton Lake.

Summary of the evidence regarding Assertion 1, with respect to Candidate 3 (the falls above Wharton Lake).
In the reach between Grant Lake and Wharton Lake, the only waters that are truthfully described as churning chutes are those of the falls above Wharton Lake.
Every member of the party portaged those falls.

Summary regarding Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.
0. Restatement of Assertion 1, provided for the reader’s convenience.
Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye.
1. Review of the evidence presented above.
(a) Assertion 1 has no basis in any evidence known to me regarding any waters from the downstream end of Nicholson Lake to the downstream end of Wharton Lake.
(b) More importantly, the evidence presented in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids evinces that Assertion 1 has no basis in evidence regarding the rapids between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake; it was in these rapids that Moffatt died on 14 September 1955.
I mention in particular that he only dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died.
Summary.
The Sports Illustrated editor provided no evidence, and I found none in all my research, that the Moffatt party took chances
in the reach above Nicholson Lake, or
in the reach between Nicholson Lake and Wharton Lake, and
in particular in the reach where Moffatt died (that between Wharton Lake and Marjorie Lake).
Conclusion.
The party took no chances at any time from the day that it exited Nicholson Lake to the day that it entered Marjorie Lake. In particular, it took no chances including 14 September 1955.
Neither exists there evidence that the party took chances in the reaches upstream from Nicholson Lake and downstream from Marjorie Lake.

Assertion 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

The statement of Assertion 2.
Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [bottom right of page 76, appearing between the Moffatt entries for 15 and 16 August].

1. The nine days behind schedule part of Assertion 2.
In late August, the Moffatt party of 1955 was indeed behind the schedule of the Tyrrell party of 1893.
But the Moffatt party was not following the Tyrrell schedule! The Tyrrell party arrived in Baker Lake on 2 September, whereas the Moffatt party had scheduled arrival there on 15 September (with a grace period of seven days)!
The evidence suggests that, in late August, the Moffatt party was on track to reach Baker Lake within the allowed margin of seven days, that is by 22 September. Indeed, despite the tragedy and the unprecedented storm, the party reached Baker Lake on 24 September (two days after the expiry of the grace period).
A request.
I ask the reader to assess the nine days behind schedule part of Assertion 2 in the light of the evidence presented above.
Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.

2. The …Barren Grounds. The days grow colder… part of Assertion 2.
I acknowledge
that the Moffatt party was indeed travelling in the Barren Grounds, and
that the days were indeed growing colder, on average.

3. The provisions dwindle part of Assertion 2.
I acknowledge that the provisions on board from the beginning dwindled as they were consumed.
But the SI editor omitted mention here of the discovery and harvesting of the cache on 7 September, as documented on page 82 of her/his own article.
Given that I have learned to trust nothing in the strong>SI
article, I note that the liberation of provisions from the cache was documented also by Grinnell [pp 180&181] and Pessl [p 125].
Summary.
Provisions were bountiful from 7 September until most were lost on 14 September.
A request.
I ask the reader to assess the provisions dwindle part of Assertion 2 in the light of the evidence presented above and in Appendix 6.
Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

4. The game grows scarce part of Asssertion 2.
Moffatt’s journal, to which the editor had full access, documents that five caribou were shot in the period from 5 August to 14 September; the dates were 5 August, 11 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September. Moffatt’s evidence is confirmed by that of LeFavour’s article, Grinnell’s book and Pessl’s book.
Indeed, at lunchtime on 14 September (the day of the tragedy), the party had on board so much caribou meat that it had no need to hunt again; as well, it caught a 20 lb lake trout over lunch. [LeFavour].
And the party obtained many ptarmigan and fish.
A request.
I ask the reader to assess the game grows scarce part of Assertion 2 in the light of the evidence presented above and in Appendix 6.
Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

5. The races against winter…desperate haste…ultimate chance… part of Asssertion 2.
Analysis.
The editor all but states that Moffatt died because he was in such haste to reach Baker Lake that he could not afford time to scout the rapids where he died; the editor provided no supporting evidence. As I document in Appendix 5. Pace and weather freeze-up was not a possibility at any time until well into October.
Reminder.
As I documented above, the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September, the day before Moffatt died. Why was that redaction made if to conceal the fact that Moffatt had route advice from J B Tyrrell and was following it?
A request.
I ask that the reader consider the light that this editorial action sheds on the editor’s triple-header assertion races against winter…desperate haste…ultimate chance.
Moffatt died rather because he had been misled by the advice of J B Tyrrell, advice that had proved trustworthy for the previous 11 weeks of the trip.
Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids

Evidence relevant to both Assertions 1 and 2.
Please note
Moffatt’s cautious approach (described in Grinnell’s book) regarding the rapids below Nicholson Rapids,
and his portaging of rapids (run by others) immediately above Grant Lake,
and the party’s portaging of rapids/falls above Wharton Lake, and
and the party’s portaging of a set of rapids above the fatal ones, this on the very day that he died.
Are we to believe that Moffatt, at most a few hours later, panicked and in desperate haste to reach Baker Lake, took the ultimate chance and decided to risk everything, lives included, by running the fatal rapids without a scout?

Summary.
No part of Assertions 1 and 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor has a basis in evidence, save
that the party was travelling in the barrenlands, and
that the days were growing colder, on average.

After the tragedy.
Rather than attempt the dangerous rapids (Tyrrell’s London Rapids) below Marjorie Lake, and almost certainly also to save time, the survivors portaged from the northeast end of Marjorie to the east side of the peninsula in Aberdeen Lake on the Thelon River.
https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/zone.cfm?ID=1893&zone=6
http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=125&t=46351

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 1. Accusations.

Ancillary 1. The accusatory literature.

Introduction.

In the afternoon of 14 September 1955, Arthur Moffatt died of hypothermia after his canoe overturned in rapids on the Dubawnt River in what is now Nunavut. False assertions regarding the cause of his death were published for 55 years, beginning in 1959. As a result, the paddling community, including senior and highly respected members of it, became convinced that the cause was general incompetence on his part. But If everyone agrees what the story was, then it is certainly not true. [Kenn Harper, Wilderness and Canoeing Symposium (Toronto, February 2018); paraphrased]. https://www.wcsymposium.com/sites/default/files/2018_wcs_program_v10.pdf The following confronts the accusations made of Moffatt with the evidence, especially that of the trip participants. Conclusion. A dead man was falsely accused for 55 years, in many instances knowingly.

Classification of the accusatory literature.

The primary accusatory literature consists of publications whose authors had direct access to at least one publication of a participant, and who redacted exculpatory evidence, ignored exculpatory evidence, published falsehoods, published fabrications, deceived their readers by misrepresenting evidence known to them. Some of these authors deserve fully the appellation defamer. The secondary accusatory literature consists of publications whose authors acted in good faith but who were misled by the publications of the primary accusatory literature.

The true accusations.

Lest they be lost in the literally dozens of the other variety, I document here all seven true accusations found in my four years of research into the cause of Moffatt’s death; these are full versions of the précis provided in my Main text. True accusation 1. The spare paddles. The source. The three spare canoe paddles had been left behind in Stony Rapids. [Sports Illustrated (1959), p 72] Repeated without mention of the source by Inglis (1978) and independently by Kingsley (2012 and 2014). Response. The spares were delivered the very next day, and so the start was delayed by one day, only. Suggestion. The SI mention was documentary rather than accusatory. Opinion. Picking of the little red fruit by both Inglis and Kingsley. True accusation 2. The radio. The source. We carried no radio. [Grinnell book (1996), p 11, two instances]. The assertion of Kingsley. …they didn’t even bring a radio. (2013) Response. Moffatt requested, but was refused, permission to carry a radio. And it bears explicit mention that possession of a radio would not have averted his death. Opinion. Documentation by Grinnell, picking of the little red fruit by Kingsley. True accusation 3. Moffatt’s provisioning and the supply of fat. Aside. As best I know, freeze-dried foods came into public use only in the late 50s – early 60s. Before then, canoe parties relied on provisions, fish and chance encounters with wildlife. Reference. http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=46868 Background. Based on his considerable experience in outfitting trips, Moffatt had cause to believe that the initial supply of provisions (which contained no fat) would meet the food needs of the party for the entire trip; indeed, he expressed that opinion in his first letter to J B Tyrrell. In this, he was severely mistaken, perhaps because he had underestimated the effort required to make the portages, carrying all that food. But Moffatt did not place full reliance on provisions, for the party carried two rifles and fishing gear. Comment 1 of Luste. …it is evident that not enough food, or specifically, food with high caloric comment, such fat, was purchased for the trip. This long, on short food rations, would have consumed much, if not all, of the body fat their bodies started with. [Grinnell book, middle of p 286] Response. The phrases purchased and would have lead me to conclude that the comment refers only to Moffatt’s provisions (which contained no fat), specifically not to the supply of food on the trip. Comment 2 of Luste. The Moffatt party was woefully short of provisions and caloric energy sustenance… [Grinnell book, top of p 288] Response. Given the evidence provided below regarding food acquired on the trip (especially that provided in Grinnell’s book), I conclude that Comment 2 also refers solely to the initial supply of provisions. The comment of Kingsley. The Moffatt expedition was clearly unprepared in the material sense. Not enough food–neither in quantity nor quality. [Kingsley. Back and Beyond. Lake. Issue 6 (2013); p 14]. I assume this to be a paraphrase of Luste’s remarks. Given that Kingsley referred only to Moffatt’s provisioning (his preparations), explicitly not to the supply of food available on the trip, I agree completely. Summary of food acquired in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Five caribou, many fish, many ptarmigan, blueberries and mushrooms (the latter two only earlier), plus a major resupply of provisions on 7 September. Details are provided below. The supply of fat. Lacking both the background in nutrition science and the knowledge of how much fat was obtained from the caribou and the fish, I am unable to make an informed reply. But Pessl comes to the rescue. 1. Our standard daily meals were generally minimal, approximately 2,400 calories for an oatmeal breakfast with milk and sugar, lunch of pilot biscuit, cheese, jam, and peanut butter, and a glop dinner. This basic menu was frequently, but not regularly, augmented by instant pudding dessert, berries with milk, a johnny cake treat, mushrooms, chocolate, caribou organs and meat, ptarmigan, fish and roe. But even with these additions we were probably well short of the recommended 4,000 calories per day. … The lack of fat in our diet, on the other hand, probably contributed to a serious caloric deficiency that may have exacerbated our discomfort in the cold, wet season and may have resulted in reduced energy and endurance. [book, p 162] I note that Pessl does not suggest that the quality of the food played a role in Moffatt’s death. 2. We made a curious mistake early in the trip in not taking advantage of the Canada goose as a ready source of fat… With respect to the later part of the trip, he provided the following. Cooking a sturdy goose on a smouldering heather/twig fire on a wet, windy day in the Barrens would probably have been a real challenge, no matter how much we craved the fat. [book, top of p 163] Some details regarding the food supply in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. I document below the 13 participant evidences known to Moffatt’s accusers from the SI article (1959) and from Grinnell’s book (1996), plus four participant evidences (published later) that were known to no accuser. These 17 items evince that the Moffatt party ate well on the whole in those weeks. The evidence of participant LeFavour, which became available only a few years ago, is especially relevant to the accusations that a lack/shortage of food played a role in Moffatt’s death; the point is lunchtime on 14 September. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).] Conclusion. I am not qualified to assess the quality, but the quantity of the food certainly played no role in the tragedy. A request. Given the evidence provided above, especially that of LeFavour, I ask that the reader consider the truth of the following assertions: 1. lack of food…contributed to Moffatt’s death. [Murphy] 2. the caribou were long gone. [Kingsley] References regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. The evidence presented at the beginning of Main text, and also in the following: Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. True accusation 4. The supply of sugar and its distribution. The evidence of Grinnell regarding the supply. Evidence 1. A week later Pessl announced that we had consumed half our sugar supply while covering less than one-third the distance to Baker Lake. [Grinnell article, top of right column, p 20; undated] Evidence 2. Skip took the opportunity to check our supplies. After dinner, he announced that if we continued consuming sugar at the current rate, we would run out before the trip was half over. [Grinnell book, pp 34&35, undated] Aside 1. Undated material related to the sugar supply is provided also on pages 35-37 of Grinnell’s book. Aside 2. We stopped early that afternoon to unpack and dry out the provisions from the grey canoe; and while we waited, Skip took the opportunity to check our supplies once again. At dinner, he announced that we had consumed more sugar after going on Art’s “honor system” than we had before. [Grinnell book, top of p 80 to the middle of p 81; undated] The evidence of Pessl regarding the supply. 1. Had a grumpy outbreak over the sugar situation. We are now 1/2 through the supply and only about 1/3 of the distance to Baker Lake. After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. Hope it works. [Pessl, 29 July, p 56; Hinde Lake] Comments. Pessl is a faithful witness, and so I accept that half the sugar supply had been consumed by 29 July, as asserted in Grinnell’s article. 2. Doled out the sugar ration into six small cans. The four guys seem somewhat in love with the idea of individual rations… Not sure how Art feels about all this. [Pessl, 30 July, pp 56&57] Aside. The sugar shortage was, I think, more a matter of self-discipline (or the lack thereof) than a serious health or energy issue. It did, however, contribute significantly to tension and group conflict. [Pessl, bottom of p 162] The evidence regarding the distribution of the supply. 1. Grinnell asserted several times that Moffatt was taking more than his share of the sugar. [book, pp 34-37 and 80&81)] 2. Confirmation. Once, Pessl caught his mentor, Moffatt, stealing extra sugar from the bag. [Kesselheim, Alan. 57 years Ago. Canoe & Kayak, May 2012, p 46]. Conclusion. Given that no further mention was made of either the supply of sugar or its distribution, the solution each will carry his own supply worked thereafter. Aside regarding the distance remaining. I trust Pessl completely and so I accept that, on 29 July, the party had covered only about 1/3 of the distance from Black Lake to Baker Lake. But I fuss, and so I’ll measure that distance at Toporama, one fine day. Aside regarding the time remaining. Given that the early part of the trip (the ascent of the Chipman River from Black Lake to Selwyn Lake and so to the basin of the Dubawnt River) was difficult and consequently slow, perhaps the more important measure is the time, rather than the distance, remaining. Analysis. (a) The trip began on 29 June, and so the party was 31 days into it on 29 July. (b) The party was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 15 September, but with a grace period of seven days, for a maximum of 87 days. Conclusion. He didn’t intend such, but Pessl’s one-third accurately measures the time elapsed. True accusation 5. Moffatt’s bowl and his extra portions. The size of Moffatt’s bowl. Evidence 1. …Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours. [Grinnell article (1988), p 21, middle of the left column] Evidence 2. Moffatt ate out of a larger bowl than the rest of us. [Grinnell book (1996), middle of p 25] Evidence 3. …the extra large dishes he ate from… [Grinnell book, bottom of p 31] Evidence 4. Pessl [book, caption to the photo on p 85]. Evidence 5. Franck [Pessl book, top of p 86]. Evidence 6. Lanouette journal (below). The resolution. On August 22, Moffatt came to breakfast and picked up one of the standard bowls… [Grinnell article, p 21, middle of the left column] And I found no further mention of the matter. Moffatt’s extra portions. Evidence 1. Grinnell book, pp 123 & 124. Evidence 2. Art was also caught by Bruce taking 7 serving spoons of glop to our 5 ½ and, that from now on, we are going to watch him with eagle eyes. Art has a special aluminum pannikin which holds a lot more than our bowls. [Lanouette journal for 10 August] The resolution. I found no further mention of the matter. True accusation 6. running scared. Sources. Sports Illustrated (1959) [middle of right column, p 82]; Kingsley (2012). Reminder. The SI editor possessed Moffatt’s journal in its entirety. My search revealed the editor’s source to have been the following. Moffatt’s journal for 10 September. With the exception of personal material omitted also by the SI editor, I provide the complete text of Moffatt’s journal for that day (when the party entered Wharton Lake), as transcribed by Pessl and as kindly provided by him in private correspondence; the question marks and quotation marks are his insertions. Finished portage across sand beach about 200 yds, this am by 10:30. Then on – portage everybody running scared now; third day of snow, strong north wind, freezing all day. Frozen feet a real worry, our boots being porous as blotting paper. By noon, across lake + in river again, lunch on north shore opposite place where Tyrrell met 1st eskimo. Brewed tea, … [personal material omitted] In spite of strong winds + snow squalls, made it with help of strong current, down to (?) falls above Wharton Lake, ice on paddles, hills still white, no sun. Finished portage 5:30, I cooked caribou, beets, pudding + tea, Made portage north side – should be on south but this side easier to get to–can’t risk an upset now. Saw caribou mother + calf swim icy river ahead of us today, also one rough leg hawk, 1 (?) loon, several herring gull, small birds “abent”? Several signs of eskimo about – stones piled one on another mainly. Skip exhausted tonight – cramped tent made him sleepless last night. 10 days sugar left, about same amt hardtack, 10 days oats, 5 days cornmeal, Joe broke 2 of 3 remaining peanut butter jars tonight on portage. Food situation poor, but we mean to get out of here fast as possible now, about 200 miles to go. Piss calls at night tough to (?) in this bitter, freezing weather. Still snow squalls tonight. Hope tomorrow clear, warm + sunny – could get past Wharton Lake with good break in weather. Aside. The falls above Wharton Lake (the Uksurlajuaq Rapids at Toporama) were portaged in their entirely. Reference. Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Comment. The relevant items are everybody running scared now and can’t risk an upset now. The Sports Illustrated version of Moffatt’s journal for 10 September. It snowed again. Everything is frozen, and more snow clouds are solid in the sky. Wind still strong. But we are going on anyway. There is no time now to sit around waiting for the niceties of the weather. We’re all running scared. This is the third day of snow. There is a strong north wind. It has been freezing all day. Frozen feet are becoming a real worry, our torn boots being as porous as blotting paper. In spite of the heavy winds and snow squalls, we made it, with the help of a strong current, down to a 10-foot falls above Wharton Lake. But there was ice on the paddles, the hills were still white, and there was no sun. Skip was exhausted tonight. His cramped tent last night made him sleepless. Ten days’ sugar supply left, about same amount of hardtack, 10 days’ oats, five days’cornmeal. Joe broke two of three remaining peanut butter jars tonight on portage. Even a little item like that is becoming vitally important to us. The food situation is poor, but we mean to get out of here as fast as possible now. About 200 miles to go. [SI article, bottom of right column, p 82] Comparison of the two versions. The Sports Illustrated editor published the phrase running scared, but not the phrase can’t risk an upset now. I suggest it relevant that the first reflects badly on the Moffatt party, whereas the second reflects badly on the following editorial assertions regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. 1. Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated, p 76, lower right, 15/16 August]. 2. Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [Sports Illustrated, p 82, top right, 7/8 September]. Opinions. Redaction of exculpatory evidence by the Sports Illustrated editor. Picking of the little red fruit by Kingsley. True accusation 7. The rapids where Moffatt died had not been scouted. References. The evidence presented at the top of Main text. Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The journals of the participants.

The journal of Moffatt. He is known to have kept one, and it must contain vitally important information, but my best efforts failed to obtain a full copy. Grinnell, Pessl and the Sports Illustrated editor are known to have possessed full copies. The SI editor and Grinnell published selected and edited items for several days. Pessl provided full entries for several days, enabling me to compare them with those of the SI editor and Grinnell. The journal of Lanouette, Moffatt’s bowperson. Thanks to him and his daughter Elizabeth Emge, his journal for the trip up to and including 16 September is now available at http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=181&t=46535 et seq. His journal for 14 September (the day of Moffatt’s death) is provided in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt. A faithful condensation of the entry for that day was published in the SI article [1959, pp 85-87)]. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, Grinnell redacted the passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. and replaced it with an ellipsis. [Grinnell book (1996), top of p 202] I say unfortunately because that passage suggests that the cause of Moffatt’s death was misleading rapids advice, as provided by J B Tyrrell. Such is indeed the case. The journal of Grinnell. An incomplete search found only two items regarding his recording of events. Early in the trip, I had traded my ration of chocolate bars, which Art sometimes distributed at lunch, for paper to write on. [book, p 26]. I retired to my tent and wrote in my journal a diatribe against self-righteous “altruists” in general and Skip in particular. [book, p 84]. I am aware of the apparent contradiction, but other evidence leads me to conclude that Grinnell did not keep a journal. The journals of Pessl and Franck. Both kept journals, but I lack direct access to them. Pessl’s book (2014) contains excerpts from both, up to and including 8 September. The journal of LeFavour. I possess no evidence that he kept one.

Other evidence of the participants.

I possess the following items. 1. Moffatt’s correspondence with J B Tyrrell. Thanks to Pessl, I possess copies of Moffatt’s two letters to JBT. My best efforts failed to obtain JBT’s response (known to have been made and believed to contain important information) to the first. Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources. 2. Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988). 3. Grinnell’s book. Only the 1996 edition was used in the accusatory literature. I did not access the 2006 edition, and I made only cursory use of the 2010 edition. 4. The third (the key item) of participant LeFavour’s four articles (1955). 5. Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012) contains comments of Pessl. It was noticed only by Kingsley [Paddle North, top of p 202], who mentioned only Pessl’s comment People revealed themselves as imperfect… [top of left column, p 52]. 6. Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) appeared too late to influence the Moffatt literature. 7. Pessl’s book (2014) contains excerpts from his journal and that of participant Franck, plus Pessl evidence. It too appeared too late to influence the literature. 8. Correspondence with participants Grinnell (two in number, one important), Lanouette (minor in number, crucial in importance), LeFavour (minor in number, crucial in importance), and Pessl (many in number, crucial in importance, beginning in the fall of 2014 and continuing to the present).

The publications of the primary accusatory literature.

1. The Sports Illustrated article (1959). 2. The book of Inglis (1978). 3. The Canoe article (1988) of participant Grinnell. 4. Accusations made prior to the publication of Grinnell’s book (1996), as quoted there by Luste on pages 293 and 294. 5. Grinnell’s book (1996 edition). The editions of 2006 and 2010 went unnoticed in that literature. 6. The articles of Murphy and MacDonald (1996). 7. Mahler’s article (2005), which contains comments of Thum. 8. Kingsley’s articles (2012 and 2013) and book (2014). Opinion. The most influential of these are the SI article, Grinnell’s book, and what were alleged to be reviews of that book by Murphy and MacDonald.

The evidentiary basis of the accusatory literature.

Only three publications contain evidence of the participants and are known to have influenced the accusatory literature, even to late 2018. That is, the evidentiary basis of the entire accusatory literature (primary and secondary alike) of those 55 years consists of the following. 1. The Sports Illustrated article (1959). Contents include edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, plus a faithfully condensed version of Lanouette’s journal for the day of Moffatt’s death. 2. The Canoe article (1988) of participant Grinnell. 3. The 1996 edition of Grinnell’s book. Other publications of the participants. For excellent reasons, and with one minor exception, the following went unmentioned in the Moffatt literature. 4. LeFavour’s four articles (1955) are even now not available to the public. Thanks to him, I possess (and made generally available here, for the first time) only the crucial one (the third), that which describes the events of 13 and 14 September. 5. Pessl’s three publications (his book of 2014 contains also evidence of Franck) appeared too late to influence the literature. The exception noted above is incidental mention by Kingsley of Pessl material provided in Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012). Summary. Both the SI editor (twice) and Grinnell (once) redacted exculpatory evidence regarding Moffatt’s decision to run the fatal rapids without a scout. As well, the SI article, Grinnell’s article and Grinnell’s book are replete with falsehoods, fabrications and deceits. Given that these three publications form the entire evidentiary basis of the 55 years of the accusatory literature, the consequences for the credibility of that literature (primary and so also secondary) could not be more dire.

The Sports Illustrated article (1959).

Issues of 9 March (pp 68-76) and 16 March (pp 80-88). Contents include edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, Moffatt’s Prospectus for the trip, photographs of the participants and thumbnails of them, a map of the party’s route, an excerpt from the New York Times (regarding the party’s failure to arrive on time in Baker Lake), a condensation (a faithful one) of Lanouette’s journal for the day of the tragedy, and an Epilogue (which contains items provided by Grinnell), plus editorial assertions, interjections and the like. The evidentiary basis of the article (as distinct from its contents) consists of the following three items. Moffatt’s full handwritten journal. The handwritten journal of Lanouette (Moffatt’s bowperson) for the day of Moffatt’s death. Material provided by participant Grinnell. I mentioned above his contributions to the Epilogue. Given that he had met in person with the editor or a representative, I expect that he had contributed to the article in other ways, but I lack knowledge of such items. Opinion. The SI article stands second only to Grinnell’s book in its influence on the accusatory literature.

Background material

provided at the beginning of the SI article, some of which is provided also above. The following serve also to document sources of some assertions made by Moffatt’s accusers. Item 1. I felt sad, apprehensive and gloomy about the summer. The train was late. We stood on the platform talking. I held her soft arm. Then the train was leaving, a kiss, and I was too. Carol fell behind on the platform, walking in the same direction as the train, a small figure in a turquoise dress, my wife and the mother of my two small children. [SI article. 16 June; top of left column, p 72] Pessl provided the following comment, which convinces me that the I felt…gloomy quote is a faithful one, and which provides the background: …that quote was from Art’s journal entry for June 16 … in which he describes his feelings as he stands on the station platform … at White River Junction, Vermont… [Pessl, pp 164-165]. Aside. Referring to the events at Black Lake (not in Vermont), Grinnell provided the following version of the above. “I felt sad, apprehensive and gloomy,” Art wrote on the eve of our departure, while the rest of us followed him around with smiles on our faces, believing he would carry us through all adversity. [Grinnell book, p 10]. My point (perhaps also Pessl’s) is not that the SI editor got it right, but rather that Grinnell, who possessed both Moffatt’s journal and the SI article, got it wrong. Item 2. The food supplies ordered by Moffatt had not arrived and so he had to purchase what he could from the HBC store in Stony Rapids. [top of right column, p 72] Item 3. The three spare paddles had been left behind in Stony Rapids. But they were brought in the next day. [top of right column, p 72] Item 4. I took the 86-pound camera box… The tump pulling on my neck was too much to take for more than 100 yards at a time… To rest, I had to find a rock high enough to set the box on. I could never have gotten it up by myself. [4 July; bottom of right column on p 72, and top of left column on p 73] Item 5. I have never made such tough portages, had such sore feet, sore back, tired neck. Can’t recapture confident, carefree air of first Albany trip in 1937. [6 July, top of right column, p 73] Moffatt refers here to the brutal portages up the Chipman River, which provides access to Selwyn Lake and so to the height-of-land portage (completed on 7 July) to the basin of the Dubawnt River. [middle of right column, p 73] Item 6. Day was very windy, so we made it a day of rest. [8 July, middle of right column, p 73] Item 7. Moffatt thought that he might have a hernia and considered turning back. He provided also the comment We are only about one-quarter of the way to Baker Lake, if that far. [21 July, bottom of right column, p 74]

Responsibility for the content of the Sports Illustrated article.

I possess no evidence that the SI editor personally took the actions that I ascribe to her/him, and so the reader may wish to replace editor by editorial staff (Pessls’s staff writers) in what follows. But who knows what actions were expected by the SI editor of her/his staff? And, in the final analysis, is not the editor responsible for all content of the article?

The credibility of the Sports Illustrated article.

Introduction. Moffatt’s family provided copies of his journal to both the SI editor and Pessl. Grinnell also possessed a copy. I have cause to believe that he obtained it from the SI editor; that is, I much doubt his assertion that he had obtained a copy directly from the Moffatt family. [Grinnell book, p 306 and perhaps elsewhere] That matter aside, the Moffatt family has not made his journal easily available. The point. Unaware at that time that Grinnell possessed a copy of Moffatt’s journal, I wrote to Pessl concerning Grinnell’s source for Passages 1 and 2 quoted below. In this connection, I refer the reader to the passage Your previous inquiry re the source… in Pessl’s second response. Passage 1. August 15 th: …All along we could see it was a very heavy current and big waves. We were hungry. It was late now and I was tired. I knew this to be no time to make a decision. [Grinnell book, bottom of p 132] Passage 2. August 20 th: …Today we shot a couple of heavy but short rapids, only the second of which I looked over. Not very smart of me. I probably should have been more careful. [Grinnell book, p 133] I identified Grinnell’s sources to have been the SI passages provided in the middle of the right column on p 76 and in the middle of the left column on p 80. Aside regarding the locations. Dubawnt Lake was entered on 21 August. [Pessl book, pp 97&98]. Pessl’s first response, that of 25 May 2017 (lightly edited). Re Grinnell’s quotes from Moffatt’s journal, both are direct quotes from SI. And both are problematic. The Aug. 15 “quote” is more of a paraphrase than an accurate quote. Here is the Moffatt entry “All along it was very heavy current and big waves. I was tired + hungry – it was now 5 pm. – and knew it was no time to make decisions -…”. The Aug. 20 “quote” doesn’t exist in the Moffatt journal. Closest approximation is: “Off at 11 in am. Up little lake against head wind, into river, and down with swift current to couple of heavy but short rapids, of which I looked over the 2nd only. Shot both.” Absolutely nothing about “…Not very smart of me. I probably should have been more careful.”! Outrageous!! Hope some of this might help, Skip. Pessl’s second response, that of 29 May 2017 (unedited). Hello Allan, Your previous inquiry re the source of Grinnell’s quotes Aug. 15 & Aug. 20 nudged me to take a further look at SI quotes and the Moffatt journal sources. That was a rather depressing exercise resulting in my conviction that the SI article is composed of heavily edited paraphrases of the Moffatt journal. In no way an accurate nor objective account of that journey. I probably shouldn’t have been surprised, but I really hadn’t taken a close look before. The staff writer committed two journalistic sins throughout the article. Paraphrasing under the guise of direct quotation. And then just adding random phrases included in the quotation format. The Aug. 20 entry I have already sent you is an example. Here are a few more examples of staff-writer add ons which do not exist in the Moffatt journal. Aug.15: “And anyway it is too late for that now. We will have to live with what we have.” Aug. 24: “Still haven’t moved since the 21st.” “It turned out a great day for a change.” “An ominous note crept in, however.” “Summer is definitely over.” Sept. 8: “…despite the dangers we haven’t much time left.” Sept. 10: “But we are going on anyway. There is no time now to sit around waiting for the niceties of weather.” “Even a little item of that sort is becoming vitally important to us.” And the staff-writer comment between entry Sept. 7 and Sept. 9 is unsubstantiated nonsense. “Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye.” So it goes, Skip. A request. I ask the reader to reflect on the light that Pessl’s evidence sheds in general on the credibility of the article, and in particular on the credibility of the following assertions of the SI editor regarding the rapids where Moffatt died. 1. Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, bottom of right column of p 76; appearing between the Moffatt journal entries for 15 and 18 August]. 2. Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top right column of p 82; 7/8 September].

Introductory material provided in the Sports Illustrated article.

1. The bulk of the party arrived in Stony Rapids on 20 June. [p 72; left column.] 2. For a week, the Moffatt expedition waited. George Grinnell, the last man to join the party, arrived at Stony Rapids on June 27 on schedule, but food supplies, which were supposed to accompany him on the Hudson’s Bay company boat, were left off the manifest. Moffatt canceled the order, took what supplies he could from the Hudson’s Bay Company post at Stony Rapids and set off by truck over 15 miles of rugged road for the jumping-off place at Black Lake. [The party arrived in beautiful, not to say auspicious, weather only to discover that three canoe paddles had been left behind. When the paddles were finally located and brought up the next day, the weather closed in. [p 72; bottom of left column and top of right column] Aside. The matter of the spare paddles is discussed above, under True accusation 1. 3. In the days that immediately followed, the expedition made good time despite erratic winds and rain, the back-stiffening portages and missed routes. The maps the party used—they were the only ones in existence—were never precise enough, and there were many times when, after long wearying hours of working up a stream, the canoeists had to admit their mistake and painfully retreat… The men tired of their diet of imported stores and wanted to hunt, but Moffatt, mindful of the dangers of expending ammunition, clamped down on shooting. On July 15 he wrote “The sharp talk at supper made everyone edgy. Heretofore we have all been equals. Now I have assumed the sergeant’s position. But someone has to stop the foolishness before it goes too far.” [p 73, bottom of the right column; after 8 July] 4. George Grinnell agitated for earlier starts in the morning and fewer stops. [p 74, middle of the right column] 5. On Moffatt’s 10th wedding anniversary, he suspected that he had a hernia. He added We are only about a quarter of the way to Baker Lake, if that far. [p 74, bottom of the right column; 21 July] 6. The weather, as anticipated was turning bad. [p 75, top of the left column; 22 July] 7. Still blowing like hell. [p 75, top of left column; 23 July] 8. …decided we were a quarter mile south of the Dubawnt River. We rounded a point, and the river was indeed there… Then on to a swift place where the current ran like a highway…between two walls of boulders, piled straight up by the winter ice. After two of these places, we came to a real rapid, small but quite rough. The rapid began with a swift chute… I got down with no trouble, but Pete hit a boulder head on…Skip ran through with no trouble… We celebrated that night with a tremendous dinner of a two-pound grayling per man, mashed potatoes and pudding. [p 75, middle of left column; 26 July] Perhaps more, later.

Assertion 1 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Referring to the early weeks of July, s/he provided the following. …during this early period–as they were to discover when they looked back on it at the journey’s end—the men were lulled into a sense of almost infinite security by the beauties of the country they travelled in. They stopped to take pictures and movies. They took side trips, studying the birds and animal life and searching for Indian artifacts. … Or Moffatt would record a bird count. [top of p 74] Response 1. The editor (like later accusers Mahler and Thum) failed to understand the mission of the Moffatt party, namely to document the barrenlands, before taking up the pen against him. And so the party stopped as the occasion arose to take pictures and movies, to take side trips and to document the birds and animal life and also the artifacts of the native people. It is unclear whether the SI editor suggests that the pace (required by the mission) played a role in Moffatt’s death. Response 2. Who looked back? Certainly not Moffatt! The editor provided no such evidence, and my four years of research found no supporting evidence in the writings of any survivor. Conclusion. The assertion …the men were lulled…they travelled in is a fabrication of SI editor.

Assertion 2 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

[On August 8 the Moffatt party reached Cairn Point, a turning point in the journey. Moffatt wrote in his diary. “All of us getting a little on each other’s nerves. We’re out six weeks now—a long time.” [Among other things, the expedition’s provisions were beginning to run low. There were only 15 packs of cigarettes left and a half can of roll-your-own. The sugar ration was proving woefully inadequate.] [SI article, right column, p 75] Clarification. By provisions, the editor referred only to the supplies of tobacco and sugar that day. If I may be explicit, the reference was not to the supply of provisions in general. Response regarding the supply of tobacco. Background. Each participant had his own supply. My search revealed the editor’s source for the passage …only 15 packs of cigarettes…half can of roll-your-own to have been the following passage in Moffatt’s journal. Only 15 packs of cigarettes left and 1/2 can of roll-your-own. [pp 85-87]. I ask the reader to note that, in writing this, Moffatt referred to his personal supply, only. Opinion. A shortage of tobacco is scarcely a life-threatening matter, scarcely one worthy of such special mention. Indeed, in retrospect, such shortage might be argued to be beneficial, albeit in the long term. Conclusion. The SI editor falsely and knowingly represented Moffatt’s concern with his personal supply of tobacco as a concern of the party as a whole. Response regarding the sugar ration. Background. In contrast to the supply of tobacco, that of sugar was communal. Item 1. The initial provision of sugar had indeed proved to be woefully inadequate, and that shortage had caused friction early in the trip. Item 2. As I documented above (under True accusation 4) the sugar dispute was resolved on 29 July, seven weeks before Moffatt’s death: After much discussion, we decided to give each man a 5-day ration from each 5-lb bag, thus allowing about 1/6 lb/day. Each will carry his own supply and use it according to his taste. [Pessl book, p 56]. I lack access to Moffatt’s journal for that day, but I should be much surprised if he too had not documented that the matter of the sugar ration had been resolved. Conclusion. The assertion faithfully represents the supply of sugar. A request. I ask the reader to reflect on the editor’s motivation for on the one hand for commenting on the supplies of tobacco and sugar on 8 August, and on the other for failing to mention the shooting of the first caribou three days earlier, more generally for omitting mention of four of the five shot over the course of the trip.

Assertion 3 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

From Tyrrell’s log, Moffatt knew that Tyrrell had been at Cairn Point on August 2, 1893. He was a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule, and the end of the short August summer was not far off. There were still some 400 miles to go. Moffatt wrote on the back of the geographers’ note: “Moffatt party, August 8, 1955. First all-white party to follow Tyrrell’s route from Athabaska and Black Lake to Baker Lake – or at least this far. All is well–enough food–or almost enough.” Food was becoming the question now. [SI article, top of the left column on page 76; 8 August]. Aside. I note significant overlap with the contents of Assertions 2 and 4, but felt that I must provide a full response to Assertion 3. The matter of the schedule. The origin of the phrase a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule. This is the part of the route where Tyrrell had constant rain and cold, also patches of old snow everywhere. But for us it has been very pleasant—this despite the fact that we are more than a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule. [SI article, top of left column, p 80; 18 August; alleged to be an excerpt from Moffatt’s journal] The content of Moffatt’s remark is clear: His party had experienced weather milder than that experienced by the Tyrrell party at the same geographical point on the route, not at the same time of the year. But what interpretation of the editor’s phrase a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule is possible but (a) that Moffatt was following Tyrrell’s schedule to some extent, and (b) that he was a week behind it on 8 August? Conclusion. The SI editor misrepresented the evidence. Aside 1. No barrenlands party ever had or ever could have had anything as prescriptive as a daily schedule for travel there. The barrenlands are not Algonquin or Temagami or the BWCAW, where a day-by-day schedule verges on being mandatory. More conclusively, the weather (especially the wind) forced even the Tyrrell party of 1893 to stay in camp on occasion. Aside 2. Contrary to the assertion of the SI editor, Moffatt was not following the schedule of the Tyrrell party or anything close to it. In particular, the Tyrrell party reached Baker Lake on 2 September, whereas Moffatt had planned to arrive there on 15 September (with a grace period of a week). I point out to the SI editor that evidence regarding the latter date is provided in the her/his own article; I refer here to the New York Times item that the Moffatt party was a week overdue [SI article, p 71, dated 24 September 1955]. Aside 3. The Moffatt party had not even one waypoint to be reached by a specified date. The sole item in its schedule was a date for arrival in Baker Lake, but even this was elastic to a week. Conclusion. The Sports Illustrated editor falsely and knowingly represented the schedule of the Moffatt party (1955) to be that of the Tyrrell party (1893). Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule. The food supply on 8 August. Reminder 1. The relevant quote (alleged) from Moffatt’s journal for that day is All is well–enough food–or almost enough. Interpretation. Moffatt believed the food already on board would come close to meeting the party’s needs for the remainder of the trip, in other words that little food from the land would be needed after 8 August. But this comment was followed immediately by the editorial assertion Food was becoming the question now. What question? What excuse for a mind is this? Reminder 2. On 8 August, the Moffatt party was still consuming the caribou shot three days earlier. I suggest it to be no accident that the editor omitted mention of that shooting, and more generally that the editor mentioned only one of the five caribou shot (that of 11 August). Conclusion. It is a falsehood that food was becoming the question now. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. The distance remaining on 8 August. I refer here to the phrase some 400 miles to go. The SI editor, like others, was likely misled by the distance 900 miles given in Moffatt’s Prospectus [SI article, p 71]. But that is the distance from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet on Hudson Bay. Before the trip began, Moffatt decided to exit rather at Baker Lake, thereby shortening the trip to 680 miles. The distance to go on 8 August was then the more modest 180 miles, not 400. Aside. One fine day, I’ll measure the distance from Cairn Point to Baker Lake and report the result here. Reference. Ancillary 4. Distances.

Assertion 4 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

The editor asserted the following to be excerpts from Moffatt’s journal. Passage 1. Most conversation revolves around food. Running low on staples, only 30 days’ supply left. [SI article, middle of the left column on page 76. 14 August.] Comment. 30 days after 14 August gets one to 13 September. Moffatt had scheduled arrival in Baker Lake for 15 September, with a grace period of a week before the air search was started. Interpretation. Moffatt was concerned that no significant amount of food from the land would be obtained in the remainder of the trip, and so the food provisions on hand would have to be rationed, but only slightly. But three more caribou were shot after 14 August, many fish were caught, many ptarmigan were shot or otherwise obtained, blueberries and mushrooms were harvested earlier, and a major resupply of provisions was obtained on 7 September. Passage 2. …then began a painful discussion—salt running low, milk running low. How to save it? [SI article, right column, p 76, 15 August] As documented in the SI article itself, the Moffatt party had shot a caribou three days earlier, on 11 August. That fact, plus the explicit references to staples such as salt and milk, leads me to conclude that by food Moffatt referred here to the supply of provisions, only. Given the nature of the accusatory literature, perhaps it bears explicit mention that shortages of salt and milk are not life-threatening. And I repeat that a major resupply of provisions was obtained on 7 September. Assessment of Assertion 4. Moffatt continued his meticulous evaluation of the food supply. The Sports Illustrated editor acted in good faith.

Assertion 5 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, bottom of right column, p 76. Appearing between the Moffatt journal entries for 15 and 18 August]. Preliminary response. Yes, the Moffatt party was travelling in the Barren Grounds. Yes, the days grew colder, on average, as winter approached. But the evidence leads me to conclude that all other content of Assertion 5 is falsified by evidence known to the Sports Illustrated editor. Response 1. The schedule. I assume that the phrase Already nine days behind schedule is a continuation of the SI editor’s a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule. [SI article, top of left column, page 76]. As noted above, the context of the phrase a week behind Tyrrell’s schedule was that the Moffatt party was experiencing milder weather than that experienced by the Tyrrell party at the same point on the river, NOT at the same time of the year. In short, the context had nothing to do with the schedule of the Tyrrell party. Aside. Page 129 of Pessl’s book provides the following enter-exit dates for Dubawnt Lake. The Tyrrell party of 1893. 7-17 August. The Moffatt party of 1955. 21-27 August. Conjecture. The Tyrrell-Moffatt dates for exiting Dubawnt Lake were the unspecified source for the editor’s nine days. Discussion. 1. No canoe party ever had or ever could have had, a day-by-day schedule for travel in the barrenlands. The reason is simple. There are no trees to provide shelter from the wind; when it is up, travel is out. Even the Tyrrell party of 1893 was forced to stay camp on occasion. 2. The Moffatt party was not following the track of the Tyrrell party. One item suffices to make the point: The Tyrrell party reached Baker Lake on 2 September, whereas Moffatt had planned to arrive there on 15 September (with a grace period of a week before the air search was begun). 3. The Moffatt party had not even one waypoint to be reached by a specified date. 4. But it had all that it could have had, and all that counts, namely a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, as attested by the eleven independent sources provided in Appendix 7. Schedule. Response 2. The provisions. Aside. In passing, I provide the related comment food stocks low. [SI article, top of p 80; the corresponding date is likely late August] Response 1. I suggest that no great insight is required to comment that provisions dwindle as they are consumed. The consequence is obvious: The party had to conserve provisions, lest no significant amount of food be obtained from the land in the remainder of the trip. But surely the question is whether the SI editor faithfully represented the supply of food (rather solely the supply of provisions) on or about August 8. And so I point out that the first caribou was shot on 5 August, as documented in Moffatt’s journal itself (which the editor possessed in toto), so relieving the dependence on provisions. But the editor made no mention of that event; indeed, the editor mentioned the shooting of only of the five caribou. Question. Why the editor conceal the shooting of four of the five caribou? Response 2. And I point out to the editor that a major resupply of provisions was obtained on 7 September, as documented in the SI article itself: We…got to top of Grant Lake, then saw red gas cans and something white that looked like a tent on the east shore. We paddled over to lee of the sand point, landed and found that the white thing was no tent but a small piece of muslin covering 24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy…We took the stuff, figuring it had been left for us by Ray Moore…we celebrated with a huge mess of vegetables and caribou glop, carrots and beans mixed. Supper was wonderful. [7 September. Moffatt journal (as reported in the SI article), p 82, lower left and top right columns.] But perhaps the editor did not read her/his own article. Conjecture. The supply of provisions on hand in the evening of 7 September was greater than that on ~17 August, the date corresponding to Assertion 5. Aside. Much less reliance on provisions was required in the six weeks between 5 August and Moffatt’s death on 14 September. In that period, the party shot five caribou, caught many fish, obtained many ptarmigan by various means, and harvested unknown amounts of blueberries and mushrooms. With respect to the caribou, I refer the reader to the evidence presented in the next paragraph. Response 3. The game. I refer here to the SI editor’s assertion game grows scarce. Initial response. The editor provided no evidence in support of the assertion that game grew scarce for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. The evidence regarding the caribou. Moffatt’s journal (possessed in full by the editor) documents the shooting of five caribou, the dates being 5 August, 11 August, 20 August, 26 August and 5 September. And so the SI editor asserted that game grew scarce after 19 August, in full knowledge that three caribou were shot after that date. Again, and more generally, the SI editor mentioned only the caribou shot on 11 August. Additional evidence 1. Moffatt’s journal documents also that many ptarmigan were shot or otherwise acquired. The SI editor provided only the Moffatt quote: Ptarmigan plentiful here… [top of right column, p 80]. Additional evidence 2. I don’t know that they qualify as game, but Moffatt’s journal documents also that the party caught many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) throughout the trip. The editor mentioned none of this evidence. Additional evidence 3. Moffatt’s journal documents also the party acquired also blueberries and mushrooms (these only earlier in those six weeks). The editor mentioned none of this evidence. Four food-related evidences known to no accuser in the matter of the food supply. 22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99]. 28 August. We … were so full we could hardly move. [Franck, in Pessl, p 108] 30 August. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [Pessl, p 110] And both Grinnell and LeFavour document the catching of a 20 lb lake trout a few hours before Moffatt’s death. 14 September (immediately before Moffatt’s death). Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour. Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955).] Opinion. Some scarce! Conclusion. The editor’s assertion game grows scarce is a falsehood. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Response 4. …the Moffatt party races against winter…In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. Interpretation. The editor suggests that the Moffatt party realised only very late that winter was coming on and so had to hurry in order to reach Baker Lake, all but asserting that the onset of winter caused the party to race down the river and so to take chances, one of which resulted in Moffatt’s death. 1. The editor provided no evidence in support of any part of the assertion, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. 2. The evidence of participant LeFavour. Referring to the days immediately before Moffatt’s death, he provided the following: We traveled, and traveled hard. … Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken. [1955]. Conclusion. The ultimate chance part of the editor’s assertion is a falsehood. 3. In mid-September 1955, the weather was certainly very cold at times, at others verging on comfortable (fortunately immediately after Moffatt’s death). But it was certainly never life-threatening. I refer the reader to the evidence of the participants, especially that provided in Pessl’s book. 4. Aside. An interpretation (the editor declined to be specific) of the phrases races against winter, desperate haste, and take an ultimate chance: The Moffatt party realised only very late that winter was coming on and so had to abandon caution in order to reach Baker Lake before freeze-up. Line 1 of enquiry regarding the possibility of freeze-up. I examined thoroughly the books of J B Tyrrell and J W Tyrrell (both possessed by Moffatt) regarding freeze-up. Summary. Without encountering any ice, the Tyrrell party reached salt water (tidal water from Chesterfield Inlet) downstream from Baker Lake in the evening of 6 September 1893 [J B Tyrrell book, p 78F, lower part]. An argument, only. Given that the Thelon River is reported to be a race course for many km above Baker Lake, I think it unlikely that it could have frozen above Baker Lake by 24 September, any year. [One source. Pessl book, p 142 (23 September)] Conclusion. The evidence from the Tyrrell trip of 1893 does not illuminate the matter. Line 2 of enquiry regarding the possibility of freeze-up. I return to the matter of the schedule. Again, the RCMP detachment at Baker Lake had agreed to begin an air search on 22 September should the Moffatt party not have arrived by that date. Aside. The search began on 24 September. [The New York Times article in the SI article, top left of p 71. Pessl book, p 144] Given that Moffatt had made these arrangements, surely the RCMP detachment knew that freeze-up would not occur before 22 September. Conclusion. Freeze-up would not occur until well after 22 September. Summary. Given the evidence of the Tyrrell brothers, the Moffatt party certainly knew that winter was coming on, but it exercised due caution at all times, in particular on the day of Moffatt’s death. Aside. It bears repetition that the SI editor redacted both the phrase can’t risk an upset now from Moffatt’s journal entry for 10 September, and the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from his last journal entry, that for 13 September. Conclusion. It is a falsehood the editor’s assertion…the Moffatt party races against winter…In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. References regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. The beginning of the Main text. Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. Assessment of Assertion 5, repeated for the reader’s convenience. Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. The evidence leads me to conclude that all content of the assertion is falsehood, fabrication or conscious misrepresentation of known evidence, save only that the Moffatt party was travelling on the Barren Grounds, and that the days were growing colder on average.

The food supply in late August.

Only about 20 days’ food left. Lean caribou is temporarily filling, but doesn’t stay with you. We get five meals out of the caribou – four quarters and back meat, plus heart, tongue and liver. Neck and spareribs for lunch meat. Unfortunately, we do not have enough firewood to make soup. No more onions, dried vegetables. [SI article, p 80, bottom of the left column and top of the right one; alleged to be an excerpt from Moffatt’s journal for 21 August] Interpretation and comments. 1. Moffatt continues his meticulous assessment of the provisions and other food on board that day. He assumed that the party would acquire no significant amount of food from land in the remainder of the trip. The party had enough firewood to cook the caribou but not the provisions. 2. 20 days after 21 August gets one to 10 September, I assume at full rations. Arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, with a grace period of a week. 3. On 7 September, the party acquired a major resupply of provisions from the cache, adding to the supply of same already on board. As well, on the day that Moffatt died, it had enough caribou meat on board that it had no more need to hunt. But it is unclear that the party had the fuel to cook the food available.

Assertion 6 of the Sports Illustrated editor.

Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, p 82, top of right column, 7/8 September]. Interpretation. The editor all but asserts that Moffatt’s death resulted from taking a chance. Initial response. The editor provided no evidence in support of the assertion, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. More importantly, evidence known to the editor falsifies all content of Assertion 6. Background. Moffatt possessed J W Tyrrell’s book, J B Tyrrell’s book, JBT’s journal and JBT’s maps; as well, he had corresponded with JBT. Reference. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources. Moffatt’s journal (possessed in full by the editor) evinces that Moffatt exercised great caution in running all rapids; after all, the film and the photographs were the very reasons for undertaking the trip. And I need repeat that the party had suffered not one dump, not one pin, and but one swamp prior to 14 September. Preliminaries. Given the date of 7/8 September, Assertion 6 applies to neither to the reach between Nicholson Lake (exited by the Moffatt party on 15 August) and Dubawnt Lake (entered on 21 August), nor to the reach between Dubawnt Lake (exited on 27 August) and Grant Lake (entered on 6 September). And so to the point. Candidate 1 for the churning chutes is the falls (the Uksurlajuaq Rapids at Toporama) immediately above Wharton Lake (entered on 11 September). But these were portaged in their entirety, and so they were not shot down. Candidate 2 is the rapids with descents of 15 and 6 feet immediately below Wharton Lake, on the south branch of the river. But these were run without incident on 13 September. Candidate 3, the only remaining one, is the rapids where Moffatt died on 14 September. Summary. The Sports Illustrated editor appears to expect us to believe that Moffatt, having that very morning completed a portage, changed his mind a few hours later and in suddenly acquired desperate haste, decided to risk the film, the photographs and the lives of all six participants. The evidence begs leave to differ with the SI editor 1. Given that every rapid (in particular those where Moffatt died) known from Tyrrell’s guide to be dangerous was portaged, the Moffatt party took no chances any time. Again, J B Tyrrell’s advice had previously proved so reliable that the party had experienced but one swamp, not one pin and not one dump in eleven weeks prior to Moffatt’s death on 14 September. Indeed, the only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where he died. 3. The evidence of LeFavour regarding the events of 13 and 14 September. Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken. 4. The evidence of Lanouette, LeFavour, Pessl and Luste regarding the events of 14 September. (a) This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids [Lanouette]. (b) Tyrrell had indicated by his neglect that the rapid was an easy one, and it seemed to be just that. [LeFavour] (c) Tyrrell’s river descriptions had proven dependable previously and indicated benign conditions entering Marjorie Lake following the last portage. [Pessl] (d) Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Luste, Grinnell book, p 284]. As I remark also elsewhere, this evidence of Luste was ignored in all the subsequent literature. Most egregiously of all, Murphy and MacDonald ignored that evidence in what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book. Conclusions. The Sports Illustrated editor’s Assertion 6 (Increasingly, the men were taking chances…a doubtful eye) is falsehood from first word to last. The assertions of Murphy and MacDonald regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death are falsified by evidence known to them. Pessl’s conclusion. With respect to Assertion 6, he put the matter in a more gentlemanly fashion: unsubstantiated nonsense. [private correspondence] References. The beginning of Main text, Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

The Sports Illustrated editor’s omission.

I repeat the Lanouette passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids [Sports Illustrated, middle of p 85] Again, what interpretation of the surprised comment, in particular, is possible but that Moffatt had been misled regarding the severity of the rapids where he died? That is, I believe the passage to be exculpatory. But the SI editor made no explicit mention of this evidence. And so I ask why not, unless to buttress the SI editor’s case against a dead man?

The Sports Illustrated editor’s redactions.

Having discussed the Sports Illustrated editor’s assertions and her/his failure to mention the exculpatory evidence of Lanouette, I turn my attention to the editor’s redactions of exculpatory evidence regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. Redaction 1. Reminder. Under True accusation 6 running scared (above), I provide Moffatt’s full journal entry for 10 September. The items relevant to the present discussion are the two phrases running scared and can’t risk an upset now. I repeat that the Sports Illustrated editor published the phrase running scared (which reflects badly on Moffatt), but redacted the phrase can’t risk an upset now (which reflects badly on the editor’s assertions regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death). Redaction 2. Moffatt’s last journal entry (that for 13 September) is provided in Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. The key item there is the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route. What interpretation of that phrase is possible but that Moffatt possessed route advice from Tyrrell (J B, not J W), and that he was following it on 13 September. It is perhaps no great stretch to suggest that Moffatt continued to follow Tyrrell’s route advice the very next day, when he died. And so I suggest that the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route is exculpatory, for it provides the vitally important evidence that Moffatt died because he had been misled by the rapids advice of J B Tyrrell, advice that had proved so reliable that the first and only dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died. Indeed, the evidence of LeFavour is that such is the case. I refer here in particular to his comment Tyrrell had indicated by his neglect that the rapid was an easy one, and it seemed to be just that. On comparing Moffatt’s full journal for that day with the SI condensation of it [bottom of right column, p 82], one sees that the SI editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route. A request. I ask that the reader consider the light that these two redactions made by the SI editor shed on the following two assertions of the SI editor. 1. Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [Sports Illustrated, p 76, lower right, 15/16 August]. 2. Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [Sports Illustrated, p 82, top right, 7/8 September]. Question. Who is so credulous as to believe that two redactions of exculpatory evidence on the same topic (the cause of Moffatt’s death), made by the same person, to have been accidents? To me, no interpretation of these actions is credible but that the SI editor had set out to deceive her/his readers regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. Closing remarks regarding the Sports Illustrated article. 1. Given that the SI editor redacted two exculpatory evidences from Moffatt’s journal, omitted mention of the exculpatory Lanouette passage This surprised us…the real beginning of the first rapids, and published so many falsehoods, I conclude that no content of the SI article is to be trusted prima facie. 2. In all the 55 years of the accusatory literature, the SI editor’s falsehoods game grows scarce…desperate haste…ultimate chance and Increasingly, the men were taking chances…a doubtful eye are comparable in malice, magnitude and consequence only to Grinnell’s redaction of the three-sentence passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from Lanouette’s journal for the day of Moffatt’s death, and to Murphy’s triple-header falsehood Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary, contributed to his (Moffatt’s) demise. Shame on all three. 3. Given the SI editor’s actions as documented above, I wonder whether other evidence important for the understanding of Moffatt’s death is contained elsewhere in his journal but went unpublished by the editor. Only it can enlighten us, but it is not available. 4. In fairness, I point out that the SI article contains two truthful items, namely the New York Times article and the condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September. Conclusions. The Sports Illustrated editor set out to defame a dead man. Her/his article poisoned the Moffatt literature (primary and secondary alike) for 55 years. Together with George Grinnell and James Murphy, the Sports Illustrated editor bears primary responsibility for the defamation of Arthur Moffatt.

The book of Inglis.

Inglis, Alex. Northern Vagabond. The Life and Career of J B Tyrrell – the Man Who Conquered the Canadian North. McClelland and Stewart. (1978). Thanks to Mike Gray for informing me of the book and for lending his copy. Introduction. The book is primarily a biography of J B Tyrrell, but Inglis devotes pages 52 and 54 to accusations of Moffatt. Understandably, this material escaped mention in all the Moffatt literature, and so the reader may wish to fastforward to the next item, namely Grinnell’s article of 1988. But, lest they appear later in the accusatory literature, I felt that I must provide an analysis of Inglis’s accusations.

Inglis’s source for the professional part of his book

was Tyrrell, Joseph Burr. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897). Thanks to the helpful staff of the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library (University of Toronto), I possess a copy of all pages for the reach from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet. It is important for the later discussion that J B Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the rapids where Moffatt died. Neither does the book of J W Tyrrell, also possessed by Moffatt. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt. Aside. In his Epilogue (pp 246&247), Inglis refers to the Tyrrell Papers held in the Thomas Fisher Rare Books Library of the University of Toronto: These papers contain Tyrrell’s correspondence…. I possess evidence that some of the Tyrrell-Moffatt correspondence (in particular JBT’s response to Moffatt’s first letter) had been held there at one time, but my thorough search of mid-2017 found none of it.

Inglis’s source for the Moffatt part of the book.

Inglis failed to mention his source and so some sleuthing was required. Assertion 1 of Inglis. …when Moffatt was overdue by five days planes went out in search of his party. [p 54] Identification of Inglis’s source. There being nothing else extant in 1978, Inglis’s undocumented source must have been the New York Times article, as reported on page 71 of the Sports Illustrated article of 1959. A trivial correction. The air search began not when Moffatt was overdue by by five days, but rather on 24 September, two days after the end of the seven-day grace period arranged by Moffatt with the RCMP detachment at Baker Lake. [Pessl book, p 144]. Comment. Inglis deserves credit for mentioning the schedule-related evidence of the NYT article. Moffatt’s principal accusers (Murphy, MacDonald and Mahler) in the matter of the schedule failed to do so. Assertion 2 of Inglis. Referring to the differences between the Tyrrell and Moffatt parties, he provided the following. … Never during the Tyrrell expedition were depression and anxiety allowed to dominate. … the luxury of self-pity was never permitted. From the first Moffatt’s diary has words like “apprehensive” and “gloomy”. Then it degenerates into “worrying”, “edgy” and “angry”. At the outset paddles were left behind. In the middle, arguments raged. And in the end, on September 14, 1955, misjudging Tyrrell’s descriptions of the rapids they would encounter before entering Marjorie Lake, the Moffatt diary is silent. [p 54] Identification of Inglis’s source for Assertion 2. 1. There being nothing else extant in 1978, the reference to Moffatt’s diary was to the edited excerpts of his journal, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article. 2. Inglis’s apprehensive and gloomy appear in that order on pages 68 and 72 of that article. And his angry appears on page 80 (middle of the left column). Question. What is the name of that little red fruit? 3. The only source available to Inglis for the paddles comment was the remark three canoe paddles had been left behind. [SI article, top of right column on p 72] As well, some Inglis comments mirror closely some in that article. And so I thought it unnecessary to identify Inglis’s source for worrying and edgy. Conclusion. Inglis’s source for the non-professional content was the SI article. Aside. I note that Inglis’s INDEX (pp 248-256), which functions also as a bibliography, does not mention the SI article. But I can understand that a person pretending to be a historian would be loath to admit (even by mentioning it in her/his bibliography) that a publication like Sports Illustrated had played a role in her/his research. The fatal rapids. For the convenience of the reader, I repeat the Inglis assertion …on September 14, 1955, misjudging Tyrrell’s descriptions of the rapids they would encounter before entering Marjorie Lake, the Moffatt diary is silent. [Inglis book, p 54] Paraphrase. Moffatt died because he had misjudged the content of J B Tyrrell’s book. Response. It is important to repeat that Inglis’s primary source was the book of J B Tyrrell, and so I repeat that evidence. Below Wharton Lake the river flows at first eastward, and then southward, for four miles to a small lake, in which distance it rushes down two rapids with descents respectively of 15 and 6 feet… Five miles below the small lake is a rapid with a descent of twenty feet, past the lower part of which a portage 400 yards long was made… At the foot of this rapid the river turns at right angles and flows northward for seven miles as a wide shallow rapid stream…Marjorie Lake…was entered at the south end. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt. Review of the evidence. On 13 September, the Moffatt party ran without incident the rapids with descents of 15 and 6 feet and began the portage. The next day, the party completed the portage and continued downstream; Moffatt died in the reach downstream from the sharp turn to the north, the reach described by Tyrrell only as a wide shallow rapid stream. Question. Given that Tyrrell mentions no rapids in the reach where Moffatt died, what rapids did Moffatt misjudge? Conclusion. Inglis falsely and knowingly asserted that Moffatt died because he had misjudged Tyrrell’s descriptions of the rapids they would encounter before entering Marjorie Lake. Aside 1. J B Tyrrell’s map (possessed by Moffatt but not known to have been possessed by Inglis) shows the rapids with descents of 15 and 6 feet, the portage, the sharp turn to the north, but again no rapids in the reach where Moffatt died. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893 Aside 2. On page 243, Inglis provided the following. The biographer claiming otherwise and pretending, God-like, to weigh the life in the balance of eternity… I ask the reader to consider how Inglis acted with respect to Moffatt. Summary and comments. The evidence leads me to conclude that Inglis set out to defame a dead man. What a wretched excuse for a historian is Alex Inglis. Is this not an instance of professional misconduct? Nothing written by him is to be trusted. Let a prominent place in the history hall of shame be reserved for him.

Undated accusations made prior to 1996.

Reluctant to insert a break between my discussion of the contents of Grinnell’s article (1988) and those of his book (1996), I discuss next accusations documented by Luste in that book. I possess no evidence regarding Luste’s sources, the identities of the authors, their sources, dates, or whether the accusations were published elsewhere. Luste’s text. Over the years, a number of unfounded versions or representations of the Moffatt accident have made their way into the canoeing literature. I’ve read statements like “After some discussion, there came a momentous decision. To save time the party would run any rapid which looked safe from the top.” and “Everyone was rescued quickly so there should have been no problems.” or “Increasing desperation made them run rapids without careful checking,” or “…to speed progress they would run any rapid that looked passable from the top…” and “On Moffatt’s trip, the canoeists surviving the mid-September swamping first picked up all the packs, then the swamped members, a fatal mistake.” [Grinnell book (1996), pp 293&294]. Luste’s opinion of these representations. It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. A personal comment. I knew Luste well both professionally and personally, and so I place full trust in his assessment of the credibility of the above assertions. Asides. 1. As best I know, these accusations are mentioned only in Grinnell’s book. 2. Because few accusers identified source(s), it is unknown to what extent if any these representations influenced the later literature. 3. The fourth appears to be inspired by the second. 4. I identified the source for the last item (the passage canoeists…mistake) to have been the phrase George and Pete went after our packs first. [condensation of Lanouette’s journal, Sports Illustrated, p 86]. A regret. In his book, where these representations were published, Grinnell failed to take the opportunity to address these accusations of a dead man, his partner, his mentor. Had he done so, the later accusatory literature might have differed significantly, thereby sparing Moffatt’s family more grief. I spare the reader my speculation regarding why Grinnell so failed Moffatt; I refer her/him instead to the evidence (provided below) of Grinnell’s participation in the writing of the Sports Illustrated article.

The publications of Grinnell.

His article.

Grinnell, George J. Art Moffatt’s Wilderness Way to Enlightenment. Canoe, July 1988, pp 18-21 & 56. In my possession.

The first edition of his book.

Grinnell, George James. A Death on the Barrens. A true story. Northern Books, Toronto (1996). In my possession. Believed to have been the only edition to have figured in the accusatory literature. The publisher, not the editor, was George Luste. A Pessl comment. It has taken me a long time now to act on my conviction that Grinnell’s narrative is seriously flawed and that I have a responsibility to provide an alternative account… attempt to provide an objective record of that experience… [Nastawgan, Summer 2013 issue (Vol. 40, No. 2); left column on p 2].

The second edition of his book.

A Death on the Barrens. Heron Dance Press (2006). Not accessed by me; I make no more mention of it.

The third edition of his book.

Death on the Barrens. A True Story of Courage and Tragedy in the Canadian Arctic. North Atlantic Books, Berkeley (2010). In my possession. Comments. As noted also by Pessl, there are indeed differences from the 1996 edition. I read no farther when I saw that, as in the 1996 edition, Grinnell had redacted also here (and replaced with an ellipsis) the following passage from the faithful Sports Illustrated condensation of Lanouette’s journal entry for the day of Moffatt’s death. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids into Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. [top of p 207] Reviews. https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/7189250-death-on-the-barrens I make no more mention of this edition.

Grinnell passages alleged to be from Moffatt’s journal.

Aside. Grinnell possessed a full copy; the evidence leads me to conclude that his source was the Sports Illustrated editor. I possess only a few excerpts from Moffatt’s journal and so am unable to verify many of the following. Passage 1. Art put a brave face on our situation, but inwardly he was not laughing. “I felt sad, apprehensive and gloomy,” Art wrote on the eve of our departure, while the rest of us followed him around with smiles on our faces, believing he would carry us through all adversity. [book, p 10]. Grinnell alleges the statement to have been made at most a few days before 3 July, when the party was finally able to begin the trip by paddling out onto Black Lake. It was actually made back in Vermont. Passage 2. …The tump pulling on my neck…the flies are terrible… [book, pp 19 & 20. “4 July”] Passage 3. Can’t recapture confident, carefree air of first Albany trip in 1937… [book, bottom of p 20] Passage 4. July 8 th:…Spent morning sewing up pants, burned midnight oil discussing philosophy with George. [book, top of p 21] Passage 5. July 21st, Anniversary day: Carol and I have been married for ten years … Still the thing might not get worse. If it doesn’t everything will be all right. [book, pp 47&48] Comment. The thing is a possible hernia. Passage 6. “Skip says my pannikin is causing grumbling among the men since they think I’m getting more than they are,” Art wrote in his diary. “Could be. Will use bowl from now on.” [Grinnell book, p 133] Perhaps more, later.

Introduction to Grinnell’s publications.

I provide later a full discussion of the contents of his article and his book. Aside. I suggest that Grinnell, rather than demonstrate so often his erudition, could have made better use of the space available to him by providing evidence in support of his accusations of Moffatt, who was unable to respond. On the other hand, he knew that task to be well beyond his abilities. Preamble. In the following (as elsewhere in the blog), I document that Grinnell redacted exculpatory evidence regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. The reader may well then decide to fastforward to the next item, namely what were alleged to be reviews of that book by Murphy and MacDonald. Reminder of the evidence of Lanouette. After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks, nothing serious. [SI article, middle of p 85] Q. Why were Moffatt and Lanouette surprised? A. Because J B Tyrrell had advised Moffatt that there were no rapids of significance in that reach, the reach where Moffatt died. Grinnell’s version of the above passage. After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon…. At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks, nothing serious. [Grinnell book, top of p 202] Comparison of the two versions reveals that Grinnell redacted, and replaced with an ellipsis, the three sentences This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. Question 1. What interpretation of that passage is possible but that Moffatt and Lanouette had been misled by the rapids advice of J B Tyrrell, advice that had previously proved so reliable that the Moffatt party had previously experienced not one dump, not one pin and but one swamp? That is, the cause of Moffatt’s death was faulty advice from J B Tyrrell. Question 2. What interpretation of his redaction of that passage is possible but Grinnell did so in order to conceal evidence that the cause of Moffatt’s death was faulty advice from J B Tyrrell? Other evidences regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death are provided in the following. The beginning of Main text, Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. Summary. Given that Grinnell redacted exculpatory regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death, nothing written by him can be believed. Independently, Pessl came to the same opinion regarding Grinnell’s credibility. Like most of the stuff he writes about the ’55 Dubawnt trip, I don’t believe any of it unless corroborated by a reliable other source. [private correspondence, 17 July 2018] Aside. This was written with respect to Grinnell’s discussion of his frozen fingers and tending the cook fire. [book, middle of p 242] Conclusions. Grinnell set out to defame a dead man. To put the matter another way, Grinnell betrayed Moffatt. It bears mention that Grinnell betrayed also Luste, without whom his book would not have been published. I refer here first to the Luste comments provided in the paragraph at the bottom of page iii of Grinnell’s book, and second to the passage that Grinnell’s manuscript had been previously been rejected by seven publishers [Grinnell book, p 305] Opinion. Together with the Sports Illustrated editor and Murphy, Grinnell bears primary responsibility for the defamation of Arthur Moffatt.

The credibility of the accusatory literature.

The published evidence of the participants. 1. Entirely understandably, the articles of LeFavour (1955) went unmentioned until, thanks to him, I was able to publish excerpts. 2. The Sports Illustrated article (1959) contains edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal, plus a faithfully condensed version of the journal of Lanouette (Moffatt’s bowperson) for the day of Moffatt’s death. The latter went unnoticed except by Grinnell. 3. Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988). 4. Grinnell’s book (1996). The editions of 2006 and 2010 went unmentioned in the Moffatt literature, but I note that a review of the 2006 edition was published. 5. The evidence of Pessl, as published in Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (2012). That article went unnoticed except by Kingsley, who made only incidental mention of one Pessl comment. 6. Pessl’s Nastawgan article (2013) appeared too late to influence the literature, as did his book (2014), which includes excerpts from Franck’s journal. Summary. The evidentiary basis of the entire 55 years of the accusatory literature consists of three publications. 1. The SI article (1959). 2. Grinnell’s article (1988). 3. Grinnell’s book (1996 edition). But I documented above that the Sports Illustrated editor (twice) and Grinnell redacted exculpatory evidence regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death, and also that both knowingly published multiple false accusations of a dead man. Conclusion. The entire accusatory literature of those 55 years, primary and so also secondary, has no more substance of a house of cards.

The publications of Grinnell.

Background. Before 1996 (which saw the publication of the first edition of Grinnell’s book), the Sports Illustrated article (1959) (which contains edited excerpts from Moffatt’s journal), went unmentioned by all except Inglis (1978). In turn, and entirely understandably, Inglis’s book went unmentioned until Mike Gray informed me of it and I documented it here 40 years later. As best I recall, Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988) was noticed only after publication of his book. As best I know, the prior assertions documented in Grinnell’s 1996 book by Luste made their first public appearance there. Conclusion. Grinnell’s book of 1996 was the first publication of the accusatory literature to attract the general attention of the paddling community. Not surprisingly, it is the most influential publication of all the 55 years of the accusatory literature. Aside. As best I know, the 2006 and 2010 editions of his book went unmentioned in the Moffatt literature, except for mention in reviews. Pessl comments regarding Grinnell’s publications. 1. There’s a fine line between poetic license and documentation. Unfortunately, I think Grinnell crossed that line with fabrications and misrepresentations. It’s too bad that Art’s reputation was based on that. [Canoe&Kayak, p 52 (2012)] Aside. At the time, Pessl did not know that Grinnell had redacted that exculpatory passage from Lanouette’s journal for the day of Moffatt’s death. 2. In reference to a particular Grinnell assertion, he provided the following. Like most of the stuff he writes about the ’55 Dubawnt trip, I don’t believe any of it unless corroborated by a reliable other source. [private correspondence] Contact between the Sports Illustrated editor and Grinnell. Evidence 1. Death by exposure, contrary to the popular myth, is not an easy thing. George Grinnell, writing later of the ordeal in the water, noted that “one does not simply go to sleep. He passes out from pain… [SI article (1959), p 88]. Evidence 2. The Epilogue of the SI article contains material regarding events after Moffatt’s death (the traverse of Aberdeen Lake, the encounter with the Inuit family, etc); the only possible source for that information is Grinnell. Conclusion. The SI editor and Grinnell had been in contact before publication of the SI article. Conjecture. Grinnell had contributed also to the main text of that article; indeed, the evidence suggests that such is the case. Grinnell’s actions related to the Sports Illustrated article. 1. In neither his article nor his book did Grinnell defend Moffatt from any of the many falsehoods and the fabrications published in the SI article. 2. In neither publication did Grinnell object to the SI editor’s redactions of those two exculpatory passages from Moffatt’s journal. 3. And so I see the need to repeat that Grinnell redacted the following passage from Lanouette’s journal, as provided in the SI article. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. Again, what interpretation of the surprised comment is plausible but that Moffatt had been misled (by J B Tyrrell) regarding the severity of the rapids where he died? Again, what interpretation of his redaction of that passage is plausible but that Grinnell intended to conceal evidence that the cause of Moffatt’s death was faulty advice from J B Tyrrell? 4. I need to repeat also that Grinnell had cooperated in the writing of the Epilogue of the SI article. Opinion. The SI editor and Grinnell had collaborated to defame Moffatt.

Grinnell assertion set 1.

The following addresses all assertions made in his article, plus related ones made also in his book. Assertions made solely in the book are documented below, under Grinnell assertion set 2. Assertion 1 of the article. The purpose of the trip. As his family grew, Moffatt’s need to earn a living and his need to retire to the wilderness came into conflict. In the winters, Moffatt worked as an editor of Ski magazine. In the summers he picked up a little money guiding young men down the Albany River, but it was not much of a living, and Moffatt’s wife, Carol, became less and less enthusiastic about him taking off for the bush each summer. They agreed that he would make one last trip, a big one, to see if he could establish himself as a wildlife photographer and thereby earn a living while still being outdoors. [GG article, p 18, middle column] Response. Grinnell provided no evidence for any part of the assertion, and I found none in the writings of the other participants. Conclusion. Given his redaction of exculpatory evidence from Lanouette’s journal, Assertion 1 is a fabrication. Assertion 2 of the article. Holidays. In his article (four instances) and later in his book (24 instances), Grinnell asserted that the party had taken an excessive number of holidays, Holy Days and variants. Comment. In neither article nor book did Grinnell provide evidence for any part of the assertion. Moreover, I found no evidence in the writings of the other participants. Conclusion. The evidence, especially that of Pessl’s book, reveals Assertion 2 to be a falsehood. Reference. Assertion 3 of the article. The schedule. The editor suggests that there was a prescriptive schedule (something more than an arrival date), but Grinnell’s text provides what I assess to be weak evidence that there was only an arrival date. Opinion. The evidence of a participant is to be preferred. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule. Assertion 4 of the article. The sugar supply. A week later, Pessl announced that we had consumed half our sugar supply while covering less than one-third the distance to Baker Lake. It was clear that we would run out of sugar before reaching our destination unless either we rationed the sugar or adopted a more rigorous schedule of travel. Pessl had brought up the sugar question a few weeks earlier and we bowmen had lobbied for individual rations, but Moffatt had been opposed… We now had our own sugar ration [Grinnell article; middle of the right column, p 20 (undated); also middle of the left column, p 21 (undated)]. Related material provided in Grinnell’s book. At lunch, Skip divided up the sugar and gave us each our week’s supply in the empty jam jars which Peter had provided. [p 83 (undated)] Summary. There was a dispute regarding the sugar supply, but it was resolved on 29 July, seven weeks before Moffatt’s death. Assertion 5 of the article. Powdered milk. 1. The next fight was over how the powdered milk was mixed…Moffatt always helped himself first before calling the rest of us to dinner, and so the question of the way the powdered got mixed had something to do with Moffatt helping himself first and the possibility that none would be left by the time the sixth man got his. [Grinnell article, p 21, top of left column; undated]. 2. …the powdered milk was mixed in the democratic fashion we advocated, even though it was so watery we could hardly tell the difference between it and the lake… [p 21, middle of the left column; undated but included in the paragraph beginning On August 22]. Assessment. If indeed one had existed, the fight…over how the powdered milk was mixed was settled by ~22 August. Aside. I didn’t deem this matter worth mention elsewhere, not least because Pessl didn’t mention it. Opinion. One source (of four) for the Kingsley assertion Group dynamics became increasingly strained, and the men grew suspicious of each other. [Lake, middle of p 13 (2013] Assertion 6 of the article. Control of the food, etc. Moffatt had the rather cynical attitude, “He who controls the food, controls the men”… Moffatt always helped himself first before calling the rest of us to dinner…the possibility that none would be left by the time the sixth man got his. [Grinnell article, middle of the left column, p 21; also Grinnell book, top of p 7 and top of p 17] Response. Grinnell provided no evidence, and I found none in the writings of the other participants, to support his assertion either that Moffatt had such an attitude, or that he always helped himself first. Conclusion. Given Grinnell’s failure to provide supporting evidence, and especially his redaction of exculpatory evidence from Lanouette’s journal for the day on Moffatt’s death, I conclude that the entire passage Moffatt had…sixth man got his is a fabrication. Aside. Kingsley later added the embellishment he said with a sardonic smile. [Up Here, p 90, middle column (2012). Opinion. One source (of four) for the Kingsley assertion Group dynamics became increasingly strained, and the men grew suspicious of each other. [Lake, middle of p 13 (2013)] Assertion 7 of the article. The size of Moffatt’s bowl/dishes, and Moffatt’s taking of extra portions. I provide also related material from Grinnell’s book and from Pessl’s book. Item 1. Then there was the oatmeal question. LeFavour took to counting the number of spoonfuls of oatmeal we each took every morning. This did not vary much from bowl to bowl for the rest of us because we each had the same size bowl and always filled it as full as we could get it, but Moffatt had his own special dishes, which were considerably larger than ours. [Grinnell article, top of the left column, p 21; undated but 22 August from other evidence] Item 2. Art…ate out of a larger bowl than the rest of us. [Grinnell book, middle of p 25] Item 3. …the extra large dishes he ate from… [Grinnell book, bottom of p 31] Item 4. “Skip says my pannikin is causing grumbling among the men since they think I’m getting more than they are,”Art wrote in his diary. “Could be. Will use bowl from now on.” [Grinnell book, p 133]. Item 5. The Pessl comment …Art…filling his controversial pannikin provided in the caption to the photo on p 85 of his book. Item 6. The Franck comment (abbreviated) …he fills his pannikin, which is larger than our bowls and gets more that way. [Pessl book, top of p 86] Item 7. …He uses a special aluminum pannikin instead of the common bowl, thus causing suspicion of larger portions. When frying meat, he always fries his separately, thus implying special pieces and extra preparation… [Pessl book, bottom of p 86] Item 8. Art was also caught by Bruce taking 7 serving spoons of glop to our 5 ½ and, that from now on, we are going to watch him with eagle eyes. Art has a special aluminum pannikin which holds a lot more than our bowls. [Lanouette journal for 10 August] Comment. The first part asserts that Moffatt was taking extra portions using the same size spoon, the second that he was using a larger bowl. Aside. I trust Lanouette completely. The resolution. 1. On August 22, Moffatt came to breakfast and picked up one of the standard bowls… [Grinnell article, p 21, middle of the left column]. 2. Much to everyone’s surprise, when Art came down to breakfast the following morning, he left his aluminum pannikin in the pot box and picked up the sixth, beige bakelite bowl which was identical to the ones the rest of us ate out of. [Grinnell book, pp 133&134]. 3. I saw no further mention that Moffatt had been taking extra portions, and so I assume that the matter was resolved before the end of August. Opinion. The size of Moffatt’s dishes is one of four sources for Kingsley’s assertion that Group dynamics became increasingly strained, and the men grew suspicious of each other. Assertion 8 of the article. We had one last dispute over the schedule in which we, of course, won as we outnumbered him five to one, and Art’s status as leader and guru was for all intents and purposes terminated… [article, p 21, middle of the left column]. Aside. The remark was made in connection with Grinnell’s assertion regarding the United Bowmen’s Association. I refer the reader to the corresponding joke evidence of LeFavour, provided below. Response. Every participant knew before the trip started that the party was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 15 September, with a grace period of a week before the air seach was initiated. Conclusion. Assertion 8 is a fabrication from first word to last. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule. Assertion 9 of the article. In the last days of August…we took more holidays than Moffatt had ever contemplated, averaging one every other day. [p 21, bottom of the left column]. Response. The evidence leads me to conclude that Assertion 9 is a falsehood from first word to last. Reference. Assertion 10 of the article. When we reached the end of Dubawnt Lake, we took another holiday to celebrate. [p 21, bottom of the left column. Incorrectly dated 28 August; in this connection, I note again that Grinnell did not keep a journal]. The evidence of Pessl. The leisurely breakfast of another “day off”… [book, bottom of p 108; 29 August] The evidence of Franck. Windy this morning, so we stayed put. [book, bottom of p 109] Summary. Perhaps a wind-forced layover day; if so, not a holiday. Reference. Assertion 11 of the article. It snowed during the first four days of September, and we took holidays on all four of them. [article, p 21, top of right column] Response. A preposterous use of the word holiday, given that no party could have travelled in the storms of the first three days, worse yet that the Moffatt party travelled on the fourth. [Pessl, pp 115-120] Aside. More evidence that Grinnell did not keep a journal. Assessment. A conscious misrepresentation of known evidence. Reference. Assertion 12 of the article. On September 9 we were hit by a blizzard that ripped to shreds the tent I was in. [Grinnell article, p 21, bottom of the right column] Assessment. Confirmed by Pessl [book, top of p 129]. Assertion 13 of the article. Inquest, holidays and reality. The text of the assertion. At the inquest held by the mounties, it was disclosed that we had taken holidays on more than half the days of the trip. One Mountie commented that we had “lost our sense of reality.” [Grinnell article, p 56, top of right column] It need be said that Grinnell provided no evidence in support of any part of the assertion. Response regarding the inquest. In response to my email message, Mathieu Sabourin (Library and Archives, Canada) responded as follows, in part: I did not locate any specific file related to Mr. Moffatt. Response regarding holidays. Pessl’s book documents that not one “holiday” (in the too-lazy-to-paddle sense) was taken in the entire trip. Response regarding “lost…sense of reality”. It suffices to note first that Grinnell provided no supporting evidence, second that I have learned to trust nothing written by him that is not confirmed by a reliable source. Conclusions. It is a falsehood that an inquest had been held into Moffatt’s death. It is a falsehood that the party had taken holidays on more than half the days of the trip. With the possible exception of Grinnell, it is a fabrication that any member of the Moffatt party had lost…sense of reality at any time. References. Appendix 1. Reality and Delusion. Closing remarks regarding Grinnell’s article. Summary. I believe that I documented above all assertions/accusations made in his article. To avoid repetition, I included related ones provided also in his book. Given so many falsehoods, fabrications and conscious misrepresentations of known evidence, I am convinced that no content of Grinnell’s article, and by extension no content of his book, is to be trusted. The reader may well then decide to fastforward through my discussion of the latter. Conclusion. Grinnell set out to fabricate a case against a dead man. Opinion. Grinnell betrayed Moffatt.

Evidence regarding the food supply in the six weeks prior to Moffatt’s death.

Rather than digress later, I provide here the evidences provided in Grinnell’s book (and also those in the later publications of Pessl, Franck and LeFavour) regarding assertions that a shortage of food (indeed a lack of food [Murphy]) in that period contributed to Moffatt’s death. One fine day, I shall document also the evidences provided in Grinnell’s article, and those of Moffatt and Lanouette. Comments. Evidences 1 through 13 (those provided in Grinnell’s book) were known to Murphy, Mahler, Thum and Kingsley, but not to the SI editor and Inglis. Evidences 14 through 17 (those of Pessl, Franck and LeFavour) were known to no Moffatt accuser. The 13 food-related evidences of Grinnell’s book for the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Evidence 1. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August. pp 97&98]. Evidence 2. Full bellies… [undated. p 113]. Evidence 3. Skip, Joe and Art picked blueberries… Art baked up a delicious blueberry “Johnny Cake” …caribou soup… dehydrated mashed potatoes …freshly butchered caribou steaks …full bellies [12 August. p 115]. Evidence 4. A second full bellies. [undated. p 116] Evidence 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August. p 127]. Evidence 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout Peter had caught, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou Bruce had shot, savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries …. [after 20 August. p 135]. Evidence 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [undated. p 146]. Evidence 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [undated. p 147]. Evidence 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [undated, but after 5 September. p 156]. Evidence 10. … I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August. pp 156&157]. Evidence 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [undated. p 158] Evidence 12. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead… It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump…. [7 September. pp 180&181] Confirmation. …24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Sports Illustrated, lower left column, p 82] Evidence 13. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, …Pete latched onto a 17 ½-pound orange-fleshed lake trout and wrestled with him for 20 minutes. [14 September. top of p 202]. Confirmed by LeFavour, who gives the weight as 20 lb. [The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. The four evidences of Franck, Pessl and LeFavour for the period from 5 August to 14 September. I repeat that none of these was known to any of Moffatt’s accusers. Evidence 14. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [22 August. Franck, in Pessl (2014), p 99]. Evidence 15. We … were so full we could hardly move. [28 August. Franck, in Pessl, p 108] Evidence 16. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [30 August. Pessl, p 110] Evidence 17. As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [13 September. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. End digression.

Grinnell assertion set 2.

These comprise assertions published solely in his book of 1996. Again, assertions made in both his article and his book are addressed above. Item 1. Grinnell’s sources. I repeat that Grinnell had full access to the Sports Illustrated article, as evinced by his Acknowledgements [p 308] and his reference there to Quotes. As well, Grinnell had corresponded with the SI editor, as evinced by the Epilogue of the SI article [p 88]. Evidence available to me has it that the two had met in person or through a representative of the editor; the importance of this item will become clear later. As well, I have cause to believe that Grinnell possessed Moffatt’s full journal. Item 2. A reminder of three assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor, and Grinnell’s response to them. 1. Food was becoming the question now. [SI article (1959), top left of p 76, 8 or 9 August]. 2. Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August]. 3. Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top right of p 82, 7/8 September]. Comment. Given first that Grinnell had assisted in the writing of the Epilogue of SI article (1959), and second that his article and his book were published in 1988 and 1996 respectively, I suggest it not credible that he did not know of these assertions of the editor. But Grinnell knew all three assertions to be falsehoods, and he had the opportunity (to some the responsibility) to defend Moffatt. Unfortunately for the reputation of the person who accepted him for the trip, he failed to do so in either his article or his book. Item 3. The Sports Illustrated editor’s redactions. Grinnell failed to object to the editor’s redaction of the exculpatory phrases 1. can’t risk an upset now from Moffatt’s journal entry for 10 September phrases [SI, middle of the right column, p 82] and 2. Following Tyrrell’s route… from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September. [SI, lower right column, p 82]. Indeed, Grinnell followed suit by redacting that exculpatory passage of Lanouette regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. [Item 8, below]. Item 4. Luste comment 1. Aside 1. Grinnell’s book includes both Luste’s Introduction (pp iii to v) and his Thoughts on the Moffatt Tragedy, Wilderness Canoeing, and Safety (pp 279-302). The text of comment 1. Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, p 284. Luste’s source is not known]. Aside 2, this regarding Tyrrell’s notes. Moffatt is known to have possessed a copy of J B Tyrrell’s journal, a copy of his book, copies of his maps, and also to have corresponded with JBT. I was able to access JBT’s book and his maps, but the journal not at all, and the correspondence only insufficiently. My point is that neither the book nor the relevant map mentions the rapids where Moffatt died. Reference.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources. Interpretation. Moffatt possessed information (from J B Tyrrell) regarding rapids on the Dubawnt, and that information told him that the rapids where he died were not worth a scout. That comment of Luste, alone and in itself, is to me exculpatory, for it evinces that Moffatt had only followed JBT’s advice when he chose to run those rapids without a scout. That is, Moffatt followed J B Tyrrell’s advice to his death. Closing comments. 1. Grinnell had the opportunity to clear Moffatt’s reputation by pointing out this evidence, but he failed to do so. 2. In what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book, Murphy and MacDonald also ignored this evidence of Luste. Instead, Murphy asserted that Moffatt’s death resulted from lack of food and lack of proper equipment, and both Murphy and MacDonald asserted that a cause was lack of a schedule. 3. More generally, this evidence of Luste was ignored in every later publication of the Moffatt literature, primary and secondary alike, for 20 years and counting. Item 5. Luste comment 2. As noted also above, Luste expressed the following opinion of accusations made prior to 1996. It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. [Grinnell book, p 294]. For reasons known only to them, this evidence of Luste went unmentioned by every Moffatt accuser, for most of whom Grinnell’s book was their primary source. Again deserving of explicit mention are Murphy and MacDonald, who ignored that comment in what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book. Item 6. Other Grinnell actions. In both his article and his book, Grinnell made unfortunate statements, and made unfortunate omissions, regarding important matters; most of his actions are prejudicial to Moffatt. Of greatest concern to me is Grinnell’s redaction (documented in Item 8 below) of an exculpatory passage from Lanouette’s journal for 14 September. Pessl devotes pages 163-174 of his book to addressing multiple accusations made by Grinnell of Moffatt (who, it need be said, was unable to respond to them). My Main text and my Appendices address other troubling statements made and actions taken by Grinnell; some are addressed below. An aside regarding Grinnell’s credibility. With respect to Grinnell’s discussion of his frozen fingers and tending the cook fire, Pessl expressed the opinion Pure bullshit as far as I’m concerned. References. Grinnell book, p 242; Pessl, private correspondence. Item 7. Grinnell’s food-related evidence for the six weeks prior to Moffatt’s death. Essential for our understanding of assertions that a cause of Moffatt’s death was a shortage of food (indeed a lack of food according to Murphy]) is the evidence of Grinnell’s book for the period from the shooting of the first caribou (5 August) to Moffatt’s death (14 September). In the cause of brevity, I document here only four of the 17 published evidences. Full documentation is provided above, under the heading Some food-related evidence of the participants for the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. 1. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [Grinnell book, pp 97&98; 5 August]. 2. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [Grinnell book, p 156]. 3. I omit also Grinnell evidence regarding other food from the land: many ptarmigan, many fish (three species), blueberries and mushrooms. 4. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead, …It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump. [Grinnell book, p 180; 7 September] Comment. This evidence of Grinnell that food (both from the land and from provisions) was abundant in the six weeks before the tragedy was ignored by every accuser who wrote later on the topic of food, notably by several whose primary source was that book. Case 1 in point. In what was alleged to be a review of Grinnell’s book, Murphy asserted that Lack of food…contributed to his [Moffatt’s] demise. Case 2 in point. Kingsley, whose primary source was Grinnell’s book, asserted that the caribou were long gone. Conclusions. The assertion of Murphy is a falsehood. The assertion of Kingsley is a falsehood. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Item 8. Grinnell’s redaction of exculpatory evidence. Aside. I recognise that I documented this item previously, but I felt that it merited repetition here. Background. Neither J B Tyrrell’s book nor J W Tyrrell’s, both possessed by Moffatt, mentions the rapids where he died, those a hundred meters or so above Marjorie Lake. Aside. Those rapids are shown at both http://www.mytopo.com/maps/ and Toporama, resources not available in 1955. Moffatt possessed also J B Tyrrell’s map for the reach between Wharton Lake and what is now called Marjorie Lake. The reader will verify that no mention is made there of the rapids where Moffatt died, those on southmost channel, just upstream from Marjorie. Reference. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893 Moffatt possessed also JBT’s journal (known to differ from his book); as well, the two had corresponded. But my best efforts failed to obtain access either to JBT’s journal or to his response to Moffatt’s first letter. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell items and the fatal rapids. Introduction. More repetition. Over the previous 11 weeks on a demanding, indeed dangerous, river, Moffatt had followed the rapids advice of J B Tyrrell. In that period, the party had experienced not one dump, not one pin and but one swamp. In the morning of 14 September, the party completed the portage marked on JBT’s map (URL provided above) and proceeded downstream, stopping for lunch (at which point a 20 lb lake trout was added to the already considerable food supply on board). That afternoon, Moffatt continued to follow JBT’s advice. The only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the reach between the lunch stop and Marjorie Lake. References (also repeated). The beginning of Main text, Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. More repetition. 1. The complete journal of Lanouette (Moffatt’s bowperson) for 14 September is provided in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt. 2. The following provides the Sports Illustrated condensation of Lanouette’s journal regarding the events of the afternoon of 14 September. The reader will verify that the condensation is a faithful one. After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious. We didn’t even haul to shore to have a look, as we usually did. The river was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rough water quite clearly, or we thought we could. We barreled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes, but I didn’t mind, as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I was looking a few feet in front of the canoe for submerged rocks when Art suddenly shouted “Paddle.” [Sports Illustrated, 16 March 1959, p 85]. Comment. Moffatt knew there to be two rapids below the portage but he believed them to have already been shot; these were the riffles. 3. Grinnell’s version of the above Lanouette passage. After a fine lunch of fish chowder, we shoved off again at around 2:30. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped. In a few minutes we heard and saw rapids on the horizon. … At the top, the rapids looked as though they would be easy going, a few small waves, rocks—nothing serious. We didn’t even haul to shore to have a look, as we usually did. The river was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rough water quite clearly, or we thought we could. We barreled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes, but I didn’t mind, as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I was looking a few feet in front of the canoe for submerged rocks when Art suddenly shouted “Paddle.” [Grinnell book, top of p 202] 4. Comparison reveals that Grinnell reproduced completely the contents of the SI version, but for one difference: Grinnell redacted the passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids, replacing it with an ellipsis. To my mind, the redacted passage, especially the surprised comment, is the key to understanding the cause of Moffatt’s death, for it evinces first that Moffatt possessed prior information regarding the fatal rapids, and second that such information had proved to be incorrect. That passage told me that Moffatt, in choosing to run the fatal rapids without a scout, was only following J B Tyrrell’s guide to rapids on the Dubawnt; surely Moffatt would not have followed Tyrrell’s advice that day, had it proved unreliable even once in the previous 11 weeks. The question. Exists there a rational mind that believes Grinnell’s redaction of that passage to have been an accident, a slip of the pen? Conclusions. Grinnell made a conscious decision to conceal evidence that Moffatt had been misled when he decided to run those rapids without a scout. That redaction, alone and in itself, convinces me that Grinnell set out to fabricate a case against Moffatt. That redaction deceived the entire paddling community for 20 years regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. Opinion. Also reprehensible is that Grinnell deceived Luste into making the comments on p iii of his book. It bears mention that Grinnell’s manuscript had been previously been rejected by seven publishers [Grinnell book, pp 304 & 305]. That is, Grinnell’s book would not have been published but for Luste’s efforts. Some way to thank Luste! Item 9. Death from hypothermia, also known as freezing to death and death from exposure. The assertion. Contrary to popular opinion, freezing to death is not a pleasant way to die. It is so painful, in fact, that I desperately wanted to pass out, to go crazy (or failing that) to die as quickly as possible. [Grinnell book, bottom of p 212] Response. Having learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell, I checked him out. Two reliable sources mention nothing about pain. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothermia https://www.ranker.com/list/what-happens-to-your-body-when-you-freeze-to-death/katherine-ripley As well, not one person who responded to my CCR post mentioned pain as a cause. http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=16&t=46833 Conclusion. Grinnell’s assertion regarding death from hypothermia is a fabrication. Item 10. Was Moffatt suicidal? Comment. Other noteworthy items in Grinnell’s book are multiple suggestions, thinly veiled, that Moffatt was suicidal. Perhaps, one fine day, I’ll document them; at the moment, I provide only Pessl’s comments. Pessl comment 1. (a) Art Moffatt was not suicidal as Grinnell suggests. Throughout the summer he made frequent reference to plans for the future and the anticipated pleasure of seeing his family again. On July 23, Peter’s journal describes a conversation in which he and Art discussed Art’s plan for an outdoor film project in the Sierra two years after the Dubawnt project. (b) On August 12, Moffatt wrote: “Cold too, now, but I love these evenings alone by the fire, later at night and early in the morning I smoke, drink tea, think of home, Carol, Creigh, Debbo…of my new study and of the children there with me when I get back, and the stories I’ll be able to tell them about all my adventures in the North…shooting rapids and the time I saw the wolves, white ones, and the caribou and moose and fish and birds.” Certainly not a suicidal state of mind. And I cannot imagine ever having said, “You were right all along, George.” [Pessl, Nastawgan article, pp 8&9] Comments. The last item (“You…George”) refers to page 224 of Grinnell’s book. Opinion. Another dig at Pessl. Pessl comment 2. On the end pages of his journal book Art compiled a to-do list of plans and chores upon his return: “Wire Carol from Churchill or Winnipeg, probably Winnipeg, after seeing Wilson of the Beaver. Sell him an article or two, plus a cover and talk to him about film. Ask Carol to come to Mount Royal, Windsor or Laurentides…get reservations, bring me clothes. Have a long weekend up there… If I get Toronto in a.m., can see Star during day… see John Coleman, CNR public relations…suggest press conference. Get him to notify Time-Life Bureau, or do it myself.” Clearly, these are not the thoughts of a man who has abandoned hope and does not expect to see his family or associates again. [Pessl, p 166] Clarification. The Beaver is the former name of the magazine Canada’s History. http://www.canadashistory.ca/Community/PresidentsMessage/February-2010/Happy-90th-Birthday-Beaver-magazine.aspx Interpretation. Wilson and Moffatt had arranged to meet in Winnipeg, on Moffatt’s way home, in order to discuss a Beaver article describing the trip. Pessl comment 3. Before we left the States,… Art and Carol had recently completed a remodel of their…home…He was anxious to return from the Dubawnt journey with as much raw material as possible and then get started with the professional preparation of his journey accounts. [Pessl book, p 167] Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. Item 11. Filming and photography. Assertion 1. The movie was not working out. To be a good wildlife photographer, one has to sit and wait like a hunter; and we did not have time to sit and wait. If we waited, we would be caught in the autumn freeze-up. …Art had not captured on film anything that would pay enough to feed his family when the expedition was over. [Grinnell book, p 50] Assertion 2. Winter was closing in; and as yet, Art had captured on film nothing that would feed his family. … His only hope was to stall around waiting for something to photograph. The more he stalled, the more likely he would be able to feed his family one way or another, for he had doubled his life insurance before coming on the trip: and what people pay money to watch on television is not so much life as death. … The movie provided hope for Art, …but failing that, he preferred death in the wilderness to life in the rat race [book, p 176] Assertion 3. If his movie failed, he was as good as dead anyway. [book, p 180] Pessl responds. Grinnell’s suggestion that “the movie was not working out: and that …Art had not captured on film anything that would pay enough to feed his family” is curious and seriously misunderstands the objectives of the film project. Our photographic mission was not to film wildlife in the traditional professional strategy of sitting concealed, waiting for the perfect shot as Grinnell asserts. We were filming a canoe journey along a transect that reflected remarkable changes in the wildlife and natural history of the region. It was the journey that mattered and it was the context of that journey that we were committed to record. As even the most amateur moviemaker knows, exposed raw film footage is just the beginning of the moviemaking process. It is true that we didn’t get a shot of a grizzly’s ear or some other spectacular wildlife close-up, but to suggest therefore that the film was a failure and thereby contributed to some deadly depression is absurd. More importantly, the unsupported assertion that Art was consciously “stalling” so that he could chance on some remarkable wildlife photography is outrageous. Art and I were transparently committed to filming the entire journey; we were not “waiting for something to photograph”. Art was out with the camera whenever he had the opportunity, often in the morning before others were up, or while I was cooking breakfast. And throughout the day, traveling or not, our priority was to get that shot, record that moment, preserve that feeling of being on this amazing adventure. To suggest that Art was stalling is unpardonable. [Pessl book, pp 166-167] Question. Where is the evidence, first that Moffatt had captured nothing yet (Grinnell provides no date), second that Moffatt was stalling, waiting for something to photograph (also no date), third, and by far most important, that Moffatt had pinned his entire life to the success of the film and so that he preferred to die rather than return empty-handed? Answer. None exists. In fact, Pessl provides evidence that refutes all three. Opinion. A dead man (a trip companion no less) surely deserved the truth. Conclusion. One of Grinnell’s more rabid fabrications. Item 12. sad, apprehensive and gloomy. Art put a brave face on our situation, but inwardly he was not laughing. “I felt sad, apprehensive and gloomy,” Art wrote on the eve of our departure, while the rest of us followed him around with smiles on our faces, believing he would carry us through all adversity. [Grinnell book, p 10]. Mentioned also above. Clarifications. 1. Grinnell’s unidentified source was the passage I felt sad, apprehensive and gloomy about the summer. [SI article, top of the left column, p 72] 2. Grinnell met Moffatt in person first in Stony Rapids (from where the party departed to Black Lake by truck). Pessl’s response. Actually that quote was from Art’s journal entry for June 16 … in which he describes his feelings as he stands on the station platform … at White River Junction, Vermont… The quote had nothing to do with our situation at Black Lake. [Pessl, pp 164-165] Conclusion. Grinnell got it wrong. Item 13. The broken canoe. This less-than-important item is provided only for completeness. Referring to Moffatt, Grinnell wrote the following “Rather a clear dream,” he had written in his diary. The day he had had the dream of his broken canoe resting on the bottom among caribou bones, we were camped before another gorge… [Grinnell book, pp 176 & 177] The evidence of Pessl. Grinnell’s account of the dream sequence that Art had described in his journal entry of September 2—“and in the clear water below, I could see a gray canoe (mine?) broken and resting on the bottom among caribou bones”—ends with a positive statement: “Must get out of here soon and will.” But that statement was not part of the dream. It was written the following day, September 3, expressing concern about the cold and another nontravel day, clearly a positive commitment in the face of deteriorating weather and in spite of the previous night’s dream. [Pessl book, p 164] Item 14. The toll. Grinnell’s assertion. Art dreamed that there was at toll at the end of the lake which he could not afford to pay. [book, page number lost for the moment] Pessl’s response. There is no mention of this “dream” in Art’s journal. [book, p 164] Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. Aside regarding Items 13 and 14. Yet more evidence that Grinnell had obtained access to Moffatt’s journal. Item 15. The swamping on 26 August. Skip was furious…the contents of his capsized canoe on top of him. [book, p 139 and elsewhere] In his Nastawgan article [p 9] and in his book [pp 168-169], Pessl rejects Grinnell’s version of the event. Interpretation. More needling of Pessl. In this connection, I refer the reader to Grinnell’s multiple references to Pessl’s alleged lectures on group consideration and altruistic behavior. Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. Item 16. The encounter with the grizzly on 6 September. Grinnell provides one account of the event. [book, pp 178-180] Much different ones are provided by Moffatt, Pessl, Franck and LeFavour [Nastawgan, p 9; Pessl book, pp 170]; Evening Recorder [p 8]. Especially noteworthy are the differences regarding the possible shooting of the bear. Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. Item 17. Franck’s stammering. In his book, Grinnell quotes multiple instances of Franck’s stammering [two on p 38, top of p 70, bottom of p 80, top of p 179, two on p 185, two on p 187, p 188; search incomplete]. Pessl’s response. I cannot recall a single instance in which Peter [Franck] stammered. Peter’s wife, Fay, insists that she never heard Peter stammer, “not even an ‘um’ or an ‘er’”. [Nastawgan article, p 8; book, p 168]. Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. Item 18. The exit date. Grinnell repeatedly gives the scheduled exit date as 2 September [book, p 58 and many places elsewhere], whereas multiple independent sources (including the New York Times, indirectly) give 15 September, with a week’s grace period before the air search was to begin. Appendix 7. Schedule. Grinnell’s source for 2 September. In private correspondence, Pessl pointed out to me that the Tyrrell party arrived in Baker Lake that day. Aside. Referring to Franck, Grinnell provided also the following: Because Peter had planned to enter his sophomore year at Harvard that Autumn, the September 2nd date was particularly important to him. [book, pp 162&163]. The evidence suggests that this remark was intended as a diversion. Response. Surely the schedule for arrival in Baker Lake was discussed throughout the trip, especially in early September when it must have seemed certain that the party would not arrive on time. Conclusion. Grinnell knowingly misrepresented the schedule-related evidence known to him. I suggest below a reason. Aside. The assertion is known to have deceived a later accuser [Kingsley assertion 10, below]. Item 19. The United Bowmen’s Association. The assertions of Grinnell. 1. On July 18th, we bowmen formed the United Bowmen’s Association and threatened to go on strike if we were not provided with a schedule… We bowmen went on strike… [article, top of right column, p 20] 2. After crossing the Height of Land, we [the bow paddlers]
formed a union and went into revolt. [book, p 53] 3. Up in the bow, we felt totally ignored. By the end of lunch, we bowmen had formed the “United Bowmen’s Association” and had agreed to go on strike if Art and the other two sternmen did not comply with our demands. [book, p 58] 4. By the time we bowmen had lost our fear of the wilderness and had taken effective control of the expedition… [book, p 164] Responses. 1. LeFavour, a bowman like Grinnell (the third was Lanouette) provided the following. …the bowmen neither individually nor as a group ever contemplated taking over the leadership of the expedition. The very idea is ridiculous. Rather, as I remember it, the name and the extremely loose organization was a joke, a way for us to vent our frustrations with some of Art’s actions. …The UBA was simply a way for the three of us to bitch among ourselves and thereby relieve some tensions, not in any way a revolt. [LeFavour, private communication to Pessl; bottom of the right column on p 8 of Pessl’s Nastawgan article, Vol 40, No.2 (2013). Also Pessl book, p 168]. 2. I have no recollection of the UBA and did not mention it in my journal… [Pessl book, p 168] 3. Peter [Franck, who sterned one canoe] makes no mention the UBA in his journal. [Pessl book, p 168] Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. Item 20. The broken cup. Passage 1. With his broken tea cup lying shattered at his feet, Art became convinced that he would never see his wife and children again, and so he sat, and so we waited.” [Grinnell book, p 50] Passage 2. …his sacred tea cup (the one that Carol had given him…) had broken on a rock, Art had had his first premonition of his approaching death… [Grinnell book, p 175] Pessl response 1. The suggestion that Art was suicidal and indifferent to the well-being of the other party members…has been expressed by some reviewers and correspondents within the wilderness community. This assumption of Art’s mental instability, I believe, derives from Grinnell’s brief description of Art’s reaction to his broken tea cup. [Pessl book, p 163] Aside. One of those correspondents was Larry Osgood, in his communication of February 1996. [Pessl, p 179] Pessl response 2. I know of no evidence in support of this analysis of Art’s mental condition. How did Grinnell get into Art’s head to know what Art was “convinced” of? Actually, Art considered the incident of the broken tea cup as an “omen of bad luck” (journal entry, June 21), not as a moment of final abandonment. [Pessl book, p 164] Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. Item 21. The insurance policy. Before coming on the trip, Art had been faced with three choices. He needed money to feed his family. He could either go down to New York and do as others in Western Civilization were doing…; or he could double his life insurance policy and buy a one-way ticket to the Great Beyond; or he could gamble on a wildlife film. He chose the last two. [book, p 49]. It seems necessary to note that Grinnell provided no evidence in support of this item. Pessl response 1. Many people increase life insurance coverage anticipating some special travel or experience. The presence of insurance policy kiosks at major airports suggests that this is a fairly common transaction. I have no evidence that Art did, indeed, increase his life insurance coverage prior to the Dubawnt trip… [Pessl book, p 164] Pessl response 2. There is no mention in Art’s journal of an increase in life insurance and I have no idea what policy company he may have used. [private correspondence, 7 August 2016] My response to Grinnell’s buy a one-way ticket to the Great Beyond. So flippantly to speak of the death of your trip companion (your leader, your mentor, perhaps your friend), the person who accepted you for the trip, with whom for over two months you shared meals, hardship, hunger (at times), danger (including a storm of perhaps hurricane force), and, perhaps most of all, the beauty of the barrens: “The reality I had discovered was the reality of the Garden of Eden, the most beautiful reality I have ever experienced.” [book, p 156]). Shame! Conclusion. It is Grinnell fabrication that Moffatt had doubled his life insurance policy. Item 22. The cache. On page 180 of his book, Grinnell represented the acquisition of a considerable resupply of provisions as a fortuitous discovery. LeFavour provided a rather different account of that event (plus a similar one of the encounter with the grizzly). Before leaving for the Dubawnt, Moffatt had been in contact with the head of a survey team who had promised to leave us any extra supplies…in a cache…our route… [Evening Recorder, 29 December 1955, p 8] Grinnell’s account of that event: Skip admonished us for disturbing the “cache”, because “caches” in the wilderness…were sacred and must never be touched… We…ignored Skip and raided the dump. You might well think that Grinnell had doctored the evidence in order to get in another dig at Pessl, but I couldn’t possibly comment. Item 23. The dispute with Pessl. Item 1. Grinnell made multiple, unsubstantiated references to Pessl’s alleged lectures on group consideration and altruistic behavior. [An example: book, middle of p 135] Item 2. Skip was self-righteous … and becoming more and more intolerant of us. Towards the end of August, his anger flared out not just at me, but also at the others with increasing frequency: and on the day of the big waves, his rage exploded at Art. [book, middle of p 142] Item 3. Skip found himself in the difficult position of having become second-in-command to a cup of tea. [book, top of p 146] Item 4. You were right all along, George. [book, p 224; alleged to be a Pessl comment]. Pessl’s response. …I cannot imagine ever having said, “You were right all along, George.” [Nastawgan article, pp 8&9] Opinion. Independent of the truth (which I much doubt) of these remarks, they evince a petty, vengeful mind. Item 24. Frozen fingers. Although I had lost all feeling in my hands, and they were yellow and swollen, I suffered more from burns than from frostbite. Earlier in the cold weather, my hands had frozen and thawed, frozen and thawed, but now they just stayed numb all the time. Earlier the paddling had thawed them out, and when feeling returned, it returned with great pain. The pain was gone, and my fingers remained on my hands. The swelling seemed to be insulating the vital functions beneath the skin. [book, p 242] Pessl responds. Pure bullshit… [private correspondence] Conclusion. Another Grinnell fabrication. A caution regarding Grinnell’s publications. Although the evidence convinces me that Grinnell set out to defame a dead man, some of his assertions are confirmed by the evidences of the other five participants, for example that the Moffatt party enjoyed a plethora of food in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. And so I suggest that the reader not reject every Grinnell assertion out of hand, rather that s/he first examine the evidence of the other participants. START AGAIN HERE

The portage from Marjorie Lake to Aberdeen Lake.

Aside. In his journal for 10 September, Moffatt provided the passage about 200 miles to go. This is his value for the distance from an unknown point above Wharton Lake on the Dubawnt River, northwest to its junction with the Thelon River and thence eastward to Baker Lake. After his death, the survivors decided instead to portage from Marjorie Lake to the east basin of Aberdeen Lake on the Thelon. [Pessl, private correspondence] J B Tyrrell’s map for the region of interest https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893 shows two portages between Marjorie Lake and the junction with the Thelon River, the first of 14 chains (282 m), the other referred to only as London Rapids. I believe the latter to be Pessl’s another dangerous rapid before Beverly Lake [book, middle of p 133], and that he referred to them also when he wrote This portage saved us time and protected against our fear of heavy rapids and another potential accident.[book, p 136] JBT’s map gives also the elevations of Marjorie Lake and Aberdeen Lake as 260 ft (79 m) and 130 ft (40 m), and so the short reach between them accounts for half the remaining descent to Hudson Bay, suggesting significant rapids in that reach, and so that the decision to portage to Aberdeen Lake was a wise one. Additional evidence. The five survivors completed the trip in two canoes, the third having been left to cover Moffatt’s body. The consequence is that the canoes were heavily loaded and so not so manoeverable. This item alone suggests that any rapids were to be avoided. Aside 1. The decision to portage certainly saved distance, and it may well have saved also time. The following distances were measured by using the corresponding feature at Toporama. The distance along the route taken by the Tyrrell party. Continue along the Dubawnt to its junction with the Thelon, thence through Aberdeen Lake to Baker Lake. Leg 1. The length of the reach from the rapids where Moffatt died to the first narrows on the Dubawnt below Marjorie is 12.4 km. Leg 2. The length of the reach from that narrows to a point (call it point A) due north of the portage completed by the survivors is 124 km. The route taken by the Moffatt party. Assumption. The survivors paddled to the head of the bay at the north end of Marjorie Lake, then portaged to the bay at the south end of the east half of Aberdeen Lake. The following straight-line distances were measured at Toporama. 19 km. The distance from the foot of the rapids where Moffatt died to the beginning of the portage. That reach was completed on 17 September and the portage was begun the next day. [Pessl book, pp 134&135] 11.2 km (7.0 miles). The minimum length of the portage, which was completed on 19 September [Pessl book, p 137] Aside. Using the maps (8 miles to the inch, ~500,000:1) available in 1955, Lanouette gave the distance as 8 miles [journal,15 September]. 13.4 km. The length of the reach paddled from that bay due north to point A. Perhaps I should add that the survivors continued to the north shore of Aberdeen Lake, where they camped. [Pessl book, p 136] Let the reader decide, given the evidence provided above, whether the survivors made the right decision, namely to portage rather than continue on the river. Conversions of lengths. https://www.metric-conversions.org/length/feet-to-meters.htm https://www.metric-conversions.org/length/meters-to-feet.htm Present-day values for the elevations of Marjorie Lake and Aberdeen Lake. I emphasise that the following sources were not available to the Moffatt party. Source Toporama. http://atlas.gc.ca/toporama/en/index.html Wait a bit, then enter Marjorie Lake, Nunavut, for example. Source mytopo. http://www.mytopo.com/maps/ Click on Canada, then enter Marjorie Lake, then click on Marjorie Lake, Keewatin. The results. The elevation of Marjorie Lake is given by Toporama as between 100 m (328 ft) and 120 m (393 ft); mytopo gives it explicitly as 115 m (377 ft). The elevation of Aberdeen Lake is given by Toporama as a bit below 80 m (262 ft); mytopo gives it explicitly as 79 m (259 ft). It is no surprise that the values at Toporama and mytopo agree, for the sources were the same. But it is a surprise that JBT’s values differ so much from the present-day ones. I add that I don’t know how JBT determined elevations in 1893; I asked a geologist friend about this and hope to report accordingly.

The Sports Illustrated article, Grinnell’s publications and the fatal rapids.

The Sports Illustrated article. 1. As documented above, the editor redacted the phrase can’t risk an upset now from Moffatt’s journal entry for 10 September. What interpretation of that phrase is possible but that Moffatt’s approach to running rapids was cautious? 2. Also as documented above, the editor redacted the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s last journal entry, that for 13 September. What interpretation of that phrase is possible but the Moffatt possessed route advice from Tyrrell and was following it? 3. And so I ask the reader to reflect on the light shed by these redactions on the Sports Illustrated assertions regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death (a) …the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds…In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article, bottom right of p 76, after 16/17 August], and (b) Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top right of p 82, 7/8 September]. Question. What excuse for a mind could believe these two redactions to have been accidents? Grinnell’s publications. In neither his article (1988) nor his book (1996) did Grinnell address the falsehoods, the fabrications and the redactions of Sports Illustrated editor, especially the two provided immediately above. That is, Grinnell had the opportunity (to some the responsibility) to rescue Moffatt’s reputation but he failed to do so. Yet worse, Grinnell participated in the defamation of a dead man by redacting the exculpatory passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids from Lanouette’s journal entry for 14 September, as faithfully condensed in the SI article. What excuse for a mind could believe this redaction to have been an accident? As well, in both his article and his book Grinnell falsely and knowingly made multiple assertions of Moffatt, who it need be said was unable to defend himself. Aside. Lacking at the moment a better place for the following, I provide next Pessl’s opinion of Grinnell’s comments regarding the crossing of Aberdeen Lake, as provided in the Epilogue of SI article. [p 88, right column]. …the account of our south to north traverse of Aberdeen Lake is … in error. A map of the lake shows a N-S oriented peninsula extending from the south shore, effectively dividing the lake into a west basin and an east basin. The only exposed, open water passage separating the two basins is less than 3 mi. wide. During our crossing we initially hugged the eastern shore of the peninsula, protected and ready to go ashore if conditions became adverse which they didn’t… The epilogue account of this crossing is just … melodramatic b…t! Grinnell?? Curiously, there is no mention of our Aberdeen crossing in the 1st edition of “Death…”, only in the later editions. [Pessl, private correspondence] A related comment. With a strong south wind at our tail, we managed to reach the north shore of the lake before dusk.” [Pessl book, 19 September, p 136]. Summary. Both the SI editor and Grinnell made multiple false assertions on all sorts of matters. And they had met in person or through intermediaries before the publication of the SI article. As well, both redacted exculpatory passages regarding Moffatt’s decision to run the fatal rapids without a scout. By these actions, the SI editor and Grinnell deceived the paddling community for two decades regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death.

Collusion.

Introduction. The evidence presented below leads me to conclude that the Sports Illustrated editor and Grinnell had colluded to defame Arthur Moffatt. Background. 1. Both the Sports Illustrated editor and Grinnell redacted exculpatory evidence regarding Moffatt’s decision to run the fatal rapids without a scout. 2. I possess evidence that they had met (in New York) during the preparation of the SI article (1959), in person or through an intermediary. 3. Grinnell’s only external sources were the SI article and contacts with its editor, plus Moffatt’s journal. 4. Grinnell asserted that his source for Moffatt’s journal was Moffatt’s daughter Creigh. Reference. Other Acknowledgements and his reference there to Quotes from Arthur Moffatt’s Journal. [book, p 308] Comment. I am attempting to obtain conclusive evidence, but I have due cause to doubt this assertion. I believe rather that Grinnell’s source for Moffatt’s journal was rather the SI editor. 5. In this connection, I note that the SI editor and Grinnell had been in contact before publication of the SI article, as evinced by the following items provided in the Epilogue on page 88 of that article. Excerpt 1. George Grinnell, writing later of the ordeal in the water, noted that “one does not simply go to sleep…” Comment. Confirmation that the editor’s source was Grinnell. Excerpt 2. On the afternoon of 15 September the sun came out for the first time in 9 days. Excerpt 3. The five abandoned an earlier plan, arrived at desperately in the wake of tragedy, to send Pessl and Franck for help. They would now make the trip together. Excerpt 4. Sticking timidly to the shore, they outlined every cove and inlet, often portaging where they would have canoed. It was thus that they came to Aberdeen Lake, 18 miles across at its widest point. Excerpt 5. On September 20 the expedition met several families of Eskimos. Comment. Confirmed by Pessl, p 138. Excerpt 6. On September 21 they reached the Thelon River. Correction. Aberdeen Lake (reached on 19 September [Pessl book, p 136]) lies on the Thelon. Excerpt 7. On September 24 the five men put ashore at Baker. Some assertions of the Sports Illustrated editor, and Grinnell’s response to them. Given that Grinnell had assisted in the writing of the Epilogue of SI article (1959), and that his article and his book were published in 1988 and 1996 respectively, I suggest it not credible that he did not know of these assertions of the editor. And so Grinnell had the opportunity (some might say that he had the responsibility) to defend Moffatt from these assertions. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, Grinnell failed to do so in either publication. Assertion 1. Food was becoming the question now. [SI article, top left of p 76, 8 or 9 August]. What question? The first caribou was shot on 5 August (at most 4 days earlier), the second on 11 August, and five in all (the last on 5 September). All are documented in Moffatt’s journal, which the editor possessed. Of the five, the editor mentioned only the second. And a major resupply of provisions was obtained on 7 September, as documented in the SI article itself. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, Grinnell failed to object. Assertion 2. Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [SI article (1959), bottom right of p 76, after 16/17 August]. Response. It is true that the Moffatt party was travelling in the barrenlands and that days were growing colder on average, but the remainder of the item is falsehood. Grinnell knew such to be the case, but he failed to object to the assertion. Assertion 3. Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [SI article, top right of p 82, 7/8 September]. Grinnell knew this assertion to be a falsehood from start to finish, but he failed to object. The redactions of exculpatory evidence. In neither his article nor his book did Grinnell object to the editor’s redaction of the exculpatory phrases can’t risk an upset now from Moffatt’s journal entry for 10 September phrases [SI, middle of the right column, p 82] and Following Tyrrell’s route… from Moffatt’s journal entry for 13 September. [SI, lower right column, p 82]. In his book, Grinnell redacted the exculpatory passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids and replaced it with an ellipsis. Q1. Why were Moffatt and Lanouette surprised? A. Because J B Tyrrell had advised Moffatt that the rapids where he died were of no concern. Q2. What excuse for a mind could believe this redaction to have been an accident, a slip of the pen? Opinion. The three redactions were coordinated. Luste’s comment regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, p 284]. In his book, Grinnell had the opportunity/responsibility to clear Moffatt’s reputation by pointing out this exculpatory evidence of Luste, but he failed to do so. In this matter, he led the way for every later accuser regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. Deserving of explicit mention here are Murphy and MacDonald, who ignored that evidence in what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book. Pessl’s comments. Pessl devotes pages 163-174 of his book to addressing Grinnell’s accusations of Moffatt (who, it need be said, was unable to respond to them). Of special concern regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death is Grinnell’s suggestion that Moffatt was suicidal. The food supply. Essential for our assessment of assertions that a cause of Moffatt’s death was a shortage of food (indeed a lack of food [Murphy]) is the 17 evidences (provided above) of the participants regarding the food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September. The conclusion is clear: The Moffatt party was well fed in those six weeks. In contrast, the SI editor asserted the following. Food was becoming the question now [SI article, top left of p 76, 8 or 9 August], and …provisions dwindle, game grows scarce [SI article, bottom right of p 76, for the period after 16/17 August]. Aside, as I document elsewhere, both assertions are falsehoods. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, Grinnell failed to object to these assertions, especially because they are falsified by the 13 food-related evidences published in his own book. Given that Grinnell and the SI editor had been in close contact even prior to the publication of the latter’s article, what conclusion can be drawn from Grinnell’s failure to act in this matter but that he was cooperating in the defamation of Moffatt? The exit date. In his book, Grinnell asserts repeatedly that the Moffatt party was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 2 September. An example. I wanted the assurance that we would eventually reach … Baker Lake on September 2nd, as planned, and a schedule seemed to me to be the best way of guaranteeing that. [book, p 58]. But ten or so independent sources give 15 September or later for the arrival date. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule. How could a participant not have known from the very beginning that arrival was scheduled for 15 September? And surely the participants discussed repeatedly the possibility of arriving on schedule, especially as the days wore on. Conclusion. Grinnell’s date of 2 September for arrival in Baker Lake is a fabrication. Comment 1. The likely origin for Grinnell’s 2 September is that the Tyrrell party arrived in Baker Lake that day. [Pessl, private correspondence] But, as documented above, the Moffatt party was not following the schedule of the Tyrrell party! Comment 2. Referring to Franck, Grinnell provided also the following. Because Peter had planned to enter his sophomore year at Harvard that Autumn, the September 2nd date was particularly important to him. [book, pp 162&163] But this comment makes no sense, for Franck knew at the very beginning of the trip that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September. And so I ask the reader to reflect on Grinnell’s motivation in providing the item Because Peter…important to him, if not to muddy the waters. Conjecture. Grinnell’s falsehoods regarding the arrival date were intended to buttress the Sports Illustrated editor’s falsehoods a week behind…schedule [SI article, upper right column on page 76; dated 8 August], and nine days behind schedule [SI article, lower right column on p 76; dated between 15 and 18 August]. In this connection, I repeat that Grinnell had cooperated in the writing of the Epilogue of the SI article. Conclusion. The Sports Illustrated editor and Grinnell had colluded to defame a dead man.

The evidentiary basis of the accusatory literature.

Opinion. That basis is the publications of the trip participants. 1955. LeFavour’s articles. As has been the case for over 60 years, his four newspaper articles are yet inaccessible. The consequence that no Moffatt accuser knew of them; indeed, I learned of them only through LeFavour and Pessl. And so those articles did not figure in the Moffatt literature until I published much of the third, that which describes the events of 13 and 14 September. 1959. The Sports Illustrated article. Contents include edited versions of Moffatt’s journal, plus a faithful condensation of the journal of Lanouette (Moffatt’s bowperson) for the day of Moffatt’s death. 1988. Grinnell’s Canoe article. 1996. Grinnell’s book, first edition. Contents include comments of Luste, Grinnell’s publisher (not his editor). The editions of 2006 and 2010 appeared too late to influence the Moffatt literature. 2012. Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayak article (which contains comments of Pessl) appeared too late to influence that literature, except for incidental mention by Kingsley of a Pessl comment. 2013. Pessl’s Nastawgan article appeared too late to influence the Moffatt literature. 2014. Pessl’s book, which contains excerpts from Franck’s, also appeared too late. Summary. The evidentiary basis (publications that contain evidence of the participants) of the entire 55 years of accusatory literature consists solely of the following. 1. The SI article (1959), 2. Grinnell’s article (1988), and 3. Grinnell’s book (1996).

The tipping point.

In what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book, Murphy falsely and knowingly asserted that causes of Moffatt’s death were lack of food and lack of proper equipment, and both Murphy and MacDonald falsely and knowingly asserted that a cause was lack of a schedule. Opinion. Had their articles not been published, Grinnell’s book (and so likely also the Sports Illustrated article of 1959 and Grinnell’s article of 1988) would have gone unnoticed. Conclusion. The tipping point of the accusatory literature, which continued to at least 2014, came with the articles of Murphy and MacDonald.

The assertions of Murphy and MacDonald.

Source. Che-Mun, Canoelit section. Moffatt, Myth & Mysticism. Spring 1996, pp 5 & 11. The full text of Murphy’s article is available online at http://www.canoe.ca/AllAboutCanoes/book_deathbarrens.html It appears that MacDonald’s is available only in print form. Aside. I possess no evidence that either had pre-publication knowledge of the contents of other’s article.

Their sources.

Like every other accuser, neither knew of the Inglis book (1978). l document below that Murphy possessed the Sports Illustrated article (1959); on the other hand, he made only incidental use of it. I possess no evidence that either knew of Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988). But some might consider this failure to make more use of the SI article, and any use at all of Grinnell’s article, as reflecting on the diligence of Murphy and MacDonald, indeed on their commitment to give a dead man (a fellow paddler to both) a fair hearing before publishing accusations of him.

Introduction.

Let me begin by quoting the following comment of their publisher/editor. Referring to Grinnell’s book (1996 edition), s/he provided the following: This publication prompted two thoughtful reviews from Che-Mun readers and we decided to present you with these two views on this disturbing and landmark canoe journey. The corresponding prefaces: Reviewed by James Murphy and Reviewed by Andrew MacDonald. Preview. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, both Murphy and MacDonald went beyond publishing reviews of Grinnell’s book, for both gratuitously expressed highly negative opinions of Moffatt and his competence, opinions that have no basis in the contents of that book, indeed no basis in truth. I must state explicitly that their editor was unaware that both Murphy and MacDonald had falsely and knowingly asserted that a cause of Moffatt’s death was lack of a schedule, and that Murphy had falsely and knowingly asserted that other causes were lack of food and lack of proper equipment. Aside 1. The evidences of George Luste. Both were provided in Grinnell’s book (the very subject of the Murphy-MacDonald reviews), and I assess both to be exculpatory. I ask that the reader forgive my repetition of the following. Evidence 1. Luste’s comment regarding the pre-1996 accusatory literature. It seems as if a liberal amount of imagination has been invoked by these writers to change the facts so they fit their preoccupations and desires for culpability. [Grinnell book, p 294] Evidence 2. Luste’s comment regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, p 284] What interpretation of the latter passage is possible but the cause of Moffatt’s death was misleading rapids advice from Tyrrell (J B, not J W)? In short, this passage of Luste is exculpatory. Summary. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, in what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book, both Murphy and MacDonald ignored both evidences of Luste, scarcely an untrustworthy or obscure source. I confess my inability to imagine that these failures were oversights. Aside 2. The remarks of Murphy and MacDonald are not entirely germane to the matter (the cause of Moffatt’s death), for Murphy devoted an entire paragraph to a discussion of whether Moffatt was a bodhisatva, and MacDonald described Grinnell’s talk at the Wilderness and Canoeing Symposium of 1996. I suggest that better use of the space available to them would have been to provide evidence for their accusations of a dead man. On the other hand, that task was well beyond their capabilities.

Gratuitious actions of MacDonald.

Before I get to the meat of the matter, namely the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald regarding the causes of Moffatt’s death, let me get some relatively minor matters out of the way. MacDonald action 1. He provided the following quotation (an accurate one) from Grinnell’s book: Our only hope of survival lay in living off the land. If we were lucky to run across a herd of caribou, we would probably survive. If not, we should expect the same fate as Hornby, Adlard and Christian, death by starvation. [top of p 91]. But MacDonald failed to mention anywhere in his article, any of the following food-related evidences provided in Grinnell’s book for the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Evidence 1. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August. pp 97&98]. Evidence 2. Full bellies… [undated. p 113]. Evidence 3. Skip, Joe and Art picked blueberries… Art baked up a delicious blueberry “Johnny Cake” …caribou soup… dehydrated mashed potatoes …freshly butchered caribou steaks …full bellies [12 August. p 115]. Evidence 4. A second full bellies. [undated. p 116] Evidence 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August. p 127]. Evidence 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout Peter had caught, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou Bruce had shot, savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries …. [after 20 August. p 135]. Evidence 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [undated. p 146]. Evidence 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [undated. p 147]. Evidence 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [undated, but after 5 September. p 156]. Evidence 10. … I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August. pp 156&157]. Evidence 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [undated. p 158] Evidence 12. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead… It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump…. [7 September. pp 180&181] Confirmation. …24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Sports Illustrated, lower left column, p 82] Evidence 13. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, …Pete latched onto a 17 ½-pound orange-fleshed lake trout and wrestled with him for 20 minutes. [14 September. top of p 202]. Confirmed by LeFavour, who gives the weight as 20 lb. [The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. Response. I confess my inability to understand why MacDonald provided the passage Our only hope of survival…death by starvation from Grinnell’s book (the very subject of his review) claimed to have reviewed), but omitted mention of the 13 contrary evidences provided in the very book, unless his intention was to buttress Murphy’s assertion that lack of food contributed to Moffatt’s death. Conclusion. The matter of his motivation aside, this action of MacDonald is a conscious misrepresentation of evidence known to him regarding the food supply. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. MacDonald action 2. Referring to Grinnell, he provided the following: This sense of humour is exhibited in a comment on Art Moffatt’s abdication of leadership, whose apparent quest for inner peace paralyzed the pace of the trip, and left a void unfilled: “Skip found himself in the difficult position of having become second-in-command to a cup of tea.” Comment 1. The passage Skip found….cup of tea is a faithful quotation of that provided in Grinnell’s book [1996, top of p 146]. But I ask that the reader reflect on MacDonald’s motivation in providing this passage. Comment 2. MacDonald provided no evidence, and I found none in Grinnell’s book or anywhere else (for example in Pessl’s book) for his assertions either that Moffatt had abdicated leadership of the party, or that his actions had paralyzed the pace of the trip. Such courage on the part of MacDonald, to make damaging and unsubstantiated assertions of a dead man. Comment 3. A more observant person, perhaps one less intent of fabricating a case against Moffatt, might well have noticed Grinnell’s multiple references to Pessl’s alleged lectures on group consideration and altruistic behavior, and also his many references (by the way also fabrications) to Franck’s stammering, and so have wondered whether Grinnell had it in for other participants, perhaps also Moffatt. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, MacDonald was not up to the task. Suggestion. Better use of the space available to MacDonald would have been to provide evidence in support for his assertion that Moffatt died due to lack of a schedule. On the other hand, MacDonald knew that task to be beyond him. Conclusions. It is a MacDonald fabrication that Moffatt had abdicated leadership of the party. It is a MacDonald fabrication that Moffatt’s actions had paralyzed the pace of the trip. Summary. On the one hand, MacDonald had read Grinnell’s book carefully enough to quote the two passages Our only hope of survival lay in living off the land. If we were lucky to run across a herd of caribou, we would probably survive. If not, we should expect the same fate as Hornby, Adlard and Christian, death by starvation [Grinnell book, top of p 91], and “Skip found himself in the difficult position of having become second-in-command to a cup of tea” [Grinnell book, top of p 146]. On the other hand, MacDonald failed to mention Luste’s exculpatory comment Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, p 284]. And so one is perhaps entitled to ask why not?, unless MacDonald intended to fabricate a case against a dead man.

The assertions of James Murphy.

Again, these were made in what was alleged to be a review of Grinnell’s book. Assertion 1 of James Murphy. Slightly giddy from lack of food, a profound quietude and serenity has settled on your spirit. Logically you know you shouldn’t tarry but you linger there for weeks, entranced, as if moving would break some spell, disturbing your reverie. Danger lurks, yet you can’t seem to focus on it. [p 5, left column, first paragraph] Response. Murphy provided no corresponding evidence for any part of the assertion, and I found no such evidence in Grinnell’s book or elsewhere. Especially objectionable to me is the phrase slightly giddy from lack of food, for Grinnell’s book (the very subject of Murphy’s review) documents a plethora of food, on the whole, in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. I refer the reader, and especially Murphy, to the 13 evidences provided below. Conclusions. The passage giddy from lack of food is a Murphy falsehood. The passage a profound quietude…can’t seem to focus on it is a Murphy fabrication. Assertion 2 of James Murphy. Grinnell and four other young men were led on a poorly planned and lackadaisically executed trip by Arthur Moffatt, an older and more experienced canoeist…Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary contributed to his (Moffatt’s) demise. > [p 5, left column, second paragraph] Response 1. I tracked down Murphy’s source for the passage poorly planned and lackadaisically executed to have been the passage …as a remote sub-arctic canoe expedition it was poorly planned and irresponsibly executed… [Luste, Grinnell book, p iii]. But I point out that Luste published also the passage Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, p 284], which both Murphy and MacDonald ignored. Conjecture. These actions of Murphy and MacDonald are responsible for every later failure to mention that passage. Response 2. I found no evidence (in Grinnell’s book or elsewhere in the literature) that supports any other part of Assertion 2. Summary. The evidence presented below leads me to conclude that all three parts of the assertion Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary contributed to Moffatt’s death are falsehoods. Assertion 3 of James Murphy. It is not hard to see why at least some of them were lulled by the beauty of the tundra into a false sense of ease and security. [third paragraph, p 5] I tracked down his source for this item to have been the passage …during this early period–as they were to discover when they looked back on it at the journey’s end—the men were lulled into a sense of almost infinite security by the beauties of the country they travelled in. They stopped to take pictures and movies. They took side trips, studying the birds and animal life and searching for Indian artifacts. … Or Moffatt would record a bird count. [SI article (1959), top of p 74] Conclusion. Given the words (and variants) lulled, beauty and security appear in both publications (indeed in that very order), Murphy had accessed also the SI article. Aside. This passage is both the first accusatory item and the mildest such of the many provided in SI article. And so it appears that Murphy missed the boat here. Assertion 4 of James Murphy. And now to the meat of the matter. Referring to Moffatt, he provided the following. Lack of food, proper equipment and most importantly, lack of a planned itinerary, contributed to his demise. As a canoeist, I enjoy cautionary tales and would recommend this one as an excellent example of how not to conduct a canoe trip. Clarification. His editor explained later that by a planned itinerary Murphy meant a schedule. Comment. Murphy provided no evidence in support of any of the three lackparts of his assertion, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists in Grinnell’s book or elsewhere in the Moffatt literature. Aside. Pessl compared Murphy’s an excellent example…a canoe trip to Thum’s arrogant remarks. [book, p 162] Foretaste. The evidence presented below leads me to conclude that all three parts (food, equipment and schedule) of Assertion 3 are Murphy falsehoods.

The assertions of Andrew MacDonald.

In what was alleged to be a review of Grinnell’s book, he provided the following items, both of which refer only to the schedule. Assertion 1 of Andrew MacDonald. As the summer-length trip wore on, and the progress of their three Chestnut canoes lapsed further and further behind schedule, anxiousness and impending climax accompanies the daily accounts. Response. The only account known to have been used by MacDonald was Grinnell’s book (which BTW is not daily), but I found no support there for the passage anxiousness and impending climax…the daily accounts. Summary. The evidence leads me to conclude that Assertion 1 of MacDonald is a fabrication. Assertion 2 of Andrew MacDonald. One of the implications of a quasi-religious resistance to a pragmatic plan of travel was the death of Arthur Moffatt. Clarification. His editor explained later that by a pragmatic plan of travel, MacDonald meant a schedule. And so MacDonald and Murphy agree on this point. Response. MacDonald provided no evidence in support of his assertion that lack of a schedule contributed to Moffatt’s death, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists in Grinnell’s book or anywhere else in the Moffatt literature. Summary. The evidence leads me to conclude that Assertion 2 of MacDonald is a falsehood.

The assertion of James Murphy regarding the food supply.

Reminder. Murphy asserted that lack of food contributed to Moffatt’s death. The food-related evidences of Grinnell’s book. First, let me remind Murphy of the corresponding evidences provided in the book (Grinnell’s) alleged to have been reviewed by him. In the cause of brevity, I provide only items regarding the food supply in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death on 14 September. Evidence 1. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August. pp 97&98]. Evidence 2. Full bellies… [undated. p 113]. Evidence 3. Skip, Joe and Art picked blueberries… Art baked up a delicious blueberry “Johnny Cake” …caribou soup… dehydrated mashed potatoes …freshly butchered caribou steaks …full bellies [12 August. p 115]. Evidence 4. A second full bellies. [undated. p 116] Evidence 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August. p 127]. Evidence 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout Peter had caught, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou Bruce had shot, savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries …. [after 20 August. p 135]. Evidence 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [undated. p 146]. Evidence 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [undated. p 147]. Evidence 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [undated, but after 5 September. p 156]. Evidence 10. … I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August. pp 156&157]. Evidence 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [undated. p 158] Evidence 12. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead… It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump…. [7 September. pp 180&181] Confirmed by a source not used by Murphy. …24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Sports Illustrated, lower left column, p 82] Evidence 13. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, …Pete latched onto a 17 ½-pound orange-fleshed lake trout and wrestled with him for 20 minutes. [14 September. top of p 202]. Confirmed by LeFavour, who gives the weight as 20 lb. [The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. The food-related evidences of other participants. Second, let me inform James Murphy of four evidences known to no accuser. Evidence 14. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [22 August. Franck, in Pessl (2014), p 99]. Evidence 15. We … were so full we could hardly move. [28 August. Franck, in Pessl, p 108] Evidence 16. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [30 August. Pessl, p 110] Evidence 17. As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour. 13 September. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. Summary. The evidence of Grinnell’s book, the very subject of Murphy’s review, begs leave to differ with Murphy, for it documents (on the whole) a plethora of food from the land as well from provisions, in the crucial six weeks before Moffatt’s death. I say on the whole because at times the party would have liked to have had more to eat, at others it was gorged. Conclusion. Murphy’s assertion that lack of food…contributed to Moffatt’s death is a falsehood. Reference. Appendix 6. Food.

The equipment.

I believe that George Luste, whom I knew reasonably well, would have been much angered had he known that his equipment recommendations for paddlers circa 1996 had been used by James Murphy to defame Moffatt, who died 41 years earlier. Conclusion. Murphy’s assertion that lack of proper equipment…contributed to Moffatt’s death is a fabrication. Reference. Appendix 3. Equipment.

The schedule.

Reminder. Neither James Murphy nor Andrew MacDonald provided any evidence in support of their assertions that lack of a schedule contributed to Moffatt’s death. Introduction. The term schedule could mean only a date for arrival in Baker Lake, or a day-by-day schedule, or something between those extremes (such as a waypoint to be reached by a certain date). But the distinction is vitally important for an informed discussion of the evidence of Grinnell’s book, and of the assertions made by Murphy and MacDonald in their reviews of that book, and also of Mahler’s later plodding pace. And so I use the terms arrival schedule for a date to arrive in Baker Lake (nothing more), and prescriptive schedule for a plan that includes something in addition to an arrival date, be it ever so humble (say only a date for exiting Dubawnt Lake, not that the Moffatt party had such). In both his article and his book, Grinnell unnecessarily contributed to the confusion by failing to distinguish possible interpretations of the term schedule. In their reviews of his book, Murphy and MacDonald followed that tradition.

Aside. The schedule-related evidence provided in Grinnell’s article (1988).

No accuser (especially Murphy and MacDonald) is known to have noticed that material, but in fairness I report my assessment that it provides weak evidence that there was no schedule. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.

The schedule-related evidence provided in Grinnell’s book (1996).

Background item 1. The wind in particular forbids any barrenlands party to have a highly prescriptive schedule, the extreme case being a day-by-day one. Even the Tyrrell party of 1893 was forced to stay in camp on occasion. Further, given the mission of the Moffatt party (to document the barrenlands), it had to pause on occasion, and so it could not have had a highly prescriptive schedule. Indeed, the Moffatt party had not even one waypoint to be reached by a specified date. But it had what counts, namely a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, as documented by eleven independent sources, especially Grinnell’s book. It is then perhaps relevant that MacDonald had paddled in the barrenlands. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule. Background item 2. Even before setting out from the US, every member of the Moffatt party knew that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 15 September, with a grace period of a week before the air search was begun. Indeed, both The New York Times article and Pessl’s book evince that the search began on 24 September, three weeks after 2 September. And surely the party’s progress was discussed during the trip, especially as the season advanced. Nevertheless, Grinnell asserted repeatedly that arrival was scheduled for 2 September. An example: I wanted the assurance that we would eventually reach … Baker Lake on September 2nd, as planned, and a schedule seemed to me to be the best way of guaranteeing that. [book, 58]. Pessl’s question Is it just a coincidence that Tyrrell arrived Baker Lake on Sept. 2? [private correspondence] alerted me to the possibility that Grinnell had represented Moffatt’s schedule as the record of the Tyrrell party of 1893; I now believe such to be the case. Question. Why did Grinnell knowingly misrepresent evidence known to him regarding Moffatt’s schedule? Conjecture. He did so in order to buttress the SI editor’s assertions a week behind…schedule [SI article, upper right column on page 76; dated 8 August], and nine days behind schedule [SI article, lower right column on p 76; dated between 15 and 18 August]. Further, given that Grinnell knew both to be fabrications, it is perhaps no great reach to suggest that Grinnell and the SI editor had colluded to defame Moffatt with respect to the schedule of his party. The evidence of Grinnell’s book. Caution. I found no confirmation of some of the following items in the writings of the other participants. Given his redaction of exculpatory evidence from Lanouette’s journal for 14 September), I suggest that they not be accepted as truthful. Nevertheless, I must provide and comment on them, for they reflect on the truth of the Murphy-MacDonald assertions, in what were alleged to be reviews of Grinnell’s book, that lack of a schedule contributed to the Moffatt’s death. Item 1. Although we were far behind schedule right from the beginning… [Grinnell book, p 17]. Interpretation. There was a schedule more prescriptive than an arrival date right from the beginning of the trip. But wait! What then is one to make of his We demanded a schedule. [Grinnell article, p 20, top right]? Do the evidences of Grinnell’s book and his article then not refute one another? Item 2. …I wanted a more definite schedule. [Grinnell book, p 55] Interpretation. The existing schedule consisted only of an arrival date. Item 3. (a) …what are your thoughts about Art’s schedule? [LeFavour. Grinnell book, p 57]. (b) What schedule! [Lanouette. Same source]. Interpretations. LeFavour suggested that there existed a prescriptive schedule, but the party was not sticking to it; Lanouette was being sarcastic. Item 4. I wanted the assurance that we would eventually reach … Baker Lake on September 2nd, as planned, and a schedule seemed to me to be the best way of guaranteeing that. [p 58]. Interpretation. There was only a date for arrival in Baker Lake, but Grinnell wanted something more prescriptive. Item 5a. …we bowmen…would go on strike if we were not given a schedule. [p 62]. Interpretation. Given that all party members (especially Grinnell) knew there to a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake, no prescriptive schedule. Item 5b. We bowmen were tired of being governed by the anarchy of wind and rain… [p 62]. Comment. The anarchy of wind is exactly what Moffatt meant by his remark …the wind did not blow on schedule…. Everyone (for example MacDonald) who has paddled in the barrens knows that fact and its consequence: When the wind is up, we stay in camp, as did the Tyrrell party. Item 6. The following is included only for completeness. On Art’s previous Albany trips, things had been run on schedule. [p 68]. Comment. Grinnell provided no evidence in support of this assertion; if one accepts it, then Moffatt had used a prescriptive schedule previously. Item 7. Skip…seemed to have desired a more civilized schedule, something along the lines of shift work at General Motors…but Art only smiled sweetly and sipped his tea. [p 146]. Interpretation. Pessl wanted a more prescriptive schedule but Moffatt did not have one. Caution. Given Grinnell’s track record, I must state that I possess no evidence that the comment is truthful. Item 8. In the last two months, we had fallen about a month behind schedule. [p 162, ~29 August]. The question. What interpretation of this passage is possible but that the Moffatt party had a prescriptive schedule? The lesser matter is that it was about a month behind schedule. Aside. If the reference is to the remark in Item 1 above [p 17; 18 July], I fail to understand why it was made on ~29 August. To put the matter another way, how are Grinnell’s remarks of ~six weeks earlier relevant here? The main point. a month behind schedule is well outside any constraint imposed by reality on a rational mind. Even with time lost due to Moffatt’s death and to the weather, the survivors reached Baker Lake on 24 September, 9 days later than scheduled and two days after the end of the grace period, and somewhat less than a month. Item 9. …in the early days of the trip, when it first became apparent that we were falling behind schedule… [p 163]. Interpretation. There was a prescriptive schedule from the very beginning of the trip. Item 10. On p 166, Grinnell again mentions (indirectly, again incorrectly) an arrival date of 2 September. Item 11. …the impending disaster which Art and the rest of us were so obviously courting. [p 167]. Get a grip! Only after Moffatt’s death on 14 September became it obvious that he had been misled by the advice of J B Tyrrell, which advice that had proved worthy of his trust for the previous eleven weeks. Reference. Review of Grinnell’s evidence regarding the schedule. Item 1. A prescriptive schedule in Grinnell’s book, but refuted in his article. Item 2. Likely only an arrival date. Item 3. Weak evidence for a prescriptive schedule. Items 4 and 5. An arrival date only. Item 6. Irrelevant to the matter. Item 7. An arrival date only. Items 8 and 9. A prescriptive schedule. Items 10 and 11. Irrelevant to the matter. Summary. The evidence of Grinnell’s book is (not surprisingly) confused and garbled (indeed contradictory) with respect to the existence of a prescriptive schedule. But it is unequivocal that the Moffatt party had a schedule for arrival in Baker Lake. And I suggest it not to be beside the point that ten independent sources agree. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule.

Conclusions regarding the assertions of Murphy and MacDonald.

It is a falsehood that a cause of Moffatt’s death was lack of food. [Murphy] It is a falsehood that a cause was lack of proper equipment. [Murphy] It is a falsehood that a cause was lack of a schedule. [Murphy and MacDonald] Opinions. Murphy set out to defame a dead man. MacDonald set out to fabricate a case against a dead man.

The article/s of Charlie Mahler (2005).

Articles identical to the extent that both include the comment Che-Mun tracked down the first men to paddle the length of the Dubawnt after Moffatt’s group were published in Che-Mun and also at canoeing.com. 1. Che-Mun. Outfit 122, Autumn 2005, starting on page 4. http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/122/chemun122.pdf . 2. Feature Story in the Advanced Paddler section at canoeing.com.
Down a Dead Man’s River
In the following, I refer only to the Che-Mun article. Contents include assertions made by Mahler and also those made by Thum and Bose (two of those first men). I know neither whether the latter assertions were made in person or in writing, nor whether Thum or Bose approved or commented on any of Mahler’s text. Sources. Mahler identified his to have been the Sports Illustrated article (1959) and Grinnell’s book (1996). As best I recall, he is the only Moffatt accuser to have made such effort over the 55 years of the accusatory literature.

The assertions of Charlie Mahler.

Assertion 1 of Mahler. Fifty years after Arthur Moffatt’s death on the Dubawnt River — a canoeing tragedy that still echoes in the minds of today’s barrenlands travelers — Che-Mun tracked down the first men to paddle the length of the Dubawnt after Moffatt’s group. In contrast to Moffatt, theirs is a story of preparation, competence, self-assurance, and success in the pioneering days of tundra-river paddling. [Che-Man, p 4, top of left column]. Response 1. Preparation. Mahler provided no evidence in support of the assertion that the Moffatt party was poorly prepared, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. The only party containing members of European descent previously to paddle any reach of the Dubawnt was that of the Tyrrell brothers in 1893. Moffatt had accessed both their books, he possessed the maps of J B Tyrrell, and he had corresponded with J B Tyrrell. Assessment. Moffatt was as well prepared as he could have been. Conclusion. A Mahler fabrication. Response 2. Competence. Mahler provided no evidence that the Moffatt party as a whole, or any member of it, lacked competence, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. The evidence begs leave to differ. In the eleven weeks prior to Moffatt’s death, his party had experienced but one swamp, not one pin and not one dump on a dangerous river. Indeed, the only dumps (two of them) of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died. A question for Mahler. Did it not require considerable competence for the Moffatt party to have done so? Conclusion. A second Mahler fabrication. Response 3. Self-assurance. Thum was indeed self-assured, to the point of being arrogant [Pessl book, top of p 162]. Conclusion. A Mahler truth. Response 4. Success. Yes, given that Moffatt died, his party was not a success. But Mahler failed to mention that the Thum party was successful largely because it knew from Moffatt’s death that the rapids just above Marjorie Lake are dangerous in the extreme. I ask both Mahler and the reader to consider what might well have happened had the Thum party depended solely on the information provided in J B Tyrrell’s book, which mentions those rapids not at all. For that matter, neither does J B Tyrrell’s map (possessed by Moffatt, likely not by Thum). Conclusion. A conscious misrepresentation of evidence known to Mahler. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell evidence and the fatal rapids. Response 5. The pioneering days of tundra-river paddling. Mahler commented that the Thum party, along with paddlers like Stewart Coffin, John Lentz and Eric Morse pioneered recreational canoeing in the far north and showed how tundra river paddling, though fraught with inherent perils, could be done safely and happily. [left column, paragraph 3, p 4] Stewart Coffin. https://www.dundurn.com/authors/Stewart-Coffin https://www.amazon.com/Black-Spruce-Journals-Canoe-Tripping-Northern/dp/1933937408 http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/Outfits/Chemun131.pdf http://www.alstirt.com/Canoeing/Pages/McPhadyenRiver.html etc. John Lentz. https://www.wcsymposium.com/content/2013-luste-lecture-john-w-lentz
John Lentz, FE63: 1936-2015
http://www.ottertooth.com/che-mun/108/108-1.htm etc. Eric Morse. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_W._Morse https://www.amazon.com/Trade-Canoe-Routes-Canada-Then/dp/B002H51FGO https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/eric-morse http://parkscanadahistory.com/publications/fur-trade-canoe-routes.pdf etc. Question. Is it not a bit of a reach for Mahler to place the Thum party in the same class as the parties of Coffin, Lentz and Morse? Previous barrenlands trips not mentioned by Mahler. J Hornby (1908-1927). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hornby G Douglas (1911-1912). http://www.landsforlorn.org/about.html E Oberholtzer and B Magee (1912). https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/4198791-the-old-way-north Some might consider all three, and no doubt others, to be more pioneering than Thum’s party of 1966. In particular was the Moffatt expedition not more pioneering than Thum’s? In this connection, I point out to Mahler that Thum learned only from Moffatt’s death that the rapids immediately above Marjorie Lake are highly dangerous. Dare I ask Mahler to consider the possible result had Thum followed, as did Moffatt, J B Tyrrell’s advice regarding those rapids? Conclusion. Fawning. References. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell evidence and the fatal rapids. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources. J B Tyrrell’s map for the reach where Moffatt died. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893 Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. Assertion 2 of Mahler. If a 75-day, 1,150 mile wilderness canoe trip can be summarized with a single fact, consider this one: Paddling a river descended only twice in the previous 70 years, and one that took the life of the leader of its most recent passage, four young men, completing the most remote section of their trip, arrived at the Inuit community of Baker Lake on exactly the day they planned—August 6, 1966. Bob Thum, his younger brother Carl, Tom Bose, and David Wilson did not die on the Dubawnt River. Their trip was smooth to the point of being punctual. The four college students, “Voyageurs Canadiens” as they dubbed themselves, paddled from Uranium City on Lake Athabaska to Chesterfield Inlet on Hudson Bay efficiently, safely and without re-supply… [p 4, top of the left column] Begin aside. Thum party’s designation of themselves as Voyageurs Canadiens. The young, especially those from another country, are to be excused for calling themselves such, but the reality was not glamourous. Despite the fame surrounding the voyageur, their life was one of toil and not nearly as glorious as folk tales make it out to be. For example, they had to be able to carry two 90-pound (41 kg) bundles of fur over a portage. Some carried up to four or five, and there is a report of a voyageur carrying seven for half of a mile. Hernias were common and frequently caused death. Most voyageurs would start working when they were twenty-two and they would continue working until they were in their sixties. They never made enough money to consider an early retirement from what was a physically grueling lifestyle. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyageurs An aside within an aside. I recall that a voyageur graveyard was located on a hill (on river left) beside the first rapids (Recollet Falls) downstream from the present Hwy 69 bridge; I regret that not once I did not stop to look for it. End aside. Response to the other content of Assertion 2. Yes, the Thum party was successful, for all its members survived. But I ask the reader to consider what could have happened had Thum paddled the Dubawnt with only J B Tyrrell’s book to guide him, for that book makes no mention of the rapids where Moffatt died. I conclude that Mahler overstated the matter, in order to praise Thum at the expense of the reputation of a dead man. Reference. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell evidence and the fatal rapids Assertion 3 of Mahler. The contrasts between the Moffatt trip, as gleaned from the 1959 Sports Illustrated story and from the 1996 book “A Death on the Barrens” by Moffatt party member George Grinnell, and that of the Voyageurs Canadiens could hardly be more stark. While the Moffatt story unfolds as a tragedy just waiting to happen – indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party, short rations, bad chemistry, a plodding pace, and an apparent apathy toward the season closing on them, — the Voyageurs Canadiens trip plays out like the final stage of the methodical, multi-year build-up that it was. [middle of the right column, p 4] Response 1. The contrasts. Moffatt’s motivation for his Dubawnt trip. My purpose in going is to make a film in color, for lecture purposes—and I believe that with luck we shall have something unlike anything that has been done before. [letter to J B Tyrrell (14 December, 1954)] Thum’s motivation for his Dubawnt trip. Moffatt is precisely why we took the trip…I thought experienced trippers could cover Tyrrell’s route safely and skillfully, which we did. Summary. The sole purpose of the Thum trip was to show up a dead man, respect for the wilderness be danged. Comment. Moffatt respected the land. He was the very antithesis of the conquer-the-wilderness types, the ego-trippers, the self-promoters, the peak-baggers, the river-baggers, in short all those go into the wild not to experience it but rather with something to prove. [Grinnell article, p 20, left column; Grinnell book, pp 18-19]. In this respect alone, the contrasts between the Moffatt and Thum trips could hardly be more stark Conclusion. Mahler got this one right, but not in the way that he intended, for he blundered into asserting a truth regarding the contrasts Response 2. a tragedy just waiting to happen. Mahler provided no evidence in support of his assertion that the Moffatt trip was a tragedy just waiting to happen for the excellent reason that none exists. The evidence begs leave to differ with Mahler. The sole cause of Moffatt’s death was that the rapids advice of J B Tyrrell (which had proved so reliable that the party had previously experienced but one swamp, not one pin and not one dump) failed him in the afternoon of 14 September. Conclusion. It is a fabrication that the Moffatt trip was a tragedy just waiting to happen. Response 3. indifferent leadership. Every paddler worthy of the name knows that leadership takes many forms, from the dictatorial, through consensus, to just let it happen. Mahler provided no evidence in support of his assertion that Moffatt’s leadership was indifferent, for the excellent reason that none exists. Conclusion. It is a fabrication that Moffatt’s leadership was indifferent. Reference. Appendix 4. Experience and Leadership. Response 4. an inexperienced party. Mahler provided no evidence in support of his assertion that the Moffatt party was inexperienced, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. First, some members of the party were reasonably well experienced even at the beginning of the trip. More importantly, I point out to Mahler that only one swamp, not one pin and not one dump had occurred (on a dangerous river) in the 11 weeks prior to Moffatt’s death on 14 September. In fact, the only two dumps of the entire trip occurred in the rapids where Moffatt died. Surely it took considerable experience (likely some acquired on the trip) to obtain such a result. Conclusion. It is a fabrication that the Moffatt party was inexperienced. Reference. Appendix 4. Experience and Leadership. Response 5. short rations. Reminder. Mahler’s sole sources were the Sports Illustrated article (1959) and Grinnell’s book (1996), and so the evidence of those publications is essential for an assessment of Mahler’s assertion that short rations were a cause of Moffatt’s death Response 5a. Food in the period before 5 August. Moffatt had believed that the party could live entirely off the initial supply of provisions; as I document elsewhere, his personal experience was that such could be done even on such a long trip. But he had severely underestimated the appetites of his party. Some food (especially fish) had been obtained from the land before 5 August, but it was insufficient. Summary. In the period before 5 August (when the first caribou was shot) rations were indeed short on the whole. Response 5b. Food in the period from 5 August to 14 September. I see the need to remind Mahler of the 13 following evidences of his only two sources, namely the Sports Illustrated article (1959) and Grinnell’s book (1996). Evidence 1. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August. pp 97&98]. Evidence 2. Full bellies… [undated. p 113]. Evidence 3. Skip, Joe and Art picked blueberries… Art baked up a delicious blueberry “Johnny Cake” …caribou soup… dehydrated mashed potatoes …freshly butchered caribou steaks …full bellies [12 August. p 115]. Evidence 4. A second full bellies. [undated. p 116] Evidence 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August. p 127]. Evidence 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout Peter had caught, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou Bruce had shot, savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries …. [after 20 August. p 135]. Evidence 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [undated. p 146]. Evidence 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [undated. p 147]. Evidence 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [undated, but after 5 September. p 156]. Evidence 10. … I went to hunt some ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August. pp 156&157]. Evidence 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [undated. p 158] Evidence 12. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. … We…raided the dump. … We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [Grinnell book (1996), 7 September, pp 180 & 181]. Confirmation. …24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Moffatt’s journal, as reported in Sports Illustrated, lower left column on p 82] Evidence 13. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, …Pete latched onto a 17 ½-pound orange-fleshed lake trout and wrestled with him for 20 minutes. [14 September. top of p 202]. Confirmation. LeFavour gives the weight as 20 lb. [The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. Evidences of other participants. And let me inform Mahler of four evidences known to no accuser. Evidence 14. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [22 August. Franck, in Pessl (2014), p 99]. Evidence 15. We … were so full we could hardly move. [28 August. Franck, in Pessl, p 108] Evidence 16. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [30 August. Pessl, p 110] Evidence 17. As we sped through Wharton Lake… Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour. 13 September. The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. Conclusion. It is a falsehood that short rations contributed to Moffatt’s death. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Response 6. bad chemistry. Mahler provided no evidence in support of his assertion that bad chemistry played a role in Moffatt’s death, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. Yes, there were disputes on the Moffatt trip. But I expect that most paddlers have experienced such, especially on tough trips. And so it is perhaps reasonable to question whether Mahler had ever taken a tough trip, perhaps a trip of any kind. But surely the question is how did bad chemistry cause Moffatt to trust J B Tyrrell’s erroneous advice regarding the rapids where he died? Conclusion. Another Mahler fabrication. Response 7. a plodding pace. Mahler provided no evidence in support of his assertion that a plodding pace played a role in Moffatt’s death, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. The early pace of the Moffatt party was certainly slow, partly because of the difficulty of upstream travel on the Chipman River, more importantly to accomplish the very mission of the party, namely to document the barrenlands by film, photos and journal/s. On 3 August, however, the party decided unanimously to hurry up, and the pace was not plodding thereafter; on the other hand, neither was it recklessly hurried, especially on 14 September. But Mahler failed to mention that decision, which was documented in Grinnell’s book (pp 90&91), one of Mahler’s primary sources. I refer the reader also to pages 65&66 of Pessl’s book. Conclusion. Another Mahler fabrication. Response 8. an apparent apathy toward the season closing on them. Mahler provided no evidence in support of his assertion that the Moffatt party was apathetic to the onset of winter, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. Moffatt possessed the books of both Tyrrell brothers and the journal of J B Tyrrell, and he had corresponded with J B Tyrrell, and so he was fully aware that winter was on the way. BTW, he knew also that the Tyrrell party had reached Chesterfield Inlet (well downstream from Baker Lake, the terminus of his trip) in the evening of 6 September), and that it had reached the mouth of the Churchill River by paddling down the coast. The weather experienced by the Moffatt party was indeed uncomfortably cold in September, but freeze-up would not have occurred until well into October. Conclusion. Another Mahler fabrication. Conclusions regarding Assertion 3 of Mahler. In each of the eight matters comprising the assertion, namely the contrasts between the Moffatt trip and Thum’s, a tragedy just waiting to happen, indifferent leadership, an inexperienced party, short rations bad chemistry a plodding pace, and an apparent apathy toward the season closing on them, Mahler falsely and knowingly misrepresented the cause of Moffatt’s death. References. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell evidence and the fatal rapids. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources. Appendix 4. Experience and Leadership. Appendix 5. Pace and weather. Appendix 6. Food. Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. J B Tyrrell’s map for the reach where Moffatt died. https://barrenlands.library.utoronto.ca/content/zone-6-1893 Summary. Mahler knowingly made false statements knowingly made of a dead man and fawning ones made of a live man; to put the latter another way, Mahler is lickspittle to Thum. Given that all parts of all three of his assertions are falsified by the evidence (especially that provided in Grinnell’s book, his primary source), it follows that nothing written by Mahler can be trusted. Conclusion. Mahler set out to defame a dead man.

The assertions of Bob Thum.

Assertion 1.

Moffatt is precisely why we took the trip… I thought experienced trippers could cover Tyrrell’s route safely and skillfully, which we did. Those guys had no business being up there… They were a bunch of guys who didn’t know what they were doing and led by a guy with poor leadership skills. They fooled around and did a lot of crap and it finally came back to bite them. This was simply a group of novices led by someone more interested in film than travel, which squandered its time and resources and then made some tragic mistakes. [Che-Mun, p 4, lower part of the middle column and top of the right column]. Aside. A Pessl comment regarding this passage: arrogant remarks. [book, p 162] Condensation of the above. Item 1. Moffatt is precisely why we took the trip. Item 2. The Moffatt party was inexperienced, and it was was a group of novices whose members didn’t know what they were doing had fooled around and did a lot of crap and had no business being up there. Item 3. Moffatt’s leadership was poor. Item 4. Moffatt was more interested in film than travel. Item 5. His party had squandered its time and resources. Item 6. His party had made tragic mistakes. Item 7. The Thum party had covered Moffatt’s route safely and skillfully. Summary of my conclusions. None of Items 1 through 6 is encumbered by truth. With respect to Item 7, it is true that the Thum party had covered Moffatt’s route safely and skillfully. But I document below the only skill required of Thum and his companions regarding the rapids where Moffatt died was the ability to read at an early primary-school level. Item 1. The purpose of the Thum trip. Reminder of the assertion. Moffatt is precisely why we took the trip. Response. Such grace, such courage, such a generous spirit, such respect for the land, to take a trip precisely to upstage a dead man, making full use of the cause of his death and so avoiding one’s own. Item 2. Experience. Reminder of the assertions. The Moffatt party was inexperienced, its members had no business being up there, its members didn’t know what they were doing, its members fooled around and did a lot of crap, and it was was a group of novices. The evidence. Moffatt had paddled the Albany River six times, once solo. And he had paddled the Allagash, Androscoggin and Penobscot Rivers in Maine. I submit that none of these is suitable for a novice. Neither were Pessl and Franck were novices, for both had participated in those Albany trips. And Pessl had paddled much elsewhere. At the beginning of the trip, only the bowpersons Grinnell, Lanouette and LeFavour were novices, or inexperienced, or close to the same. A request. Mr Thum, please explain how a a group of novices had paddled a dangerous river for 11 weeks and had experienced one swamp, not one pin and not one dump prior to Moffatt’s death, indeed that the only two dumps of the trip occurred that day. Conclusions. It is a fabrication that the Moffatt party was a group of novices at the beginning of the trip. It is a falsehood that the party was a group of novices on the day that Moffatt died. Reference. Appendix 4. Experience and Leadership. Item 3. Leadership. Reminder of the assertion. Moffatt’s leadership was poor. Response. Thum provided no evidence in support of the assertion, for the excellent reason that none exists. Conclusion. It is a fabrication that Moffatt’s leadership was poor. Reference. Appendix 4. Experience and Leadership. Item 4. Film and travel. Reminder of the assertion. Moffatt was more interested in film than travel. Response. Thum failed to understand that Moffatt’s mission was to document the barrenlands by film, photos and journal/s; the consequence is that its pace had to be moderate. On the other hand, Thum’s mission was to prove himself a hero in his mind and those of others by retracing Moffatt’s route as rapidly as possible, respect for the land be danged. Conclusion. It is a Thum fabrication that Moffatt was more interested in film than travel. Item 5. Time and resources. Reminder of the assertion. The Moffatt party had squandered its time and resources. Time. Thum provided no evidence that the Moffatt party had squandered its time, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. Until Moffatt’s death, his party was perhaps on track to reach its destination (Baker Lake) within the grace period arranged with the RCMP detachment there. Indeed, despite the events of 14 September and those that followed, it arrived on 24 September, two days after the end of that period. Resources. Thum declined to be specific regarding which resources the Moffatt party had squandered, but what could he have meant but the supply of food? The evidence regarding food from provisions. 1. …24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Sports Illustrated , lower left column on p 82; alleged to be an excerpt from Moffatt’s journal] 2. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead. It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside. … We…raided the dump. … We found some gasoline left in the big blue drum, so we topped up our five gallon tank… [Grinnell book, pp 180 & 181. 7 September]. The evidence regarding food from the land, not a resource, but certainly an important item. In his book, certainly possessed by Mahler (as evinced by his Assertion 3) and likely also by Thum, Grinnell documents that, in the crucial six weeks before Moffatt’s death, many fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, many ptarmigan were obtained by various means, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (the latter two only early in the period). Rather than repeat material provided above, I refer the reader to the 13 Grinnell evidences provided above, and also to the four evidences of Franck, Pessl and LeFavour, known to no Moffatt accuser. Conclusion 1. It is a Thum falsehood that the Moffatt party had squandered its time. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule. Conclusion 2. It is a Thum falsehood that the Moffatt party had squandered its resources. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Item 6. Tragic mistakes. Reminder of the assertion. The Moffatt party had made some tragic mistakes. Evidence 1. Thum knew that Moffatt had died in rapids in the reach between the end of portage (completed by his party in the morning of 14 September) and Marjorie Lake. Evidence 2. Thum possessed a copy of J B Tyrrell’s book, which makes no mention of rapids in that reach. Evidence 3. Thum knew also that JBT’s book was possessed by Moffatt, and also that it was a major source for Moffatt, especially regarding rapids. Summary. Thum knew full well that the cause of Moffatt’s death was faulty advice from J B Tyrrell. Nevertheless, Thum expects us believe that it was a mistake on Moffatt’s part to continue to trust JBT’s advice, advice that had proved so reliable that over the previous 11 weeks of the trip that the party had experienced but one swamp, not one pin and not one dump. Conclusion. It is a Thum falsehood that Moffatt made a mistake in the afternoon of 14 September. References. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell evidence and the fatal rapids. That presented at the beginning of Main text. Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. Item 7. Safely and skillfully. Reminder of the assertion. The Thum party had covered Moffatt’s route safely and skillfully. Comment. Given that all members of the Thum party survived, the safely part of the assertion is true as stated. And so I turn my attention to the skillfully part. Question 1. What did the Thum party when it arrived at the head of the rapids where Moffatt died, those immediately above Marjorie Lake? Answer. Thum didn’t say. Opinion. Had Thum run them successfully, I expect that he would have gloated about the accomplishment. Conclusion. The Thum party portaged the rapids where Moffatt died. Question 2. Why did the Thum party portage those rapids? Reminder. J B Tyrrell’s book, one of two Thum’s sources, makes no mention of rapids in the reach between the end of the portage and Marjorie Lake. Answer. Thum knew from Moffatt’s death, and only from Moffatt’s death, that those rapids are hazardous in the extreme. Had Thum paddled the Dubawnt with only JBT’s book as a guide, his trip too could easily have ended in tragedy. Summary. The only skill required of Thum regarding the rapids where Moffatt died was the ability to read at an early primary-school level. Conclusion. It is a conscious misrepresentation of known evidence that the Thum party had covered Moffatt’s route safely and skillfully. Reference 1. https://www.scholastic.com/parents/books-and-reading/reading-resources/language-and-literacy-milestones/reading-to-learn-upper-elementary-reading-skills.html Reference 2. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell evidence and the fatal rapids. Summary. Assertion 1 of Thum is replete with falsehoods, fabrications and conscious misrepresentations of known evidence.

Assertion 2 of Thum.

That was kind of our approach to the trip—to get a lot of miles under the belt, get a lot of experience—and prepare ourselves accordingly… We wanted to avoid the situation that Moffatt got himself in where he had some experience, but not much. And he went with a bunch of guys that had very little experience. I think he’d gone down the Albany maybe two or three times. That’s a nice river, but not a terribly difficult trip. [p 4, lower right column] Response 1. …Art Moffatt was already an accomplished adventurer when other boys were still tying their first Boy Scout knots. At 17, he embarked on a major expedition, 700 miles down the Albany River from Sioux Lookout in western Ontario to the lower part of Hudson Bay. Incredibly, he made the trip alone. … From 1950 to 1954, he led yearly trips down the Albany, studying the region’s geology and wild life as he went. [Sports Illustrated, p 71, left column]. Response 2. As well, Moffatt had paddled the Allagash, Androscoggin and Penobscot Rivers in Maine. [Reference to be provided]. Surely Moffatt must have known what he was doing, first to have made such demanding trips, second to have come through them unscathed. Conclusion. It is a fabrication that Moffatt…had some experience, but not much. Response 3. Pessl had made two Albany trips with Moffatt. With others, he had paddled the following: the Manistee River in northwestern Michigan, …the Michipicoten River–Whitefish Lake drainage in the Algoma country of northern Ontario, the Manuan-Vermillion Rivers, and the Chibougamau-Mistassini Lakes region of southern Quebec. [Pessl, p XIV] Aside. I was unable to locate the Manuan River at either Toporama or mytopo, but I note that the latter gives Manuan Lake and Lac Manouane. Franck had tripped with Moffatt on the Albany. Grinnell had paddled but not tripped. Lanouette and LeFavour were young outdoorsmen but with no canoeing experience. [Pessl, p XIV]. Conclusion A cowardly fabrication on Thum’s party, likely to puff himself up by running down a dead man. Reference. Appendix 4. Experience and Leadership.

Assertion 3 of Thum.

We didn’t take a lot of chances… When we got on the Dubawnt trip, we took even fewer chances. … There’s lots of opportunities to screw up there, and when you screw up like Moffatt did, when the water’s that cold, that can be the end of you. [p 5, middle column] Response 1. Did a member of Thum’s party not screw up on the Churchill River, by making the classic mistake documented above? [middle column, p5]. Response 2. The cause of Moffatt’s death was not a screw up on his part. It was rather faulty rapids advice from J B Tyrrell, advice that had proved worthy of his trust, for the Moffatt party had experienced but one swamp, not one pin and not one dump before the afternoon of 14 September. Conclusion. It is a falsehood that Moffatt had taken chances and so had screwed up. References. That presented at the beginning of Main text, and also in the following. Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Assertion 4 of Thum.

There was nobody you could rely on… I had two things I could look to on the Dubawnt. One was Moffatt, and you couldn’t really get anything out of that, and the other was Tyrrell. I got a copy of his 1893 report and you could actually get a great deal of assistance out of his writing. And that was it. [p 5, top of right column] Response regarding Tyrrell. Aside. By Tyrrell’s 1893 report, Thum means J B Tyrrell’s book, not J W Tyrrell’s. I note that Moffatt, as well as Thum, had obtained a great deal of assistance from that book. Being a lawyer, however, Thum must have learned to read very carefully indeed. And so it beggars belief that he failed to notice that JBT’s book makes no mention of the rapids where Moffatt died. Rather, Thum asserted that Moffatt had screwed up. Assessment. A conscious misrepresentation of exculpatory evidence. References.
Thum, Robert
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell evidence and the fatal rapids. Response regarding Moffatt. The only relevant Moffatt evidence extant in 1966 (the year of the Thum trip) was that provided in the Sports Illustrated article of 1959. The main text of that article indeed provides little information on the Dubawnt River, especially regarding its rapids. But the excerpt (a faithfully edited one) from Lanouette’s journal documents that Moffatt died in rapids just upstream from Marjorie Lake. Q1. What did Thum do when he came to the rapids where Moffatt died? He didn’t say. If he had run them successfully, I expect that he would have crowed to the heavens about the feat. A1. The Thum party portaged them. Q2. Why did it party portage them? After all, J B Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of them, as the Moffatt party so sadly learned. A2. From the SI article (only), Thum knew those to be highly dangerous only because Moffatt had died in them. To put the matter another way, had Thum paddled the Dubawnt with only Tyrrell’s book to guide him, he too might have easily died in those rapids. Question. Other things being equal, did not Moffatt’s death save Thum’s life? Conclusion. It is a falsehood that Thum got nothing from his Moffatt source, namely the SI article. References regarding the rapids where Moffatt died. That presented at the beginning of Main text, and also in the following: Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.

Assertion 5 of Thum.

In preparing for his 1966 retracing of Moffatt’s 1955 trip, Thum approached some members of the Moffatt party. Graciously as always, he expressed the following opinion of them. I didn’t view them as being any kind of a model for a tripper. Because of the historical perspective, I wanted to talk to them. Moffatt was gone. I found several of them. I tried to get a perspective of what they had done. [p 10, top of the left column] Q. This is humility? [p 10, right column, fourth last paragraph] Thum did not identify which members of the Moffatt party he had approached. By means documented below, I was able to determine that Thum had been in contact with Lanouette and Pessl; I possess no evidence regarding contact with the other survivors (Franck, Grinnell and LeFavour). Thum and the evidence of Lanouette. Contact 1. Speaking of himself, Thum provided the following. I … had read Joe Lanouette’s complete diary at his DC home in the spring of 1966… [Johnston, Brian (editor). On Top of a Boulder. Notes from Tyrrell’s Cairn., Johnston Pursuits (2014); p 21] Contact 2. Lanouette recalls meeting with Thum in person, but not details of the conversation. [private correspondence, January 2018] I note that Lanouette’s complete journal (his diary, kindly supplied by him) for 14 September is provided in Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt. What I assess to be a faithful condensation of the entry for that day is provided on pages 85-87 of the Sports Illustrated article (1959). As remarked earlier, Lanouette’s complete journal (his diary) for the trip is now available at http://www.myccr.com/phpbbforum/viewtopic.php?f=181&t=46535 et seq. My to-do list contains a note to go over the journal thoroughly in order to assess various assertions (including Thum’s) in the light of the evidence provided there, and also to post his journal here. Thum and the evidence of Pessl. Thum’s letter of 3 October 1965 to Pessl contains 34 question marks in its two single-spaced pages (~70 lines). Pessl’s response of 26 November 1965 spreads over three and a half single-spaced pages. Because of their length, I provide both items in Sub-Appendix 2. The Thum – Pessl correspondence. Conclusions. It is a falsehood that Thum obtained only a a historical perspective from Pessl. I am unable to assess what Thum obtained from Lanouette. Aside. Sub-Appendix 3 provides my personal opinion of Thum.

The assertion of Tom Bose.

We did not take chances. We shot plenty of rapids, but they were rapids we should have been shooting. That was Moffatt’s lesson. [p 10, bottom of the middle column and top of the right column] Response. One might have expected a former Rhodes Scholar [p 10, bottom of the left column] to examine the evidence before making such an assertion of a dead man. And so I suggest that Bose was undeserving of the honour. Miscellany. I expect that James Murphy would not approve of the Thum party’s decision not to use spray covers. [Bose, bottom of middle column, p 10] Reference. Appendix 3. Equipment. Thum does not accept that some of us paddle for reasons other than to prove themselves to themselves and others, that some of us actually respect the land. Moffatt’s goal was to document the barrenlands. Ego had no place in his mind. I respect Moffatt. Reference. Main text. Thum and the matter of Moffatt’s note at the cairn on Carey Lake. Reference. Johnston, Brian (editor). On Top of a Boulder. Notes from Tyrrell’s Cairn., Johnston Pursuits (2014); p 21. Begin Johnston passage, gently edited. On the back side of the “Operation Thelon” note Moffatt wrote, “Moffatt party, August 8, 1955. First all-white party to follow Tyrrell’s route from Athabasca and Black Lake to Baker Lake—or at least this far. All is well—enough food—or almost enough.” [Sports Illustrated, top left of p 76], Robert Thum’s 1966 first-hand experience recorded in his journal differs. Nearly 50 years later, Thum stated. “I am certain that there was no writing on the Armstrong/Eade note other than what I copied into my diary. Given the care with which we generally proceeded and my close familiarity with details of Moffatt’s trip (I knew the SI article well and had read Joe Lanouette’s diary at his DC home in the spring of 1966), I would have surely photographed it and copied the text down in my diary. If, as the SI says, he wrote his note on the reverse side of Armstrong’s note then it had faded into oblivion by the time we arrived. More likely, I suspect, is that SI was wrong. Moffatt’s note was not mentioned in Lanouette’s diary or, for that matter, in George Grinnell’s later book. End Johnston passage. Pessl’s response to Thum’s comment. I am still troubled by Thum’s quote: “More likely, I suspect, SI was wrong.” Is he suggesting that the Moffatt party did not stop at the cairn? I have several minutes of 16mm. color film recording our visit, writing the note, just in case Thum has inspired doubt in the minds of some readers. [Pessl, private correspondence]. Conclusions. I trust nothing written by Thum. Thum set out to defame a dead man. The missions of the three Dubawnt parties. Tyrrell (1893). To explore and document lands never before seen by those of European descent. Moffatt (1955). To document the barrenlands, by film, photos and journal/s. Thum (1966). To show up a dead man.

Kingsley’s publications

regarding the Moffatt trip consist of two articles and a book. Article 1. In a most dreadful sort of paradise. Up Here. May 2012. http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/looking-back-May-2012-Moffatt-pdf-.pdf Moffatt material is provided on pages 88, 90 & 91. Article 2. Back and Beyond. Lake. Issue 6 (2013). http://www.jenniferkingsley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Lake_Back-and-Beyond_2011pdf.pdf Most of the article describes the author’s Bailey-Back trip of 2005; a part is devoted to an incident involving the loss of a canoe by a Widjiwagan party that year. Moffatt material is provided on pages 12-14. Book. Paddle North. Adventure, Resilience and Renewal in the Arctic Wild. Greystone Books, Vancouver/Berkeley (2014). Both Endnotes and a Bibliography are provided. Moffatt material is provided on pages 185-189 & 220 Aside. Some material appears in more than one Kingsley publication. Kingsley’s sources. As did nearly every other accuser, Kingsley cited no source. Inspection of Kingsley’s publications and of the previous literature reveals them to have been the following (ordered by importance). 1. Grinnell’s book (1996). Kingsley’s primary source, by a considerable margin. 2. The Sports Illustrated article (1959), this in part from the running scared quote that appears in SI article [entry for 10 September, middle of the right column, p 82] and also in Kingsley’s Up Here article [toward the top of p 91]. 3. Grinnell’s Canoe article, this from Kingsley’s assertions regarding holidays. 4. Kesselheim’s Canoe&Kayakarticle (2012), this from the following. (a) ”People revealed themselves as imperfect,” Pessl says. ”We all did.” [Canoe&Kayak, top left of p 52]. (b) People revealed themselves as imperfect. We all did. [Kingsley book, top of p 220] But Kingsley made no other use of this item. Kingsley assertion 1. Group dynamics. The text of the assertion. Group dynamics became increasingly strained, and the men grew suspicious of each other. [Lake, p 13] Aside. Perhaps the reader has been on a trip where group dynamics became…strained at one time or another. But Kingsley provided no evidence that they became increasingly so. Kingsley’s sources for the assertion. My inspection of the literature suggests that Kingsley’s sources were 1. Grinnell’s assertion that Moffatt controlled the food in order to control the men, and 2. Grinnell’s comments regarding the supply of sugar, the supply of powdered milk, and Moffatt’s larger bowl/dishes. I refer the reader to the four paragraphs provided above. Conclusion. Given that all four items were resolved by 22 August, group dynamics played no role in Moffatt’s death on 14 September. A request. And so I ask that the reader reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in publishing such material. Kingsley assertion 2. Running scared. On September 10, he [Moffatt] wrote “We’re all running scared.”. [Up Here, middle of p 91]. My inspection of the literature revealed Kingsley’s source to have been the Sports Illustrated article (1959). In turn, the SI source for the phrase running scared was Moffatt’s journal entry for 10 September. Aside. I must repeat that the same entry contains also the phrase can’t risk an upset now, which was redacted by the SI editor. Opinion. Picking of the little red fruit by Kingsley. A request. I ask that the reader reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in publishing such material. Kingsley assertion 3. Land of plenty…plenty wrong. The text of the assertion. When Arthur Moffatt set off for the Barrenlands, he envisioned a land of plenty. He was plenty wrong. [Up Here heading, left column on p 88]. I point out that Kingsley provided neither source nor evidence for this remarkable insight (by the way a nice turn of phrase) into the workings of Moffatt’s mind. Moffatt’s planning. An excerpt from his letter of 14 January 1955 to J B Tyrrell. I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived. Reference. Ancillary 7. The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence. Summary. Moffatt had believed that the party live entirely off the initial supply of provisions; that is, he had believed that no food from the land would be required. But the assumption was very wrong, for the appetites of the party well exceeded his expectations. Conclusion. It is a Kingsley fabrication that Moffatt had envisioned a land of plenty. The supply of food in the period before 5 August. His experience in outfitting trips had led Moffatt to believe that the initial supply of provisions would suffice for the duration of the trip. For reasons that are unclear, he had severely underestimated appetites. Some food from the land was obtained in that period, but it was insufficient. Given no assurance that a significant amount of food from the land would be obtained later, rations had to be conserved. But all changed when the first caribou was shot on 5 August. References. Appendix 6. Food. 1. My sources regarding the food supply. 2. Sub-Appendix 1. Preparations. 3. Sub-Appendix 2. Fat and other food with high caloric content. 4. Sub-Appendix 3. Food in the period from the start to 5 August. The supply of food in the period from 5 August to 14 September. On the whole, food was bountiful in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Five caribou were shot, many ptarmigan were obtained by various means, three species of fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) were caught, and blueberries and mushrooms were harvested (these two only earlier). As well, a major resupply of provisions was obtained on 7 September. 5. Introduction to the evidence of the participants regarding the food supply in the period from 5 August to 14 September. 6. Sub-Appendix 4a. The evidence of Moffatt. 7. Sub-Appendix 4b. The evidence of Grinnell. 8. Sub-Appendix 4c. The evidences of Franck, Lanouette, LeFavour and Pessl. The supply of food in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death, as documented in Kingsley’s primary sources, Grinnell’s book and theSI article. Evidence 1. Caribou! … hundreds of caribou, then thousands more. … The hunters returned to lead me to their kill… We carried the butchered caribou back to camp and that evening gratefully ate forty-two steaks. [5 August. Grinnell book, pp 97&98]. Evidence 2. Full bellies… [several days after 5 August. Grinnell book, p 113]. Evidence 3. …Skip, Joe and Art picked blueberries… Art baked up a delicious blueberry “Johnny Cake” …caribou soup… dehydrated mashed potatoes …freshly butchered caribou steaks …full bellies [12 August. Grinnell book, p 115]. Evidence 4. A second full bellies. [“12 August”, Grinnell book, p 116] Evidence 5. …we took a holiday to kill our second caribou… [11 August, Grinnell book, p 127]. Evidence 6. Dinner was a splendid affair: delicious trout Peter had caught, … , the best cuts of meat from the caribou Bruce had shot, savory mushrooms, … buckets of blueberries … . [after 20 August, Grinnell book, p 135]. Evidence 7. One day, Art pulled into an island to cook lunch. We were running out of hard tack and other luncheon supplies; so instead of a cold lunch, Art decided to boil up a pot of fish soup, the fish having been caught by Skip that morning. [Grinnell book, p 146]. Evidence 8. I picked up my .22 and went to shoot a ptarmigan I had spotted. [Grinnell book, p 147]. Evidence 9. Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [Grinnell book, p 156]. Evidence 10. … I went to hunt ptarmigan. I killed five with my .22 before running out of ammunition, then killed two more with my hunting knife. [28 August, Grinnell book, pp 156 & 157]. Evidence 11. …we began to spend more and more time hunting, fishing and gathering berries.. [Grinnell book, p 158] Evidence 12a. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead… It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump…. [7 September, Grinnell book, pp 180&181] Evidence 12b. …24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy. [Moffatt’s journal, as reported in Sports Illustrated, lower left column on p 82] Evidence 13. At the lunch stop on the day of Moffatt’s death, …Pete latched onto a 17 ½-pound orange-fleshed lake trout and wrestled with him for 20 minutes. [14 September, Grinnell book, top of p 202] Aside. Confirmed by LeFavour, who gives the weight as 20 lb. [The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, p 8; 29 December (1955)]. Summary. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, Kingsley mentioned none of these 13 items, all of which were provided in her/his sources (the SI article and Grinnell’s book). Especially egregious is Kingsley’s failure to mention the shooting of even one caribou. In short, had Moffatt indeed envisioned a land of plenty, he would have been plenty right, rather than plenty wrong. Conclusion. Kingsley who did the envisioning, this into the contents of Moffatt’s mind. Aside. Four evidences known to no accuser, here Kingsley. Evidence 14. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [22 August; Franck, in Pessl, p 99]. Evidence 15. We … were so full we could hardly move. [28 August; Franck, in Pessl, p 108] Evidence 16. …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [30 August; Pessl, p 110] Evidence 17. Up to that point (13 September) we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955)]. Conclusions. The assertion that Moffatt had envisioned a land of plenty is a fabrication. The implicit assertion that the land had not been one of plenty is a falsehood. Kingsley assertion 4. grew hungry…every meal. Variant 1. After the first two weeks, the crew grew hungry before, during and after every meal. [Up Here, upper right column on p 90]. Variant 2. As the summer wore on, the men grew hungry before, during and after every meal. Hunting kept the party fed through August as supplies ran down. [Lake, p 13] Comments. The contents differ, but I assume that the second is a clarification/expansion of the first, and so I deal only with it. Aside. How could the men be hungry after every meal when hunting kept the party fed? Assumption. Poor phrasing. Admission. I am unable to reconcile the two Kingsley assertions hunting kept the party fed through August as supplies ran down. [Lake, p 13], and the caribou were long gone [Up Here, lower right column on p 90; Paddle North, middle of p 188] Kingsley’s sources were not identified and so I provide the following. The source for the passage As the summer…every meal: As the days passed into weeks, we burned off the fatty lining from our oesophagi so that we felt hungry before, after, and during meals. The hunger began to express itself with a friendly rivalry to be first in line… was Grinnell’s book, p 23. The source for the passage Hunting…through August was the following: Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [Grinnell book, p 156]. Aside. The last was shot on 5 September. Response regarding food from supplies. Yes, supplies run down as they are consumed. But in none of Kingsley’s three publications (Lake, Up Here and Paddle North), will the reader find that mention that a major resupply of provisions was acquired from the cache on 7 September. Such evidence is documented in both of Kingsley’s primary sources, the Sports Illustrated article and Grinnell’s book, as follows. 1. …24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy…We took the stuff, figuring it had been left for us by Ray Moore…we celebrated with a huge mess of vegetables and caribou glop, carrots and beans mixed. Supper was wonderful. [Moffatt’s journal, as reported in the SI article, p 82, lower left and top right columns.] 2. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead, …It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump. [Grinnell book, p 180] A request. I ask that the reader reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in omitting mention of this evidence of a major addition to the food supply of the Moffatt party. Aside. Given that food from the land was abundant (on the whole) in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death, the provisions on hand at noon on 14 September were perhaps comparable in amount to those on hand in the morning of 7 September. Comment regarding food from the land. In his book, Grinnell documents also the shooting of five caribou, plus the acquisition of many ptarmigan, many fish (three species), blueberries and mushrooms (these two only earlier) in the crucial six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Summary. Kingsley’s assertion that the Moffatt party grew hungry before, during and after every meal is a fair representation of the food supply in the period before 5 August, but is a falsehood regarding the supply in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Conclusion. Given that Kingsley failed to distinguish between the two periods, Assertion 4 is a falsehood. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Kingsley assertion 5. Hunger…lack of provisions…caribou migration…rouse. Statement of the assertion. It seems nothing – neither hunger, lack of provisions, increasingly cold nights nor the caribou’s southward migration – could rouse him. [Up Here, lower part of the right column on p 90]. Item 1. Hunger. In the six weeks before Moffatt’s death, bellies were not full on occasion, but there was no hunger worthy of the name. Lest the reader have scrolled down to this point, I repeat four of the 17 items provided above. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [22 August. Franck, in Pessl, p 99]. We … were so full we could hardly move. [28 August. Franck, in Pessl, p 108] …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [30 August. Pessl, p 110] Up to that point (13 September) we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955). Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Conclusion. It is a fabrication that the Moffatt party suffered from hunger in the weeks before Moffatt’s death. Item 2. Lack of provisions. Lest the reader have scrolled down to this point, I repeat the evidence of Kingsley’s two primary sources, the Sports Illustrated article and Grinnell’s book. Evidence 1. …got to top of Grant Lake, then saw red gas cans and something white that looked like a tent on the east shore. We paddled over to lee of the sand point, landed and found that the white thing was no tent but a small piece of muslin covering 24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables—carrots, beans, spinach, cabbage and beets. The guys went crazy…We took the stuff, figuring it had been left for us by Ray Moore…we celebrated with a huge mess of vegetables and caribou glop, carrots and beans mixed. Supper was wonderful. [7 September. Moffatt journal, as reported in the SI article, p 82, lower left and top right columns.] Evidence 2. As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead, …It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump. [7 September. Grinnell book, p 180] Conclusion. It is a falsehood that the Moffatt party suffered from a lack of provisions. Item 3. The caribou. Yes, the caribou migrate southward as winter approaches. Nevertheless, there were still enough around that the Moffatt party shot five of them, the last on 5 September. I refer Kingsley to the following: Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [Grinnell book, p 156]. Conclusion. The caribou part of the assertion is a conscious misrepresentation of known evidence. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Evidence not known to Kingsley: On the very day (14 September) that Moffatt died, the party had so much caribou meat on board that it had no more need to hunt. [LeFavour]. Item 4. rouse him. Moffatt was fully aware that winter was approaching, for he possessed the book of J W Tyrrell, both the book and the journal of J B Tyrrell, and he had corresponded with JBT. Kingsley failed to understand that the mission of the Moffatt party was to document the barrenlands, not merely to travel them. And so the party stopped to film and photograph, as the occasion demanded. On the other hand, the sole mission of the Kingsley party was to paddle the Baillie-Back. No evidence known to me suggests that Moffatt needed to be roused, and Kingsley provided none. I point out that only four of the 87 days that the party spent on the water, were voluntary nontravel days; they were imposed for reasons of fatigue or other activities, hunting and photography for example. [Pessl, private correspondence] Conclusion. The assertion that nothing could rouse him is a fabrication. Reference. Kingsley assertion 6. Control of the food; sardonic smile. The text. “He who controls the food controls the men,” he said with a sardonic smile.[Up Here, middle column, p 90] Response 1. My search of the literature revealed Kingsley’s source for the controls the men part to have been Grinnell’s article [p 21, top of left column] and his book [top of p 7 and top of p 17]. I perceive the need to express again my conclusion that nothing written by Grinnell is to be trusted. Response 2. Kingsley provided neither evidence nor a source for the sardonic smile remark, and my four years of research found no supporting evidence. Conclusion. Kingsley’s add-on remarkhe said with a sardonic smile is a fabrication. Request. I ask the reader to reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in providing this item. Kingsley assertion 7. The quantity and the quality of the initial food supply. The text. The Moffatt expedition was clearly unprepared in the material sense. Not enough food–neither in quantity nor quality. [Lake, p 14] My search of the literature revealed Kingsley’s sources to have been the following comments of Luste. Item 1. …it is evident that not enough food, or specifically, food with high caloric comment, such fat, was purchased for the trip. This long, on short food rations, would have consumed much, if not all, of the body fat their bodies started with. [Grinnell book, middle of p 286] Item 2. The Moffatt party was woefully short of provisions and caloric energy sustenance… [Grinnell book, top of p 288] I remind the reader that the initial food supply consisted only of provisions, which indeed provide little if any high caloric content, aka quality. Comment. I knew Luste reasonably well and so am sure that he would have read Grinnell’s book carefully. Indeed, he was Grinnell’s publisher and he attempted to influence the content to some extent. And so he surely would have noticed Grinnell’s evidence that a plethora of food was obtained from the land (and also from the cache) in the crucial six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Conclusion. Item 2 refers to the initial supply of food, only. Background. Based on his experience (which was considerable, Thum to the contrary) in outfitting trips, Moffatt had cause to believe that the provisions on board from the beginning would suffice for the entire trip. Aside 1. The party started out with as much in the way of provisions as it could carry, given the need to carry the film and the camera equipment (filming and photography were the very reasons that the trip was taken), not to mention stay afloat. But he had severely underestimated appetites and so the party certainly lacked enough food in the period before the first caribou was shot on 5 August. On the other hand, as remarked also above, food was abundant in the weeks before Moffatt’s death. Aside 2. That the boats could have carried little more of anything at the outset was recognised by Kingsley. The weather kicked up, and the overloaded canoes took on water every time the group tried to embark. [Up Here, p 88, top of right column; Paddle North, top of p 185]. Response to Assertion 7. From use of the word unprepared, it is clear that Kingsley referred only to the initial supply of food, explicitly not to the food supply on the trip. Conclusion. I agree completely with Kingsley’s remarks. But I caution that they refer to the initial supply only, and so it would misrepresent the evidence should they be applied to the supply in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. I say this because the party acquired in that period a plethora of food from the land (five caribou, many fish, many ptarmigan, plus blueberries and mushrooms), and also a major resupply of provisions. Indeed, as I document elsewhere, the paddlers were gorged with food on three known occasions. Comment. Luste did not suggest here or elsewhere that a cause of Moffatt’s death was a shortage of food, in either quality or quantity. Kingsley did not do so here, but s/he asserted elsewhere that the caribou were long gone. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Sub-Appendix 1 of Appendix 6. Food planning and supply. Sub-Appendix 2 of Appendix 6. Fat and other food with high caloric content. Sub-Appendix 3 of Appendix 6. Food in the period from the start to 5 August. Sub-Appendices 4a, 4b and 4 of Appendix 6. Food in the six weeks before Moffatt’s death. Kingsley assertion 8. The spare paddles. Variant 1. Then they forgot three paddles and had to go back to town for them. [Up Here (2012), bottom of the left column on p 88]. Variant 2. …they forgot three paddles and had to go back for them. [Paddle North (2014), first paragraph on p 185]. Kingsley’s sources are identified to have been the passage three canoe paddles had been left behind [SI article, p 72, top of the right column], and the passages regarding spare paddles at the bottom of page 9 of Grinnell’s book. Response. The three spare paddles did not arrive at Black Lake with the paddlers and the rest of their gear; indeed, the evidence convinces that they had been forgotten. Follow-up. The spares were delivered the very next day (30 June), as part of a supply trip to Camp Grayling on Black Lake. [Grinnell book, pp 9&10. Pessl book (pp 22-24, 2014. Lanouette journal], and so the cost to the Moffatt party was one day. Request. I ask that the reader reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in providing this item. Kingsley assertion 9. The radio. …they didn’t even bring a radio. [Lake, top of p 14 (2013)] Kingsley’s source is easily identified to have been We carried no radio. [Grinnell book, two instances on p 11] Aside. Kingsley did not suggest the same, but I caution that the lack of a radio played no role in Moffatt’s death. Response. Lest it be suggested that Moffatt was negligent in not taking a radio, his request for permission to carry a transmit-receive radio was refused by the Canadian government, even though they recognize the increase in safety such a set would give our party. [Pessl, p 13]. Further, what would possession of a radio have achieved? It could have alerted the Baker Lake detachment of the RCMP of the party’s progress down was slower than expected. As well (had it survived the dump) it could have brought in assistance. Request. I ask that the reader reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in providing this item. Kingsley assertion 10. Every possible day. They would need every possible day if they were going to make it down the Dubawnt River to Baker Lake, 1,400 kilometers distant, before cold and hunger overtook them. [Up Here, p 88. Paddle North, middle of p 185.] Response. The assertion They would need every possible day is juvenile hyperbole. Even with the days spent filming and photography, even with the bad weather and so the forced layover days, and even with Moffatt’s death, the party reached Baker Lake on 24 September, two days after the limit set by him before the air search would begin. Reference Appendix 7. Schedule. Aside. The distance of 1,400 kilometers is too large by ~300 km, as I document in Ancillary 4. Distances. But no fault attaches to Kingsley, who was doubly misled here. The distance remaining. The incorrect figure of 900 miles (~1,400 km) appears in the New York Times article [SI article, top of p 71], in Moffatt’s Prospectus [SI article proper, right column, p 71], and elsewhere. Moffatt had planned to continue down the Thelon River (past Baker Lake) to Chesterfield Inlet, a distance of ~900 miles (my measurement gave ~860 miles, ~1,380 km). But, well before the trip started, he decided to exit instead at Baker Lake. The distance to be travelled was then ~680 miles (~1,100 km). The time remaining. Kingsley was misled also by Grinnell’s frequent and false statements that the party was scheduled to arrive in Baker Lake on 2 September. It was known to all members of the party (including Grinnell) that Moffatt had scheduled arrival in Baker Lake on 15 September, with a grace period of seven days. Conclusion. Kingsley was misled by the SI article with respect to the distance remaining, and deceived by Grinnell with respect to the time remaining. Request. But I ask the reader to reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in providing this item. Kingsley assertion 11. The challenge. Privately, he [Moffatt] wondered if his group was up to the challenge. [Up Here, p 88. Paddle North, lower part of p 185]. Response. Kingsley identified no source for this remarkable insight into the workings of Moffatt’s mind, and I found no corroborating evidence in three-plus years of research. Conclusion. The assertion is a fabrication. Request. I ask that the reader reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in providing this item. Kingsley assertion 12. The insurance policy. Before he (Moffatt) had kissed his wife and two daughters goodbye for the summer, he had doubled his life insurance policy. [Up Here, middle of the right column, p 88. Paddle North, middle of p 186] Kingsley’s source is easily identified to have been the corresponding remark in Grinnell’s book, p 176. Comments. Grinnell provided no supporting evidence in support of this remark, made in connection with his heinous suggestion that Moffatt was suicidal. And I found none in all my reading. Pessl objected vigourously to Grinnell’s assertion. [book, middle of p 164] I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell, in the first instance. Conclusion. Kingsley was misled by Grinnell. Request. I ask the reader to reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in providing this item. Kingsley assertion 13. Hunger. They weren’t far from Black Lake … when the hunger began. [Up Here, top of the left column on p 90. Paddle North, bottom of p 186]. Response 1. In the period before 5 August, the Moffatt party was indeed hungry at times, but the hunger was never serious. Response 2. Grinnell’s book (Kingsley’s primary source) documents that five caribou were shot in the period between 5 August and 14 September, and that a plethora of other food was obtained from the land: many fish (three species), many ptarmigan, and blueberries and mushrooms (these two obtained only earlier in those six weeks). But Kingsley mentioned none of this evidence. Response 3.. In none of Kingsley’s three publications is it mentioned that a major supply of provisions was obtained from the cache, this on 7 September. That evidence was documented in both Kingsley’s major sources, namely the SI article and Grinnell’s book. Response 4.. In those crucial six weeks before Moffatt’s death, at times bellies were not full, at others they were stuffed. The stuffed evidence of Pessl’s book (not available to Kingsley). I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [22 August. Franck, in Pessl, p 99]. We … were so full we could hardly move. [28 August. Franck, in Pessl, p 108] …I had prepared such a huge breakfast that none of us could have moved much further than the tents anyway. I felt as if I would have crashed right through the bottom of the canoe and sunk like a stone if we would have been loading. [30 August. Pessl, p 110] This is hunger? Reference. Appendix 6. Food Request. I ask the reader to reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in providing this item. Kingsley assertion 14. The paradise delusion. Kingsley’s source. My search of the literature revealed the source for the assertions that follow to have been the passage …death in this beautiful paradise had seemed preferable to life in the seven deadly sins of civilization; or at least that is how I represented my feelings to myself in the morning. [Grinnell book, middle of p 168]. Question. What is one to make of the passage at least that is how I represented my feelings to myself in the morning but that Grinnell was speaking of himself, only? Part 1 of Assertion 14. By August, Grinnell and most of the others had succumbed to a sort of delusion. They felt they were in paradise. [Paddle North, bottom of p 187; Up Here, middle of right column on p 90] Part 2 of Assertion 14. He [Grinnell] wrote that “Death in paradise seemed preferable to life in civilization. [Up Here, top of p 91]. Response to parts 1 and 2. One sees that Kingsley redacted the key passage that is how I represented my feelings to myself in the morning. Summary. Kingsley falsely and knowingly represented Grinnell’s feelings about himself as the feelings of most of the other members of the party, one assumes including Moffatt. Part 3 of Assertion 14. Referring to Moffatt, Kingsley wrote He’d passed though paradise and found something darker on the other side. [Paddle North, top of p 189; also Up Here, middle of p 91]. Assumption. A gratuitous reference to Moffatt’s death. Opinion. If any person succumbed to a sort of delusion in this matter, it was Kingsley. Conclusion. It is a falsehood that Grinnell and most of the others had succumbed to a sort of delusion. They felt they were in paradise. Kingsley assertion 15. Holidays. For half of August, they voted to take “holidays” and went nowhere. [Up Here, lower right column on p 90. Paddle North, middle of p 188]. My search of the literature revealed Kingsley’s source to have been Grinnell’s article (1988). The above is an amalgam, albeit a strange one, of the following comments: (a) In the last days of August…we took more holidays than Moffatt had ever contemplated, averaging one every other day [Grinnell article, p 21, left column]. (b) At the inquest held by the mounties, it was disclosed that we had holidays on more than half the days of the trip. [Grinnell article, p 56, right column]. Response. The evidence of the other participants has it that not one holiday (in the too-lazy-to-paddle sense) was taken on the entire trip. Every non-paddling day was occasioned by the weather, or was taken to rest or recover, or was taken to accomplish the very purpose of the trip, namely to document the barrenlands. Conclusion. Kingsley was deceived by Grinnell. Question. Why did Kingsley publish this item, if not to contribute to Kingsley’s fabrication of a case against a dead man? References. Kingsley assertion 16. Distance, time, dreams of plenty, the caribou were long gone, etc. Variant 1. By August 29th, three days before they were due to arrive in Baker Lake, they had travelled barely half the length of the Dubawnt. The men were hungry and hundreds of miles from their destination. [Lake, p 13] Variant 2. By August 29, three days before they’d planned to complete the trip, they had travelled barely half the distance. The caribou were long gone, the weather changed overnight, and the men were trapped on the land. Dreams of plenty were a thing of the past. [Up Here, lower right column on p 90. Paddle North, middle of p 188.] . Comment. Kingsley provided no evidence in support of the content of either variant. Response 1. The time remaining, namely three days on 29 August. One Kingsley source (Grinnell’s book) contains repeated (false) assertions that arrival in Baker Lake was scheduled for 2 September, in agreement with Kingsley’s three days. Kingsley’s other source evinces (truthfully) that arrival was scheduled for 15 September. I refer here to the New York Times article provided on 71 of the SI article. Reference. Appendix 7. Schedule. Response 2. The distance remaining on 29 August. Aside. On that day, the party was 15 miles upstream from the end of Dubawnt Lake. [Franck, in Pessl (p 109] Several sources (for example and especially Moffatt’s Prospectus [SI article, p 71]) assert incorrectly that the distance to be covered by the party was 900 miles (1,400 km). But that is the distance from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet, as first planned by Moffatt. Before the trip started, he decided rather to exit rather at Baker Lake, thereby shortening the distance to 680 miles (1,100 km). Conclusion. The distance yet to be travelled on 29 August was ~255 miles (still a formidable one), rather than the ~450 miles justly believed by Kingsley. Aside 1. After Moffatt’s death, rather than continue down the Dubawnt to its junction with the Thelon, the survivors portaged from Marjorie Lake to Aberdeen Lake on the Thelon. Toporama gives 11.2 km for the distance from the bay at the north end of Marjorie to the bay at the south end of Aberdeen (east part). Perhaps I should mention that the Aside 2. Grinnell estimated that the portage had saved us about a hundred miles of river travel [book, middle of p 236]. Later, he gave the distance from the island on which Art lay dead at noon on September 16 th to Baker Lake as 250 miles [book, middle of p 238]. I have yet to measure the distance saved, but thereby the party avoided the severe rapids (J B Tyrrell’s London Rapids) known to lie on the Dubawnt above its junction with the Thelon. Response 3. Hunger on 29 August. Bruce and I cut up the caribou meat and cooked dinner for Art as he was still out with his camera. [29 August. Pessl, p 110] What more need be said? Response 4. Dreams of plenty. At no time in his preparations did Moffatt dream that the land would be one of plenty. Rather, he had expected (incorrectly) that the provisions on board from the beginning would suffice for the entire trip. Contrary to that expectation (indeed fortunately), the land turned out to be one of plenty in the six weeks before his death: five caribou, many ptarmigan, three species of fish (lake trout, grayling and arctic char) and blueberries and mushrooms, all as documented in Grinnell’s book. Indeed (as I document below), the party was gorged with food on three known occasions. Conclusion. It is a Kingsley fabrication that Moffatt had had dreams of plenty. But, had he done so, he would have been plenty right, rather than plenty wrong. Response 5. The caribou were long gone. 1. The evidence of Grinnell, Kingsley’s primary source: < em>Over the ensuing weeks… we killed our third, fourth and fifth caribous… [p 156]. The last was shot on 5 September, nine days before Moffatt’s death. 2. The caribou evidences (not available to Kingsley) of participants Franck and LeFavour. 22 August. I was not feeling too well today, probably from eating too much caribou yesterday, … [Franck, in Pessl, p 99]. 13 September. Up to that point we had shot five caribou and by doing so had saved enough meat to see us through. Now it was not even necessary to spend time hunting. [LeFavour, The Evening Recorder, Amsterdam NY. Part 3 of 4, page 8, 29 December (1955). Conclusion. It is a Kingsley falsehood that the caribou were long gone. Response 6. trapped on the land. …the men were trapped on the land… [Up Here, lower right column on p 90. Paddle North, middle of p 188] Q. If they were trapped on the land, how did the survivors to get to Baker Lake by canoe? Conclusion. A minor misrepresention of the evidence. Response 7. Food from the cache. Both Kingsley sources document the acquisition of a major resupply of provisions of the cache on 7 September. 24 one-pound tins of dried Beardmore vegetables… The guys went crazy. [SI article, bottom of left column, p 82] As it grew dark at the end of the day, we saw an unfamiliar object ahead, …It was a stack of cardboard boxes with cans of dehydrated vegetables inside… We…raided the dump. [Grinnell book, p 180&181] But Kingsley mentioned neither evidence of this major addition to the food supply. And so I ask that the reader reflect on Kingsley’s motivation in so acting. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Summary. 1. For an unknown reason, Kingsley chose Grinnell’s exit date of 2 September over that of the SI article, namely 15 September. 2. Kingsley was misled regarding the distance remaining on 29 August. 3. It is a Kingsley fabrication that the men were hungry on 29 August. 4. It is a Kingsley fabrication that Moffatt had had dreams of plenty. 5. It is a Kingsley falsehood that the caribou were long gone 6. It is a Kingsley fabrication that the men were trapped on the land. 7. Kingsley’s failure to mention the acquisition of the major resupply of food from the cache is a conscious misrepresentation of known evidence. Kingsley assertion 18. Taking blame. He [Moffatt] refused to take blame for their food situation. [Paddle North, p 188] Question 1. Moffatt refused to take blame for the plethora of food (five caribou, many ptarmigan, many fish, blueberries and mushrooms) obtained from the land in the six weeks before the tragedy? Kingsley made no mention of this bounty, which was documented in Kingsley’s primary source (Grinnell’s book). Question 2. Moffatt refused to take blame for the major resupply of provisions obtained from the cache on 7 September? Kingsley made no mention of this acquisition, which was documented in both Kingsley sources (the SI article and Grinnell’s book). Conclusion. Assertion 18 of Kingsley is a conscious misrepresentation of known evidence. Kingsley assertion 19. The death of Arthur Moffatt. Variant 1. …All three boats plunged over a waterfall the paddlers hadn’t bothered to scout. [Up Here, middle of p 91] Variant 2. The men talked less and took more risks. On September 14th,… all three boats plunged over two sets of waterfalls the paddlers hadn’t bothered to scout…. [Paddle North, top of p 189 (2014)] Comment. It is a truth that the rapids where Moffatt died had not been scouted. Reminder. Kingsley’s sources were the Sports Illustrated article and Grinnell’s book. I repeat that the SI editor redacted the exculpatory phrases can’t risk an upset now from Moffatt’s journal for 10 September, and Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal for 13 September. And I repeat that Grinnell redacted the exculpatory passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. from Lanouette’s journal for 14 September. Suggestion. Kingsley was misled by these malicious redactions of exculpatory evidence made by the SI editor and by Grinnell. Response 1. It is a truth that the rapids where Moffatt died had not been scouted. On the other hand, Kingsley provided no evidence that the men…took…more risks, for the excellent reason that no such evidence exists. Conclusion. It is a Kingsley fabrication that his party took more risks, in particular on the day that Moffatt died, more generally that it did so at any time. Response 2. Kingsley failed to mention the following Luste evidence provided in her/his primary source. Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died [Grinnell book, p 284]. Like every other accuser, Kingsley ignored evidence that challenges her/his assertions regarding the cause of Moffatt’s death. Reference. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. Conclusion. Kingsley’s assertion all three boats plunged over two sets of waterfalls the paddlers hadn’t bothered to scout… is a deceit. Kingsley assertion 20. The insurance policy. The assertion. Before he left home, Moffatt had doubled his life insurance policy [Paddle North, p 186]. My search revealed Kingsley’s source to have been the corresponding remark in Grinnell’s book [p 176]. Aside. Grinnell’s remark was made in connection with his false suggestions that Moffatt was suicidal. Response. Grinnell presented no evidence in support of the assertion. I have learned to trust nothing written by Grinnell unless it is confirmed by a reliable source, and I possess no such confirmation. Conclusion. Kingsley was deceived by Grinnell. Opinion. Picking of the litte red fruit by Kingsley. Kingsley assertion 21. Holidays. The assertion. For half of August, they voted to take “holidays” and went nowhere. [Up Here, bottom of the right column on p 90. Paddle North, middle of p 188]. My search revealed Kingsley’s source to have been remarks in Grinnell’s article (1988) and in his book (1996). Conclusion. Kingsley was deceived by Grinnell. Opinion. More picking of the little red fruit by Kingsley. Reference. Kingsley assertion 22. Reality. The assertion. When the five young men stumbled into Baker Lake, an RCMP officer made a quick assessment. “So”, he said, “you lost your sense of reality.” [Up Here, bottom of p 91. Paddle North, bottom of p 189]. My search revealed Kingsley’s sources to have been the following three comments. 1. One Mountie commented that we had “lost our sense of reality.” [Grinnell article, p 56, right column]. 2. The young Mountie who interviewed me was friendly and encouraging as I spoke. At the end he concluded: ”So you lost your sense of reality.” [Grinnell book, top of p 2]. 3. The Mountie stared at me, as if waiting for an answer. “…so you lost your sense of reality.” [Grinnell book, p 44]. Summary. Given that Grinnell presented no evidence in support of these comments, and that I found none in all my reading, and that Grinnell redacted that exculpatory passage from Lanouette’s journal, I conclude that all three comments are fabrications. Opinions. 1. If any participant lost sense of reality, it was Grinnell. 2. Yet more picking of the little red fruit by Kingsley. Reference. Appendix 1. Reality and Delusion. Kingsley assertion 23. The remaining caribou steaks were “full of grubs and cysts of one kind or another…”[Paddle North, middle of p 188]. Kingsley’s undocumented source was Moffatt’s We cut up the loins for steaks. They were full of grubs and cysts of one kind or another, but who cares about tapeworm or worse when fresh meat as good as this is on hand and has not been for 30 days? [12 August, Sports Illustrated, p 76, left column]. Opinions. Tacky food. Tacky mention of the item. Comment. The 30 days is an exaggeration on Moffatt’s part, given that the first caribou was shot seven days earlier, on 5 August. Reference. Appendix 6. Food. Closing remarks. 1. In fairness, I note that Kingsley omitted mention of the passage …the impending disaster which Art and the rest of us were so obviously courting [Grinnell book, p 167] 2. Although Kingsley’s publications have yet to impact the accusatory literature, I thought it necessary to address them in full, lest they be accepted as truthful. Summary. The evidence leads me to conclude that Kingsley set out to fabricate a case against a dead man. Sub-Appendix 1. The Thum – Pessl correspondence. This item is presented here because its bulk would have disrupted the flow of the main text. The context (provided also above) for the correspondence: I didn’t view them [the members of the Moffatt group] as being any kind of model for a tripper. Because of the historical perspective, I wanted to talk to them. Moffatt was gone. I found several of them. I tried to get a perspective on what they had done. [Che-Mun, p 10, left column]. Also as documented above, Thum had corresponded with Pessl and he had read Lanouette’s journal. Thum’s letter to Pessl (3 October 1965). I counted 34 question marks in the two pages (~70 lines) of the letter. Dear Mr. Pessl, You might remember that I contacted you several times in early 1964 concerning a proposed canoe trip down the Dubawnt River. I had originally planned to take the expedition with three other men in the summer of 64, but it was postponed several years. Since that time we have tripped 1000 miles along the English-Albany Rivers (1964) and 1900 miles from Lake Athabasca down to Lake Superior (1965). Both these expeditions were very long and quite involved and we have consequently laid a firm foundation of tripping knowledge and techniques with which to tackle the Dubawnt River. This summer we plan to retrace the whole route of J. B. Tyrrell from Fort McMurray on the Athabasca River to Chesterfield Inlet on Hudson’s Bay. Because of the time limit it will be impossible to cross the 600 mile segment down Hudson’s Bay to Churchill, Man. The expedition will cover 1500 miles, however, and the travelling time should be no more than 80 days. As you well know, this will entail hard moving and precise planning so that we will encounter little of the trouble that you experienced ten years ago. Therefore, I have several questions below that I would like you to answer if at all possible. It will ease the planning multi-fold. 1) Do you have a set of precise trip notes (other than Tyrrell’s 1893 account) detailing rapids, portages, campsites, etc? If not, do you know of anyone else who has made the trip and might have such? Can you give me a general description of the transition territory from woodlands into the barrens and of the barrens itself. How cold is the water once over the height of land (Selwyn Lake) separating the Arctic and Hudson’s Bay watersheds? Are the Barren Grounds continually frozen on the surface or is there a great amount of bog and wet ground? 2) Exactly how much wood is there above the tree line at Boyd Lake? Tyrrell’s map indicates certain groves of trees before Dubawnt Lake and none afterwards? After the last grove before Dubawnt is there enough wood lying on the ground to build adequate fires, or is I sparse and wet? Will we have to carry along gas and stoves to cook our meals? If so, at what point along the river will these stoves be necessary? What stoves did you take along, and how much gas was needed? 3) What are the general weather conditions during the summer months? Is there a great amount of rain? At what point in the calendar did the early winter rains set in? When did it start to get cold in the mornings and evenings? during the daytime? and how cold did it get to be? When did your first snow fall and how steadily did it continue afterwards? Did you have much trouble with high winds and consistent long storms; about how many days in the summer were you wind-storm bound and not able to move from your campsite? 4) We are, of course, very concerned with the availability of fish and game in the 800 mile segment from Stony Rapids to Baker Lake. Plan to cover this area in a little over 40 days and must plan our food supplies in the minutest details. First of all, how can we (and at what general expense) ship our special foods up to Stony Rapids. Secondly, can we count on a consistent supply of fish long the Chipman and Dubawnt for our meals: what kinds in particular? Thirdly, can we rely, if necessary, on caribou meat on the barrens? How large are the roaming herds and how often were they sighted? Will we loose much time hunting them? 5) How much aerial coverage was there over the Dubawnt? Recently, there have been new 4:1 maps covering some of the area up to Dubawnt Lake. Did you find the 8:1 maps to be inaccurate and difficult to follow? What aerial photographs did you use and were they of any service in finding your way through tough sections? By the way, are there any planes flying over the Dubawnt territory that we might be able to signal in case of accident or sickness? If so, how regularly do these planes pass over? 6) What was the airline that you took from Baker Lake to Churchill and approximately what was the cost? 7) In regard to general equipment: what did you take along in the way of parkas and underwear, and was this satisfactory for the weather conditions you encountered? What type of rifles and cartridges did you use? 8) Will we need travelling permits in the Northwest Territories? Did you contact the Mounties at Baker Lake before you set off? From whom can we get equipment and gun permits and was this difficult for you? If we can not get a hunting permit, can we smuggle in the gun and hunt anyway? That pretty well takes care of the initial problems that come into my head. If you could possibly answer all these for me I would greatly appreciate it. Please reply at your earliest convenience to my Princeton. N.J. address. Thank you very much. Sincerely yours, Robert Thum. Pessl’s reply of 26 November 1965. Dear Bob: I am very pleased to hear that you are still interested in the Dubawnt trip, and especially that you and your friends have accumulated such an impressive history of successful long distance canoeing. You are certainly far better prepared now than the Moffatt party was in 1955. Your questions also reflect experience and concern for careful planning, so crucial for such an effort as tracing Tyrrell’s route. I was sorry to have missed Dave Wilson in Boston, but just recently received your letter after having been out of touch with my office while doing field work in Connecticut, and, during the first week of November, attending a conference in Kansas City. However, I strongly advise that we try to arrange a meeting in Boston sometime this winter to discuss at leisure and at length the many questions that you pose, and to view the Moffatt expedition films. From 1 Dec, until April or May ’66 I will be stationed in Boston and would be happy to accommodate your schedule for a visit to Boston. In the meantime I will try to answer some of your questions, or indicate other sources of information. The best source of “precise trip notes” is the journal that Art Moffatt kept during the 1955 trip. It contains, in addition to more subjective musings, notations of portages, rapids, campsites, wood supply, food lists, equipment needs, etc. If you would like to see this document, I would be happy to write Mrs. Moffatt and ask her permission. For detailed weather and freeze-up data the Meteorological Branch of the Dept. of Transport is an excellent source. Mean daily air temperatures and spring break-up, autumn freeze-up data are readily available. A resume of temperature normal, averages, and extremes in NWT, 1931-1960 is also available. The address for inquiry is: [Address omitted, being from 1965] The specifics of wood supply are best learned from Moffatt’s journal, but in general sporadic stands of stunted alder and pine extend much farther north along the major drainages than is usually shown on vegetation distribution maps. These northerly stands, however, are neither consistent enough nor large enough to supply a large party on a daily basis. Driftwood is not sufficient to supply fuel for continual use. Thus a stove (or stoves) with sufficient fuel is necessary. The Moffatt party used one twin burner Coleman stove with five gals. of fuel. In our experience, the stove was sufficient for cooking needs, but the fuel supply proved insufficient (partly due to a small leak in the fuel can). From the 1955 experience and subsequent experiences in high latitudes, I would suggest taking 2 or 3 Primus stoves and ca. 10 gals. of fuel. These stoves have certain advantages over a two burner Coleman, namely: 1) they can be used individually in tents for heating and drying equipment. 2) they are collapsible and hence more easily packed. 3) they can be carried in separate canoes to minimize the possible loss of all stoves. 4) they are of the most simple construction, thus facilitating repair and cleaning. 5) they are universally used in the Arctic, thus fuel is easily available. Wind does occasionally constitute a problem with the stoves, but this usually can be overcome with a stone or sod windscreen, or by using an overturned canoe or a cook box similarly. Fish are continuously available throughout the canoe route (pike and wall-eyes in the southern lakes; grayling trout, char in the northern river and lakes). The successful meat producer was a dare-devil type lure or similar spoon or spinner. In the shallow riffles and tributaries trout and grayling took flies readily. One caution: during the late season freezing air temperatures frequently clog fishing reels with ice (from water droplets on the fishing line); hence some sort of hand line for manual retrieving of the lure is necessary. For the latest information concerning aerial photo coverage of the Dubawnt river route write [Contact information outdated and hence omitted] I advise securing as much photo coverage as you can afford (stereo coverage is probably not worth the considerable extra expense). Index maps of photo coverage are available at $1.50 per index map. From these you can select appropriate flight lines. Contact prints of individual photos cost $.60 each. The 8:1 maps re only marginally useful for canoe navigation in areas of complex river channels and where many large islands obscure the distant lake outlets. I would advise using 4:1 maps wherever possible. Scheduled air flights are of circumpolar nature and usually are at altitudes too great for ground to air contact. Unscheduled bush pilot flights probably exist, but coordination is most difficult. Best bet in this regard is to inform all parties concerned of your route and schedule, and request that air checks be made when possible. This is uncertain to be sure but just might make a crucial difference in case of emergency. General equipment needs fall into two categories, summer and winter. I presume from your past experiences that summer equipment need are well known. For the cold weather some sort of insulated, but light weight, foot gear is important. For extended periods in a canoe at near freezing temperatures, the lower body must be specially protected. Thus insulated underwear and some sort of wind-proof trouser are crucial to reasonable comfort (we used caribou skins as lap robes). While on the river an occasional stop for exercise along the shore helps circulation in legs and feet. Light weight insulated parkas should be included and some sort of protection for the hands devised. The frequent wetting of the lower hand on a paddle is a pleasant sensation during the summer, but a serious mistake in freezing conditions. For sleeping comfort I would advise a foam mattress rather than the usual air mattress (foam is a much better protection against ground cold than is the rubber of an air mattress). The Moffatt party carried both a 30/30 and a 30/06 rifle. Both were sufficient for killing caribou. If only one rifle is carried by your party, I would advise using the lighter 30/06 with Magnum loads (the Magnum loads as insurance against the difficulties with an aggressive grizzly). This firearm proved successful in Greenland where we were similarly concerned with polar bear. One or two Magnum loads in a clip provide adequate protective firepower while not being expended for every caribou kill. Ducks and geese were plentiful in 1955 and a light shotgun would certainly provide additional variety to the menu. The Moffatt party carried firearms under the condition that they be used only when “starvation was “imminent”. This condition was rather subjectively defined and was invoked in something other than the ultimate deprivation. In any case this is probably the most liberal condition under which you will be able to carry firearms. A Scientists and Explorers License is required for travel in NWT. This can be obtained from [Contact information outdated and hence omitted]. The Moffatt party also carried a separate Scientific Collection permit, obtained from the National Museum in Ottawa. I strongly advise contacting the RCMP authorities at Stony Rapids and Baker Lake. Also notify the agent for the Hudson Bay Co at Stony and Baker; invaluable for logistical support and public relations, to say nothing of the only source of assistance in case of emergency. To ship supplies to Stony Rapids, I think your best bet is to contact the Hudson Bay Co. agent at Stony Rapids and work back from there according to his advice. I know this doesn’t hit all the questions you pose in your letter, Bob, but it is a starter and I hope it will provide a basis for future conversations. Let me know if you and/or some of your party can visit Boston sometime this winter. Sincerely yours, Fred Pessl Jr. Summary. Perhaps I should have let the reader decide whether Pessl’s response provides more than a historical perspective. But I note that the …contrasts between Thum’s version of his correspondence with Pessl on the one hand and that of the correspondence itself on the other could hardly be more stark. Sub-Appendix 2. My Thum rant. I ask that the reader excuse the following; it was occasioned in part by the immediate above but mostly by Thum’s Moffatt is precisely why we took the trip…I thought experienced trippers could cover Tyrrell’s route safely and skillfully, which we did. Let us admire, nay praise, the eco-paddler, the forthright, the frank, the generous, the gentle, the gracious, the honest, the humble, the kind, the magnanimous, the man, the meek, the mild, the modest, the renowned, the self-effacing, the unsmug, he with nothing to prove, the legend in every paddler’s mind, he sans pareil, the Voyageur Canadien, Mr Robert (please, call me Bob) Thum. Robert Thum, Robert Thum, Brave, courageous and bold, Long live his fame and long live his glory, And long may his story be told.
And let us not forget his sycophant (his dupe?) Charlie Mahler.

Conclusion.

Given the evidence documented above, I have learned to trust (in the first instance) no content of the Sports Illustrated article, nothing written by A Inglis, nothing written by G Grinnell, nothing written by J Murphy, nothing written by A MacDonald, nothing written by C Mahler, nothing written by B Thum and T Bose, and nothing written by J Kingsley.

The secondary accusatory literature.

Introduction. This literature is based on the primary accusatory literature, explicitly not on the evidence of the participants. It consists of publications in which the Moffatt trip is mentioned only incidentally. The efforts of Moffatt’s defamers were highly successful, for their redactions of exculpatory evidence, their ignoring of exculpatory evidence, their falsehoods, their fabrications and their conscious misrepresentations of known evidence misled the entire paddling community, especially many prominent members of it, for 55 years regarding the cause of his death. Let there be no misunderstanding. Morse, Luste, Peake, O’Hara, Jacobson, Kesselheim, and MacGregor all acted in good faith. Unfortunately for the reputation of a dead man, many Moffatt defamers failed to do so. Deserving of explicit mention in this respect are the Sports Illustrated editor, Grinnell and Murphy. Morse, Eric W. Freshwater Saga. Memoirs of a Lifetime of Wilderness Canoeing in Canada. University of Toronto Press (1987). Morse’s source was not identified explicitly, but the only publication then extant was the Sports Illustrated article of 1959. Excerpt. …we had an example before us of what happens without a proper schedule, for at Baker Lake we would be seeing the grave of Arthur Moffatt who, leading a group of young Americans, let the days slip away too easily on the Dubawnt River in 1955, later forcing the party into risks that proved fatal. [p 84]. As well, incidental mention is made of the party’s visit to Moffatt’s grave. [p 104] Conclusion. Morse was misled by the falsehoods of the SI editor. Luste, George. The 1955 canoe story can be viewed from either of two extreme perspectives. The first view is the practical and dismissive observation that as a remote sub-arctic canoe expedition it was poorly planned and irresponsibly executed, and that its tragic conclusion was a natural consequence of that folly. It is, however, a truthful story about a real canoe trip, with all its petty human interactions and problems. Many of the trip’s problems arise from the gnawing reality of incessant hunger, resulting from an inadequate food ration. [Grinnell book (1996), p iii]. Comment. Let me record the passage Finally George Luste said that if all alse failed, he would publish it… maybe the manuscript needed to be rejected by seven publishers… [Grinnell book, p 305]. Conclusion. Grinnell’s book was published only because Luste did so. Reminder. In the Main text, I concluded that Grinnell had betrayed Moffatt by several means, above all by redacting that three-sentence passage from Lanouette’s journal for the day of Moffatt’s death. Opinion. Not content with betraying Moffatt, Grinnell betrayed also Luste, this by deceiving him to make comments quoted above. Some way to thank Luste! Peake, Michael. Publication 1. 1955: A Tale of Two Trips. [Che-Mun, Outfit 99, Winter 2000]. http://www.canoe.ca/che-mun/99two.html …it was the worst of trips…Arthur Moffatt and his crew of young men…set out to paddle the Dubawnt River in its entirety over the course of the summer…American Moffatt, 36, a relatively experienced outdoorsman took along a group of young men, most barely out of their teens. They were his minions. He was the Leader of the trip down to the fact that he even had a much larger eating bowl than everyone else. He called the shots, decided the route, menu and travel schedule… It was some time before a book by one of the Moffatt team appeared. George Grinnell penned A Death on the Barrens in 1996. Grinnell’s polemic, begins on the beauty of the Barrens but descends into a tortured and cynical view of the world. Of course, the Moffatt trip is now best remembered for the death of its leader. Arthur Moffatt drowned on September 14 on a rapid they had no business running that late in the year. He is buried in Baker Lake. The trip schedule seemed non-existent. The weeks had flown by during the brief Arctic summer as they dawdled across the landscape…Moffatt’s crew, were no doubt spellbound by the Barrens, but perhaps their leader found it too intoxicating. [p 4] Publication 2. The Tragic Trips…1955 – The Moffat Dubawnt River trip. 1955 – The Moffatt Dubawnt River trip. Arthur Moffatt, a seasoned traveller, took a group of young men on a slow and undisciplined trip down the Dubawnt. Their lack of schedule meant they took risks to catchup on time and Moffatt died of exposure after they dumped in a large rapid they did not scout. He is buried in Baker Lake. [pp 5&6] Google images. https://www.google.ca/search?q=arthur+moffatt+canoe&espv=2&biw=1360&bih=667&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=P5wKVfDyBonBgwTLuoDQBw&ved=0CDAQsAQ&dpr=1 Opinion. Peake was misled by the falsehoods of Murphy and MacDonald. Johnson, Alissa. Meet Bob O’Hara. http://canoeing.com/meet-bob-ohara/ (undated). Item 1. Referring to the book Canoeing with the Cree [Eric Sevareid; MacMillan (1935)], the staff of canoeing.com provided the following: O’Hara and his friends were so inspired they embarked on a trip of their own in 1967, paddling from Norway House, a Northwest Fur Trading Company outpost on the northeast shore of Lake Winnipeg, to York Factory on Hudson Bay. Disregarding warnings of flood stage waters and advice from local authorities to scrap their plans, the inexperienced whitewater paddlers set out with 1:250,000 scale maps. False starts and wrong turns set the tone right from the start, but these minor occurrences were quickly eclipsed by water so high that an entire island – an island with a portage around a waterfall, no less – had disappeared. In the excitement that ensued from this discovery, O’Hara swamped his canoe above the falls. With respect to that incident, canoeing.com staff provided the following O’Hara quote: It’s amazing how fast you can think sometimes. I instinctively grabbed the canoe, rolled toward it, and tucked my feet up. I thought hey, my legs are going to be dangling down and I don’t want them to get snagged. So I tucked them up and went over. Got my feet onto a gravel bar and pulled us to shore. Item 2. With respect to Moffatt’s death, the staff of canoeing.com provided the following. O’Hara credits a 1955 Sports Illustrated article detailing the death of Arthur Moffatt on the Dubawnt River with scaring everybody off. The canoeist’s party started their trip late in the season, and they grew careless scouting rapids as they raced winter to the end of the river. After swamping his canoe, Moffatt died of hypothermia. Let there be no misunderstanding./strong> Responsibility for publishing the falsehood that the Moffatt party grew careless scouting rapids as they raced winter to the end of the river rests entirely with the staff of canoeing.com. Jacobson, Cliff. Expedition Canoeing. A Guide to Canoeing Wild Rivers in North America. Chapter 4. Loose Threads; p 22, left column. Falcon / Globe-Pequot Press (2005). I have not examined the 2015 edition Canoeing Wild Rivers. Comment. Unfortunately, the source for some Jacobson comments was not the faithful condensation of Lanouette’s journal for 14 September, as provided in the Sports Illustrated article (1959) [pp 85-87]. His source was rather the redacted version of that condensation, as provided in Grinnell’s book (1996) [pp 201-204]; please note the ellipsis near the top of p 202. To be explicit, Grinnell redacted the passage This surprised us. Art had figured we had already shot the last two rapids before Marjorie Lake. Actually, what we had gone down were only riffles, and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids. Opinion. The redacted material is exculpatory. Conclusion. Such was Grinnell’s motivation for making the redaction. Kesselheim, Alan. 57 years Ago. Canoe & Kayak, May 2012, starting on p 46. Six men. Seventy five days out. Food almost gone, weather desperate. The end of the expedition more than a week away. Aside. Pessl’s contributions to the article are listed elsewhere. Opinion. Kesselheim was misled by Moffatt’s defamers in the matter of the food supply. MacGregor, Roy. Canoe Country. The Making of Canada. Random House Canada, first edition (2015). pp 48&49. …The Far North held many lessons of what could befall the unprepared. Perhaps the best known of all folly expeditions was the Moffatt expedition of 1955, which today stands an example of what not to do when heading into the northern wilderness. Arthur Moffatt, a thirty-six-year-old filmmaker and Dartmouth College graduate, talked five young Americans–two of them still teenagers—to join him on a paddle down the Dubawnt River, which runs through the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The Dubawnt is considered a very difficult, even dangerous river. Two of the five had limited experience; one had never paddled a canoe. Ill-prepared and poorly supplied, the six paddlers ran into terrible weather and fought and argued their way along the nearly impossible journey. Short of food and faced with snowy weather, arguing their time was limited, they tried to make up time by running a long rapid without first scouting it. Two of the canoes went over. Moffatt froze to death on the banks while waiting for the others to be rescued. Opinion. Like so many others, MacGregor was misled by Moffatt’s defamers.

Other Moffatt literature.

These items are provided solely for completeness; that is, they are no part of the accusatory literature. Hodgins, Bruce W; and Gwyneth Hoyle. Canoeing North into the Unknown: A Record of River Travel, 1874 to 1974. [Dundurn, 1997] In passing, I note the references to Moffatt’s 1936 solo trip down the Albany River from Sioux Lookout to James Bay [p 47], and his 1948 trip down the same river with his wife Carol [p 48]. 1955. A party of Americans led by Arthur Moffatt, including George Grinnell, Peter Franck, Joe Lanouette, Bruce LeFavour and Skip Pessl canoed from Black Lake to Selwyn Lake and down the Dubawnt River and across Dubawnt Lake. Following an accident in the rapids entering Marjorie Lake, Moffatt died of exposure and is buried in Baker Lake. The rest of the group completed the trip down the Dubawnt and Thelon in late September. Sources were the Sports Illustrated article (1959), a personal communication from Grinnell, and Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988). Opinion. A completely faithful representation of the evidence. Jennings, John. Bruce W Hodgins and Doreen Small (editors). The Canoe in Canadian Cultures. Natural Heritage Books (1999). At the moment, I am unable to access the book and so am unable to provide page numbers, excerpts and an opinion. ALLAN! Anonymous. Report of an interview with Peter Franck. Soph Describes Fatal Canoe Mishap. Canadian Accident. The Harvard Crimson. September 29, 1955. “NO WRITER ATTRIBUTED.” http://www.thecrimson.com/article/1955/9/29/soph-describes-fatal-canoe-mishap-ppeter/

Internal URLs.

These URLS are provided for navigation within the blog. URLs for accessing the following items from outside the blog are provided elsewhere. Foreword and Forum. Main text. Appendix 1. Reality and Delusion. Appendix 3. Equipment. Appendix 4. Experience. Appendix 5. Pace and Weather. Appendix 6. Food. Appendix 7. Schedule. Appendix 8. Rapids in general. Appendix 9. The fatal rapids. Ancillary 1. Accusations. Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt. Ancillary 4. Distances. Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future. Ancillary 6. Addenda. Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources. Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy. Ancillary 10. My sources. Ancillary 11. Canoe&Kayak manuscript. Ancillary 12. Acknowledgements. Bibliography. Notice. With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs. Edition of 8 January 2018.

Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.

Lanouette’s journal entry for 14 September.

Introduction.
1. Lanouette kindly and generously provided copies of pages 114 through 127 inclusive of his handwritten journal. As well, he helped with the transcription of his journal, which is partly illegible from having been immersed; indeed, it is remarkable that the journal survived at all in some form.
2. The transcribed material that follows starts in the morning of 14 September (the lower third of page 118) and continues to the afternoon of 15 September (the upper half of page 127).
3. What follows has not been edited in any way in the process of transcription from the journal.
4. Readers should judge for themselves, but I view the Sports Illustrated condensation as faithfully reflecting the content of Lanouette’s journal.
Given the redaction of the phrase Following Tyrrell’s route, I do not say the same of the SI condensation of Moffatt’s journal.
5. I am struck by Lanouette’s ability to document such events, given that he almost died from hypothermia. I refrain from further comment except to express my gratitude, indeed my admiration, for his courage in making such highly personal information available to the paddling community, and so enabling us better to understand this tragic event; in this, I hope that I speak for the community as a whole.

Wed., Sept. 14 – Camp #51 (2 miles S. Lady Marjorie L).

Today has been the most harrowing and frightening day I can ever recall having spent! Today, one member of our party, Arthur Roy Moffatt met his end at the hand of nature – Today I too came within a hair of not writing this entry, or any others.
This Day, Wednesday, September 14, 1955 started like many others we have been having recently. Complete and dismal cloud coverage when we arose around 7:30 AM for our much looked forward to dish of boiled prunes, oats and tea. It was below freezing this morning and the sand was dry and crunchy and hard from its layer of frost and ice. We broke camp soon after breakfast and made the short portage to the sandy, shallow bay where we could float our canoes.
As we were getting ready to leave, I noticed 2 white wolves on a ridge about half a mile away and made the remark that “It’s a good thing the sun isn’t out, or Art’d be scrambling all over the hills trying to get them to pose for him”.
After loading, we shoved out into the bay, and were pleasantly surprised to have no trouble in reaching the river (we thought the water might be too shallow to navigate in a couple of spots).
Once on the river, the pleasant sandy esker country dropped rapidly behind and we were again on a river with very poorly defined banks and a rather indolent drainage system. Here and there we passed low islands of gray rock –in some places the river was fairly swift and its broad, gray surface was wrinkled with currents and cross-currents as it swerved and wallowed down into Lady Marjorie Lake.
A wind, which had again shifted back to the NW, was blowing and the low gently rolling banks afforded us little real protection in most spots.
We paddled along, no one saying much of anything (none of us are conversational giants once we get into the canoe) – finally, just as I was toying with the idea of fainting from hunger, we washed around a bend in the river and pulled into a gravelly bay for lunch. As is our present policy, George, Bruce, and I scurried around looking for wood scraps, Art started heating a kettle with wood gleaned the day before to make chicken noodle soup, and Skip and Pete began fishing from the shore. Almost immediately, Pete latched onto a “monster of the deep.” A beautiful 17 ½ lb, orange-fleshed lake trout (no roe) and wrestled with him for over 20 minutes – Skip caught 2 smaller fish which he cleaned and put into the warming water – we found no wood to speak of and I wound up cleaning the big fish.
We had a rather satisfying lunch of chowder and three hardtacks (or ‘tacks) apiece and were ready to shove on again around 2:30 or 3:00. The weather was still dismal, although the wind had dropped (I think) almost to a complete calm. The river flowed on rather swiftly and it was but a few minutes before we heard and saw another rapids on the horizon. (Notes – at this time, Art figured we had shot the last 2 rapids into Lady Marjorie and so we were not anticipating anything more along this line – actually, what we had taken for rapids were only riffles and what lay ahead was the real beginning of the first rapids). At the top, these rapids looked as though they would be very easy going – a few small waves, rocks … nothing serious – so much so that we didn’t even haul over to shore to look it over before proceeding as was customary. The river at this point was straight and we could see both the top and foot of the rapids quite clearly – however, although we didn’t realize it, we couldn’t see the middle, even though we thought we could – at any rate we barrelled happily along. We bounced over a couple of fair-sized waves and took in a couple of splashes but I didn’t mind, as I had made an apron of my poncho and remained dry enough. I, as was my habit, was looking a few feet in front of the canoe, looking for submerged rocks – suddenly, Art shouted “Paddle” – I responded and took up the beat, at the same time looking farther ahead to see what it was we were trying to avoid – to my complete surprise, what I saw were two lines of white, parallel to one another and coming closer with every passing instant – I looked at them in helpless fascination, not altering my stroke any. The lines of white were the crests of two huge waves formed by the water as it crashed over 2, 3 or 4’ ledges or falls). Note: it was too late to pull for shore – all we could was to pick what seemed to be the least turbulent spots and head for them. I remember swearing (mentally) at Art for not having looked over the rapids – the feeling I had was not one of fright, but rather an empty, sinking “its-all-over-now” feeling – we went over the falls and plunged directly into the four-foot wave – the bow sliced right in and a sheet of foaming green engulfed me – the canoe yawed, slowed – the current caught it once again and plunged it onward toward the next falls a few hundred feet away – we were still afloat though had little control over the craft – by some miracle, Art straightened the canoe out a little, but we were still slightly broadside to the second wave as we went over the second falls. This time the bow didn’t even bother to come up again – the quartering wave filled us to the brim, and I could feel the canoe begin to roll over under me. I swore and jumped overboard, being careful to retain a hold on the right gunwale – then I got spun around and the next few seconds became blurred into a vivid recollection of water all around me, foam and clutching currents pulling me along with the canoe which had by this time rolled bottom up – I remember clipping a sunken boulder with my leg – … then … the foaming roar stopped … the current lessened … Art and I were clinging to the canoe – packs, boxes, paddles were all bobbing along in the water with us – the seriousness of our position had not yet fully made itself felt and I swore at Art for being the cause of my having gotten soaked. At first the water didn’t feel too uncomfortable. – My heavy parka was still full of air in between its layers and I was quite buoyant – By now we had drifted several hundred yards downstream and were more or less in a big eddy formed by several small islands – I tried to touch bottom without any luck – Art was half draped over the stern of the canoe and he yelled at me to do the same up at the bow. I did so, but felt foolish and helpless just hanging on, so I began kicking toward what I thought was the nearest shore, although this did no good whatever, actually.
The next thing was aware of was George and Pete in the red canoe as they paddled furiously by us, heading for shore. I watched them as they leaped out, dumped all their packs out, emptied their canoe and headed back toward us.
Then, as the current twisted our canoe around, I was faced back up toward the rapids and saw that Bruce and Skip too had dumped … I remember feeling relieved to know that someone else was “in our boat”.
Packs floating all around – I was surprised that they floated. Even Art’s 86 lb camera box was afloat – he was holding onto the canoe with one arm, and was clutching my personal pack and the camera box with the other hand – our yellow food box was floating nearby, so I swam out, got it, and brought it back toward the canoe … I saw Art’s personal pack floating off in another direction and swam a few yards after it, but by this time my parka was soaked, so I came back to the canoe (eventually, we “caught up” with Art’s pack and I grabbed it). I informed Art in a dry, disinterested voice that we had just pulled a damned fool stunt and that this would most likely be the end of us – he assured me through chattering teeth that this was not the case and that, although it would be hard, we would pull through in good shape – I didn’t believe him and insisted several times that we were all washed up. Then we lapsed into silence for a while and just hung on waiting for George and Pete to pick us up.
Note: Looking back, I am surprised to find that during this entire incident I was not the least bit afraid or panicky – I realized that all our clothes and sleeping bags were soaking – that the temperature was below freezing, and that even if we made it to shore, we might still freeze to death because George & Pete would not have clothes to outfit four soaked people. I remember thinking that death either by drowning or freezing was inevitable yet managed to look upon it quite impersonally and almost dryly). I made one or two attempts to shove the canoe ashore, but getting nowhere I gave up – at one time I toyed with the idea of swimming to shore alone but by this time my limbs were too numb to swim- at no time did I even consider taking off a stitch of clothing, as I knew that without every thread of clothing our chances, if we got ashore, we would eventually freeze.
At one point, George & Pete paddled up and asked if we could hold on – we both replied “yes” and told them to get our personal packs aboard first (they had since drifted quite far away). They left us to get the packs. Then, to our horror, as George was struggling to haul my soaked pack into the canoe, he lost his balance and toppled overboard – with a lunge, he tried to haul himself back aboard – I cheered him on quite merrily – Pete was half crouched, half standing … the red canoe almost turned over but instead took in a good amount of water – George made several more attempts to haul himself out of the water, but each attempt was weaker than the last and finally Pete had to paddle to shore, dragging George along. Once again they dumped the water out and came back – this time they managed to drag Bruce and Skip to a small, rocky island and leave them there. At one point, I thought that maybe if we righted our canoe we could put some of our packs in it and thus keep them from drifting about all over the place. I told Art of my plan and flipped the canoe. To my dismal surprise, it kept on rolling until once again it came to a rest – bottom-side-up. I was about to try again, but Art told me that if I were to perform this maneuver again he would not be able to hang onto the canoe and would drown, so I had to be content with holding onto the bow.
By now, I was almost completely inactivated by the cold water – my greatest desire was to quit fooling around and get the hell to shore – yet, I could not make a move to do so.
Bruce and Skip (who had not been rescued as yet, began shouting “Hurry up” to George and Pete. Their voices sounded very far off and faint (I never really saw them from the time that we turned over until late that evening). – Art took up the cry, and soon so did I – it seemed the thing to do, so I went at it with gusto – soon all four of us were chanting “hurry up” every few seconds.
From here on in, things became really foggy – the next thing I was aware of was Pete shouting to me to grab ahold of the canoe – this I did … at the same time I was holding both Art’s and my personal packs – also (and this I didn’t realize) the bowline from our canoe was entangled in my legs and George and Pete had to drag both Art and I plus the packs and the gray canoe to shore – we seemed to be getting nowhere, although both George and Pete were paddling like fiends After a while Pete yelled to me to let go of the canoe. I thought he meant his canoe so I told him to go to hell. Once, I lost my grip on Pete’s gunwale and shouted for him to come back or I would drown – he stopped paddling … I grabbed onto the red canoe once again …
The next thing I remember was feeling my feet scraping over the rocks near shore … I took one or two steps, using every single remaining ounce of strength I had, then collapsed unconscious on the rock and moss shore.
While semi conscious, I remember having a nightmare about something overwhelmingly green (it later turned out that I was lying on my face in a patch of moss).
My next recollection, hazy as it is, is one of being in a sleeping bag and of George giving me a brisk rubdown – he kept saying “how are you doing, Joe”, and I kept telling him that I was doing fine and to quit pounding me – I remember that I felt warm and comfortable all over except for my feet, which seemed abnormally cold – I passed out again.
When I came around next, I was surprised to feel that I was completely naked and in a tent – I couldn’t figure out why the hell this should be so. I sat bolt upright – it was dark out – someone thrust a large can under my nose and told me to take 5 swigs – I did so – then Skip came into the tent, undressed, and got into a sleeping bag – Bruce poked his head into the tent, handed Skip the can and said that he and I were both to take 7 handfulls – we did this – I was hungry as hell and really gobbled my share down (It was beets mixed with chicken soup). The mixture tasted very good and I was damned tempted to just sit there and eat the whole works.
Finally, I went out of the tent for a piss call – a bright red streak on the horizon was all that could be seen of the setting sun – the rest was a mass of gray clouds. I came back inside the tent, now fully aware of what had happened and casually asked Skip where Art was – he replied that Art was outside – we lay in silence- finally I asked what the hell would Art be doing outside. Skip replied, “You might as well know, Art is dead.”
I said, “Oh,” and lay back – It suddenly dawned on me that Skip was pulling my leg and accused him of doing so – he assured me that this was no joking matter, and with no greater emotion than if someone had told me that bat-shit was blue, I fell asleep congratulating myself for being still alive and kicking.
One by one the others crowded into the tent, until all 5 of us were crammed and jammed into Art’s and my tent (the other had been lost, along with the green canoe). Somehow we found room – George and I were squeezed into his sleeping bag – Bruce was alone at the left of the tent in Skip’s – Skip and Pete, head toward the door, were in Pete’s bag.
Before finally sacking out, Bruce brought in a cheese which I sliced up 5 ways and passed around. The shock of Art’s death had not yet made itself fully realized and we were all in pretty good spirits once we were crammed into place and passed our share of cheese – my feet were still cold as ice cubes – Bruce, at intervals throughout the night, was wracked by such spasmodic chills that he woke us all up by shivering violently and chattering – I slept soundly, or fairly so this night, although I must admit I got rather cramped from lying in one position for so long.
.

Thurs,. Sept 15 – Camp #51 (same).

Since Pete was the only one of the group to have a complete set of dry clothes, it was he who finally left the crowded tent to go and see what he could for some sort of breakfast. It was with great joy that he announced that it looked as though we were going to have a sunny day. This extremely fortunate break in the weather caused great rejoicing in the tent – a sunny day would, most probably, mean above freezing temperatures and a much needed chance to dry out sleeping bags, clothes and parkas. I hate to think of what would have happened to us if we had not had a day like this one!

Comment. The remainder of what I have for 15 September deals with plans for reaching Baker Lake.

Summary.

1. This evidence of Lanouette (which lay on plain view in the Sports Illustrated article), alone and in itself, refutes every accusation that the fatal rapids were run in desperate haste and the like.
2. Unfortunately, this evidence of Lanouette went unmentioned by every Moffatt defamer, most notably the Sports Illustrated editor her/himself.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
Copyright to Lanouette’s journal belongs to him.
Copyright to other material in the Ancillary belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.

Introduction.
This Ancillary provides an excerpt from J B Tyrrell’s book
Tyrrell, Joseph Burr. Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers and the north-west coast of Hudson Bay and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg. S E Dawson, Ottawa (1897).
I accessed the book at the library of the University of Toronto, with the kind and generous help of the staff there. I possess a copy for the entire reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
The following, which relates to the reach of the Dubawnt River where Moffatt died, was excerpted from page 66F.
The reader will note that Tyrrell makes no mention of rapids in the reach below the portage 400 yards long (the Moffatt party completed this portage in the morning on 14 September) all the way to (Lady) Marjorie Lake. It was in this reach that Arthur Moffatt died.

The excerpt.
Comment. I take up the story from the beginning of the first full paragraph on page 66 F. I omitted no text until that following mark of respect.
Below Wharton Lake the river flows at first eastward, and then southward, for four miles to a small lake, in which distance it rushes down two rapids with descents respectively of 15 and 6 feet.
The small lake seems to be everywhere shallow, though the water is very clear. On its south side is a sand ridge or (esker [character apparently an italic l, which makes no sense to me]
) about 300 feet high, trending east-and-west, on the side of which the three terraces seen at the quartzite hill are well shown. Towards the west end of the ridge are scarped banks of sand almost eighty feet high. On the north side of the lake is a cluster of low islands, composed of boulders of red gneiss, covered with moss and grass. Low hills of boulders continue eastward, along the course of the river, for the next five miles. The stream has no well-defined channel, but flows around and between these hills with a current of from five to eight miles an hour. Five miles below the small lake is a rapid with a descent of twenty feet, past the lower part of which a portage 400 yards long was made over a hill of boulders, and we embarked from a sheet of ice that, on the 23rd of August, was still frozen to the bank. Above the rapid a gravel plain extends a long distance back from the river. At the foot of this rapid the river turns at right angles and flows northward for seven miles as a wide shallow rapid stream, through low country, composed of small morainic or drumlin-like hills of boulders of light-gray well foliated gneiss.
Lady Marjorie Lake, so named as a mark of respect… , was entered at the south end, …

The channel taken by the Tyrrell and Moffatt parties.
I consulted both toporama and my topo (likely identical sources).
http://atlas.gc.ca/toporama/en/index.html
http://www.mytopo.com/maps/index.cfm
Both sources show two exits from Wharton Lake (leading to Marjorie Lake). But some water from the leftmost exit flows into the rightmost one; this is the reason for the three channels in LeFavour’s comment The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels…
Both sources mark the rightmost channel as the Dubawnt River.
As one sees easily from inspection of the topos, Tyrrell’s sequence eastward…southward…small lake…south side…esker…right angles…northward identifies the rightmost channel as that taken by his party and therefore Moffatt’s.

Comment 1.
Tyrrell’s book mentions two rapids (15 and 6 feet), then one with a descent of twenty feet that required a portage. The rapids of 15 and 6 feet were run by Moffatt’s party on 13 September.
The next day, Moffatt’s party completed the portage over a hill of boulders and had lunch. The tragedy occurred after lunch, on the reach from the end of the portage to the entrance to Marjorie Lake, for which reach Tyrrell’s book mentions no rapids.

Comment 2. Please compare Tyrrell’s description above with the following excerpt from LeFavour’s article for 14 September.
The river between Wharton and Marjorie Lakes split up into three channels. The longest of these had been traveled by Tyrrell in his trip 60 years before and was described in his journal: there were five rapids, the first two rough but shootable, the third long and heavy requiring a portage of a mile and the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”. Because this route was described we took it, being careful to look over the first two which were indeed rough. Hurrying as we were, no foolish chances were taken. …
Comment. The reference to J B Tyrrell’s journal is significant, for Tyrrell’s book makes no mention of the last two. Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.

Conclusions.
1. The Moffatt party possessed information, not provided in J B Tyrrell’s book, regarding the rapids below the portage; I refer here to LeFavour’s passage the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”.
2. LeFavour identifies the source to have J B Tyrrell’sjournal, rather than JBT’s book (which, as I document here, makes no mention of those rapids) or the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence (known to have occurred but not publicly available).
3. The vital point. Those rapids were apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”.
4. That is, Moffatt followed Tyrrell’s advice faithfully, to his death.

Summary regarding the fatal rapids.
1. J B Tyrrell’s book contains no mention of those rapids, as I document above.
2. But the evidence of Lanouette’s journal, as provided both in
the condensation of the Sports Illustrated’s article, and in
the full text of Ancillary 2 (Lanouette excerpt; the URL is provided at the end of this document),
demonstrates that the Moffatt party had detailed information regarding Dubawnt rapids, including the fatal ones.
LeFavour identifies that source to be Tyrrell’s journal and states that it had earlier proved reliable. I don’t know whether like information was provided also in the Tyrrell-Moffatt correspondence.
3. The important point. Tyrrell had informed Moffatt that the fatal rapids were not serious.
4. The reliability of Tyrrell’s advice.
His [Tyrrell’s] journal had been accurate to that point. [LeFavour]
5. And so, trusting Tyrrell’s advice (as it had full reason to do), the Moffatt party continued downstream from the portage without scouting the fatal rapids.
Conclusion. Every assertion that Moffatt died because he foolishly decided to run those rapids without a scout has no basis in any evidence known to me.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 4. Distances.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 4. Distances.

Introduction.

1. This Ancillary provides the results of my distance measurements from the end of the road at Black Lake, up the Chipman River to the Dubawnt River, down the Dubawnt to its junction with the Thelon River, and on through Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet on Hudson Bay.
2. Moffatt’s original plan was to paddle that entire reach (Black Lake to Hudson Bay), which was the central segment of the Tyrrell-Tyrrell trip of 1893. For it, he gave the distance as almost 900 miles [his Prospectus on p 71 of the SI article, p 71]. Moffatt’s source was likely J B Tyrrell (whose book and journal he possessed and with whom he had corresponded). Perhaps I should mention that JBT belonged to the Geological Survey of Canada and so almost certainly have recorded locations and distances on a regular basis.
As I document below, I measured the distance from Black Lake to Chesterfield Inlet to be ~860 miles (~1,380 km), in good enough agreement with Moffatt’s figure of almost 900 miles.
3. The New York Times article (at the top of page 71 of the SI article) gives 900 miles for the same distance. That distance appears also at the top of p 80 of the SI article.
4. The editor’s introduction to Grinnell’s Canoe article (1988) gives the distance as 1,000 miles [p 18].
5. Pessl gives the distance from Black Lake to Baker Lake to be 900 miles. [Nastawgan, 2013, page 2, bottom of the right column].
6. Sometime before the trip started (I don’t know when the decision was made), Moffatt decided to exit instead at Baker Lake. The conclusive evidence that Baker Lake was the terminus is that the RCMP detachment there expected the party to arrive on 15 September (with a grace period of seven days before a search was started).
As I document below, omission of the Baker-Chesterfield reach shortened the trip by ~177 miles (~285 km), to ~680 miles (~1,100 km).
7. And so I don’t understand Moffatt’s comment, made while on the trip: Well, but what if we rush to the coast and don’t come back with anything? [Pessl, p XVII].

The question, the answer, etc.

The question.
While on the trip, did Moffatt believe that the distance to be travelled was ~900 miles?
Comment. It appears that several accusers believed this to be case, and accordingly made highly negative comments regarding the pace.
Preliminary to the answer.
Moffatt’s journal, as provided in the SI article, records at least once (that’s good enough for the purpose) the distance yet to be travelled to Baker Lake. To be specific, he gives 400 miles for the reach from Cairn Point on Carey Lake to Baker Lake, [p 76, upper left column].
The evidence of Toporama.
For the reach from the north end of Carey Lake to Baker Lake, my measurement at Toporama gave ~650 km, or ~400 miles (as described below; embarrassingly close to Moffatt’s value).
The answer.
Before the trip began, Moffatt had corrected the distance for deletion of the reach from Baker Lake to Chesterfield Inlet.
Consequence.
The distance to be covered was ~200 miles shorter than believed and so the pace was not as desultory as asserted in the accusatory literature.
Addendum.
I did not inspect the rest of either Moffatt’s journal or Pessl’s book for other distance figures. The question having been answered, namely whether Moffatt had used the correct figure while on the trip, these tasks have vanishingly small priority.

Appendix. Distance measurements.

I used the measuring feature at Toporama to obtain the following results.
1. For the reach from Black Lake to Baker Lake (the reach travelled by the Moffatt party), I used 18 overlapping pages, with several legs for each page (especially on river segments). The result was ~1,095 km (accurate to within, I believe, 40 km), or ~680 miles.
2. An independent measurement gave the distance from Baker Lake to Chesterfield inlet to be ~285 km, or ~177 miles.
3. The result for the distance from Black Lake to Chesterfield inlet is then ~1,380 km (~860 miles), close enough to Moffatt’s original figure of almost 900 miles.
4. Another independent measurement gave the river distance from the campsite on 29 August to Baker Lake to be ~410 km (~255 miles).
A consequence is that Kingsley was misled to state By August 29, …they had travelled barely half the distance or ~700 km (~450 miles). [Kingsley book, middle of p 188; also Up Here, lower right column on p 90].

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.

Foreword.
For the most part, this Ancillary lists missing items that should provide more insight into the Moffatt trip.

Loose ends.

Introduction.
All is neat and tidy in the accusatory literature: Moffatt was incompetent, period.
A particular example: Those guys had no business being up there. … They were a bunch of guys who didn’t know what they were doing and led by a guy with poor leadership skills. They fooled around and did a lot of crap and it finally came back to bite them. This was simply a group of novices led by someone more interested in film than travel, which squandered its time and resources and then made some tragic mistakes. … [Thum, in Mahler-Thum, 2005].
My limited experience is that documentary literature is not always neat and tidy. There are frequently poorly answered questions, questions that should have been asked but were not, sources that were missed, evidence that was missed, perhaps questionable decisions regarding which material to include and which to omit, errors in judgement, and so on.
And so I ask the reader to notify me of like items in my documentation of the Moffatt tragedy. I should welcome being notified of such and I promise to do what I can to resolve them.
At this time though, I know of no major remaining questions in the Moffatt story. To my mind, his innocence has been established beyond reasonable doubt (a necessary reversal of the customary procedure, given the volume and the quality of the accusatory literature).
But the following questions, some minor ones at first glance, have occurred to me.

Loose end 1. The Sports Illustrated article.
1. The identity of the SI editor.
2. The means by which s/he came into possession of both Moffatt’s journal for the trip, and Lanouette’s journal for 14 September.
3. More importantly, whether the editor’s selections responsibly represent the content of the journal. But I hold to my conclusion that the editor fabricated her/his case against Moffatt.
4. The background related to the following accusations, for none of which the editor provided evidence, all of which are refuted by the evidence (some of it in Moffatt’s journal itself).
(a) Food was becoming the question now. [8-9 August; p 76, top of left column].
(b) Already nine days behind schedule, the Moffatt party races against winter on the Barren Grounds. The days grow colder, provisions dwindle, game grows scarce. In desperate haste, they take an ultimate chance. [15-16 August; p 76, bottom of right column].
(c) Increasingly, the men were taking chances. They now shot down churning chutes of white water, which, a month earlier, they would have scrutinized with a doubtful eye. [7-9 September; p 82, top of right column.]
5. The background related to the Epilogue on page 88.
Grinnell, being quoted in the first paragraph, is clearly a source for some of the material. I believe him to be the source for most of the remainder.
In this connection, much of the material in the paragraph beginning In the aftermath is incorrect [Pessl, private correspondence].
6. The role, if any, played by Grinnell in the preparation of the SI> article. But Grinnell and the editor certainly corresponded, perhaps met in person.

Loose end 2. Accusations made prior to the publication of Grinnell’s book.
On pages 293 and 294 of Grinnell’s book (1996 edition), Luste provides the following.
Over the years, a number of unfounded versions or representations of the Moffatt accident have made their way into the canoeing literature. I’ve read statements like
“After some discussion there came a momentous decision. To save time the party would run any rapid which looked safe from the top.” and
“Everyone was rescued quickly so there should have been no problems.” or
“Increasing desperation made them run rapids without careful checking,” or
“…to speed progress they would run any rapid that looked passable from the top…” and
“On Moffatt’s trip, the canoeists surviving the mid-September swamping first picked up all the packs, then the swamped members, a fatal mistake.”

1. These representations contain too much detail for them to have been based on the Sports Illustrated article, or to have been fabricated. Did their authors have access to a trip participant or his writings?
Information (not provided by Luste) regarding authors’ names, dates and publication information (if any) would almost certainly further our understanding of the Moffatt literature, perhaps even our understanding of the tragedy.
I did what I could to access relevant material.
2. In 1996, Luste already knew accusations of reckless running of the fatal rapids to be unfounded. How did Luste know that? Given Grinnell’s redaction of Lanouette’s evidence, Grinnell is an unlikely candidate.
3. What influence, if any, did these accusations have on the Moffatt literature post 1996? I saw no mention of them.

Loose end 3. J B Tyrrell’s journal.
The evidence is conclusive that Moffatt had obtained access to JBT’s journal, aka his report.
1. I refer first to the passage Throughout Tyrrell’s journal, he speaks of seeing patches of snow well to the south and he suffered his first snow storm on August 10. [Pessl, 28 August, bottom of p 107]. I say that the evidence is conclusive because no such passage appears in J B Tyrrell’s book, as I document in Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
2. That Moffatt had access to Tyrrell’s journal (not publicly available) is evinced also by the Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence.

Loose end 4. The Moffatt – J B Tyrrell correspondence.
With regard to the tragedy, the evidence is conclusive that Moffatt had obtained rapids information from J B Tyrrell beyond that provided in the latter’s book; I refer the reader especially to the LeFavour passage …the last two apparently easy for they were mentioned only as “rapids”.
Sources for that additional rapids information are
1. J B Tyrrell’s journal, to which Moffatt is known to have had access; I refer the reader to the passage quoted in Loose End 4.
2. The Moffatt-Tyrrell correspondence (access to which would assist also our understanding of Moffatt’s preparations for the trip). Both my efforts to access that correspondence were unsuccessful; one was correspondence with the Moffatt family, the other inspection of the J B Tyrrell files at the Thomas Fisher Library of the University of Toronto. With respect to the latter, in May 2017 I spent the better part of two days searching the J B Tyrell files at that library. Those files contain both professional and personal correspondence, not completely separated. With the kind, indeed generous and patient, assistance of the library staff, I searched the entire professional files for 1953, 1954 and 1955, plus the entire relevant personal files, but I found none of the correspondence between them. In short, I did what I could.
Next, I provide Moffatt’s two letters to J B Tyrrell (Source Pessl); my only changes were the deletion of dates, of addresses and of blank lines between paragraphs and elsewhere.
Again, I was unable to access the reply (known to have been made) to the first; I possess no evidence that JBT replied to the second.

Moffatt’s letter of 18 December 1954.
Dear Dr. Tyrrell:
At the suggestion of Dr. Lincoln Washburn, Professor of Geology at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, I am writing to tell you of my plans to follow your route from Stony Rapids on Lake Athabaska via the Dubawnt River to Chesterfield Inlet this coming summer.
Since your exploration of that route in 1893 no other canoe parties seem to have made the trip, and if we did not have your excellent report to guide us, I doubt that we should attempt it. My purpose in going is to make a film in color, for lecture purposes — and I believe with luck we shall have something unlike anything that has been done before.
You may wonder what my qualifications for making such a trip are; I list them briefly: In 1937 I paddled alone from Sioux Lookout, Ontario, to the Albany River and down it to James Bay. Since 1950 I have led parties of five young men of college age down the Albany every summer. In 1952 and ’53 I made a 3000 foot color film of the Albany trip, with which I have been lecturing, and it now seems time to attempt a more difficult and unusual trip – your route down the Dubawnt.
I plan to use two 18 foot Chestnut Prospector canoes, one paddled by Skip Pessl, a young man who has made the Albany trip with me twice and who is this year a senior at Dartmouth College; and the other paddled by myself. We have not yet selected our two bow paddlers, and in this connection Dr. Washburn thought that you might like to send along someone from your company to look the country over once again.
We expect to leave here as close to June 15 as we can and to remain on the Dubawnt until about September 1. We anticipate several difficulties we have never encountered along the Albany, first the absence of fuel and second the difficulty of crossing the frozen expanse of Dubawnt Lake – if you are able to give us any advice on coping with these two problems we shall certainly appreciate it.
Of great importance also is the fact that we must carry sufficient supplies for the entire trip – the administration of the Northwest Territories will allow us to carry only a rifle, but it is only to be used if we are in danger of starvation – which we feel is rather late in the game to begin living off the country. Nevertheless, we are prepared to travel under these conditions.
We shall, of course, attempt to take as many fish as we can, and here again we should appreciate any specific information about the kinds of fish we shall encounter, places where they may be taken, and methods used in taking them.
To revert briefly to the matter of fuel: Stefansson, in his Arctic Manual, indicates that most Arctic rivers are lined with willows and alders; but in your report and in the book of your brother, I find small mention of such a source of wood for fires. Were they indeed absent along the Dubawnt, or were they too green to burn – or is the country too generally soaked with rain to use them?
I hope you find it interesting that we will be travelling the Dubawnt this summer, and I also hope that you can give me some advice to help us complete the journey successfully. In any case, I hope I may have the pleasure of hearing from you.
Sincerely, Arthur R. Moffatt

Interpretation.
Given that Moffatt refers to J W Tyrrell’s book, his use of report (two places) suggests a source other than J B Tyrrell’s book.
But what then is one to make of the passage tried without success to obtain copies of your report in the letter that follows? Is there a third document?

Moffatt’s letter of 14 January 1955.
Dear Dr. Tyrrell:
Thank you very much for your kind reply to my letter of December 18, in which I asked you several questions about the Dubawnt River.
I have tried without success to obtain copies of your report from Mr. Amtmann and from Dora Hood, but Mr. Amtmann referred me to Miss Wills, Librarian of the Geological Survey, who was kind enough to send me, on loan until September 30, 1955, a copy of your report.
I have written Miss Wills of the possible damage that may be done to the report on a trip by canoe down the Dubawnt, and I am waiting now to see if she really means that I should take it with me to the Barrens. I certainly hope she does – after all, it will be our only guide.
Your suggestion that we will face starvation unless we have good rifles is certainly to the point, and I wish the Administration of the Northwest Territories realised that in forbidding us to use rifles until we are in imminent danger of starvation they are putting us in a very difficult position. However, if those are the terms on which we may enter the country, we will to face them or stay home. I believe that by restricting our diet to oatmeal, hardtack, bully beef, dried potatoes and macaroni, we ought to be able to feed four men well enough for the three months we expect to be on the Barrens. I’ve eaten worse food longer and survived.
Our search for two bow paddlers is not yet over, and in asking you whether your mining company might not like to send a geologist with us who could also pull his weight in a canoe and on the portages, I was acting on the advice of Dr. Washburn, who thought your company might find it to its advantage to do some prospecting along the Dubawnt.
You may be interested to hear that I showed your letter to Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson who i asked if he might have the letter for his library, which is a now a part of the Dartmouth College Library at Hanover, New Hampshire.
I want to thank you again for your interest in my proposed trip, and I wish you a very Happy New Year.
Sincerely, Arthur R. Moffatt

Loose end 5. Luste’s comment regarding the fatal rapids.
I should like to know the source of the following Luste comment.
Art Moffatt, following Tyrrell’s notes, was not expecting the rapid in which he swamped and then died. [Grinnell book, 1996, p 284].
The question.
How did Luste know that Moffatt had possessed J B Tyrrell’s notes regarding Dubawnt rapids in general?
Not by the way, Luste was not one to make things up.
As I discuss in the Main text and in Appendix 8. Other rapids Luste’s source was neither the Sports Illustrated article nor Grinnell’s publications.

Loose end 6. The journals of the trip participants.
Those concerned willing, establish a repository to hold the journals of the participants and related material.
Moffatt’s journal is of course by far the most important item.
Given that the Sports Illustrated editor
(a) made the accusations 1, 2 and 3 described in Ancillary 1 (Accusations), and
(b) redacted the key phrase Following Tyrrell’s route from Moffatt’s journal,
it seems important to examine Moffatt’s journal for the evidence regarding his character and his judgment.
More generally, access to his journal might reveal errors (and worse) in the written record as it stands.
Perhaps most important of all, his journal should provide much insight into the character of a shamefully maligned fellow paddler.
His journal is held at the Dartmouth College library, but viewing is restricted, perhaps understandably given the actions of the Sports Illustrated editor. Only a few excerpts are publicly available at present.

The future.

As things stand, given
the actions of the Sports Illustrated editor, and
the damage (much of it willful) that so many defamers did to Moffatt’s reputation over 55 years,
should we expect to see soon Moffatt’s journal and other material important for a deeper understanding of the tragedy?
Perhaps the response to this blog will decide the matter.
Since the announcement of the opening of the blog in late September 2016, I have received only Grinnell’s one-liner.

Internal URLs.

Foreword and Forum.
Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.

Ancillary 6. Addenda.

Major renovations were completed in early November 2017 but I expect that warts remain.
Thanks for your patience. Allan

Ancillary 6. Addenda.

Foreword.
This Ancillary provides items that don’t fit elsewhere.

Item 1. Tom McCloud’s review of Pessl’s book.

BARREN GROUNDS – The Story of the Tragic Moffatt Canoe Trip.
Fred “Skip” Pessl, Dartmouth College Press (2014).
The review was posted here on 19 September 2016.

Students of canoeing in the far north of Canada have heard of the 1955 expedition lead by Art Moffatt to the Dubawnt River, a major drainage to the northwest of Hudson Bay. After 51 days on the river, following a major storm with snowfall, the group of 6 young men in 3 Chestnut wood/canvas canoes entered a long rapid in a section of river with islands partly obscuring the view. Big waves at the bottom of the rapid filled and rolled 2 canoes, the third half-filled. The four swimmers were pulled to shore, severely hypothermic, with Moffatt never awakening.

There have been previous magazine articles and one book (“A Death on The Barrens” by George Grinnell, one of the paddlers) recounting this accident, second-guessing, and often criticizing. Skip Pessl had done previous wilderness trips with Moffatt, so was the second most experienced and, de-facto, second in-charge. Because he strongly disagrees with what others have written, this book is Pessl’s contribution to ‘setting the record straight’. It consists of transcriptions of both Skip’s and Peter Francks’ day-by-day diary entries. They recorded the wildlife they saw, the rapids they ran or portaged, the food they ate, the weather and how cold and wet they were – typical of any northern trip. Skip and Peter were neither tent-mates nor canoe-mates, so where their accounts are similar, they corroborate each other, yet each has his own viewpoint. Using these texts, Pessl forcefully rebuts what others, particularly Grinnell, have written about the tragic accident and its cause. Having had nearly 60 years to ruminate, Pessl concludes the root cause was that Moffatt, and he himself, did not fully appreciate the considerable differences and greater difficulties, between their previous trips on the Albany and the much longer and further north Dubawnt.

If you are interested in the literature of far north paddling, you should have Barren Grounds on your bookshelf. It makes available at lot more first-hand information concerning the 1955 trip and the Dubawnt river, but will not stop the speculation, recrimination or second-guessing. It would be very interesting to spend a long evening around the campfire talking with Skip Pessl.

Thanks to Tom for permission to reproduce the above. The original was published in Coastal VA News, Fall 2015 issue; newsletter of the Coastal Canoeists of Virginia.

Item 2. …paved…paradise…parking lot.

Grinnell passage 1.
The expression, “paved over paradise with a parking lot”, was common at Berkeley…between 1962-1967. Creigh Moffatt reminded me that its origin probably lies with Joni Mitchell: “…paved paradise and put up a parking lot.” [Grinnell book, p 308]

Grinnell passage 2.
…part of the Creation, and paving over the rest with a parking lot. [Grinnell book, p 258]

Big Yellow Taxi, excerpt.
They paved paradise
And put up a parking lot
With a pink hotel, a boutique
And a swinging hot spot
Don’t it always seem to go
That you don’t know what you’ve got
‘Till it’s gone
They paved paradise
And put up a parking lot…

https://www.google.ca/search?rlz=1C1NHXL_enCA756CA756&q=joni+mitchell+big+yellow+taxi&stick=H4sIAAAAAAAAAONgFuLRT9c3LDTNSjLMTTZQAvOKDUxLzHItKrS0spOt9HNLizOT9YtSk_OLUjLz0uOTc0qLS1KLrPJLMlKLFMpSi4oz8_OKAbVkaOlKAAAA&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirqsnnqePVAhUh0YMKHaEZATYQri4ISjAI&biw=1366&bih=662

Comment. I don’t understand why Grinnell gives the dates 1962-1967, given that the song is stated to have been composed only in 1970.
“Big Yellow Taxi” is a song written, composed, and originally recorded by Canadian singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell in 1970, and originally released on her album “Ladies of the Canyon”.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Yellow_Taxi

Internal URLs.

Main text.
Appendix 1. Reality.
Appendix 3. Equipment.
Appendix 4. Experience.
Appendix 5. Pace and weather.
Appendix 6. Food.
Appendix 7. Schedule.
Appendix 8. Rapids in general.
Appendix 9. The fatal rapids.
Ancillary 1. Accusations.
Ancillary 2. Lanouette excerpt.
Ancillary 3. Tyrrell excerpt.
Ancillary 4. Distances.
Ancillary 5. Loose ends and the future.
Ancillary 6. Addenda.
Ancillary 7. Moffatt’s Tyrrell sources.
Ancillary 8. Evidence regarding the tragedy.
Bibliography.

Notice.
With the exception of quoted material, copyright to the above belongs to Allan Jacobs.